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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545574/initiating-change-locally-in-bullying-and-aggression-through-the-school-environment-inclusive-trial-update-to-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#1
Chris Bonell, Anne Mathiot, Elizabeth Allen, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Deborah Christie, Diana Elbourne, Adam Fletcher, Richard Grieve, Rosa Legood, Stephen Scott, Emily Warren, Meg Wiggins, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538257/what-s-in-the-literature
#2
Mark Bromberg, Nicholas J Silvestri, David Lacomis
In this edition, we provide a detailed summary of an informative book, "GBS100: Celebrating a Century of Progress in Guillain-Barré Syndrome" developed by the Peripheral Nerve Society to honor the centenary of the original paper on Guillain-Barré Syndrome. We also review various studies in myasthenia gravis including: management with rituximab; the efficacy of early fast-acting treatment with corticosteroids; and various dosing strategies for tacrolimus. Finally, we review new studies including: the potential pathogenesis, risk factors, and functional decline of patients with inclusion body myositis; MxA immunoreactivity in dermatomyositis; diagnostic approaches for evaluating patients with myalgia, fatigue, and exercise intolerance; MRI patterns in genetic muscle disease; and MRI as an outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#3
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#4
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491217/-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-diabetic-acido-ketotic-decompensation-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Lilia Affes, Mouna Elleuch, Fatma Mnif, Faten Hadj Kacem, Dhouha Ben Salah, Mouna Mnif, Nadia Charfi, Nabila Rekik, Mohamed Abid
A 27-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to the resuscitation department with severe spontaneous acute ketoacidosis as early symptom of type 1 diabetes. The patient underwent resuscitation and insulin treatment with good clinical and biological evolution. On day 4, the patient had polyradiculoneuritis characterised by acute onset. Additional emergency examinations were negative. Lumbar cytopunction showed albuminocytologic dissociation. Electromyogram confirmed the diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489146/acute-muscular-weakness-in-children
#6
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit). Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488363/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-nervous-system-pathologies
#7
REVIEW
Samuel S Duffy, Brooke A Keating, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a special subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells that are essential for sustaining immune homeostasis. They maintain self-tolerance, inhibit autoimmunity, and act as critical negative regulators of inflammation in various pathological states including autoimmunity, injury, and degeneration of the nervous system. Treg cells are known to convey both beneficial and detrimental influences in certain disease contexts, and accumulating research suggests that their action may be altered in a range of peripheral and central nervous system pathologies...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484930/heart-shaped-bilateral-medullary-pyramidal-infarction-as-a-pathognomonic-finding-of-anterior-spinal-artery-occlusion
#9
Sammy Searcy, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Andrew Spector, Jang W Yoon, Benjamin L Brown, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Unilateral anterior spinal artery (ASA) occlusion resulting in bilateral medullary pyramidal (BMP) infarction is a rare and devastating stroke subtype. We present two cases highlighting the diagnostic and clinical challenges of BMP infarction. METHODS: Case reports and literature review. RESULTS: A 57-year-old man rapidly had severe vomiting and diarrhea 2 h after a meal. Examination revealed bulbar weakness and areflexic tetraplegia...
May 8, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475395/patient-and-prescriber-factors-and-the-prolongation-of-antibiotics-after-birth-in-infants-less-than-29-weeks
#10
M R Al Turk, R J Baier
OBJECTIVE: To delineate whether patient related or prescriber related factors account for the prolongation of antibiotic therapy beyond 48 hours in premature infants whose initial blood cultures are negative. METHODS: Retrospective review of infants born <29 weeks born between January 2011 and December 2012. Infants who had positive blood cultures or who died in the first 48 hours were excluded from analysis. Antibiotic courses were categorized as prolonged if antibiotics were continued for greater than 48 hours and not prolonged if antibiotics were stopped by 48 hours...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471617/causality-assessment-of-serious-neurologic-adverse-events-following-bopv-national-vaccination-campaign-in-israel
#11
Diana Tasher, Eran Kopel, Emilia Anis, Zachi Grossman, Eli Somekh
BACKGROUND: During 2013-2014 Israel experienced a continuous circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) but with no clinical cases. WPV1 circulation was gradually terminated following a national vaccination campaign of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) for 943,587 children < 10 years. Four cases of children with neurological manifestations that appeared following bOPV vaccinations were reported during the campaign: three of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and one of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)...
October 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#12
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443985/zika-puzzle-in-brazil-peculiar-conditions-of-viral-introduction-and-dissemination-a-review
#13
Cristina Possas, Patricia Brasil, Mauro Ca Marzochi, Amilcar Tanuri, Reinaldo M Martins, Ernesto Ta Marques, Myrna C Bonaldo, Antonio Gp Ferreira, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Rita Maria R Nogueira, Patricia C Sequeira, Keyla Bf Marzochi, Akira Homma
This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#14
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420662/outcome-of-a-screening-programme-for-the-prevention-of-neonatal-invasive-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-infection-in-a-uk-maternity-unit-an-observational-study
#15
G Gopal Rao, G Nartey, T McAree, A O'Reilly, S Hiles, T Lee, S Wallace, R Batura, P Khanna, H Abbas, C Tilsed, R Nicholl, T Lamagni, P Bassett
BACKGROUND: Against a background of failure to prevent neonatal invasive early-onset group B Streptococcus infections (GBS) in our maternity unit using risk-based approach for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, we introduced an antenatal GBS carriage screening programme to identify additional women to target for prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the implementation and outcome of an antepartum screening programme for prevention of invasive early-onset GBS infection in a UK maternity unit...
April 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403328/zika-puzzle-in-brazil-peculiar-conditions-of-viral-introduction-and-dissemination-a-review
#16
Cristina Possas, Patricia Brasil, Mauro Ca Marzochi, Amilcar Tanuri, Reinaldo M Martins, Ernesto Ta Marques, Myrna C Bonaldo, Antonio Gp Ferreira, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Rita Maria R Nogueira, Patricia C Sequeira, Keyla Bf Marzochi, Akira Homma
This article discusses the peculiar conditions that favoured the unexpected introduction of Zika virus into the poorest northeastern region of Brazil in 2015, its speed of transmission to other Brazilian states, other Latin American countries and other regions, and the severity of related neurological disorders in newborns and adults. Contrasting with evidence that Zika had so far caused only mild cases in humans in the last six decades, the epidemiological scenario of this outbreak in Brazil indicates dramatic health effects: in 2015, an increase of 20-fold in notified cases of microcephaly and/or central nervous system (CNS) alterations suggestive of Zika congenital infection, followed by an exponential increase in 2016, with 2366 cumulative cases confirmed in the country by the end of December 2016...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386776/real-world-experience-with-oritavancin-therapy-in-invasive-gram-positive-infections
#17
Cassie L Stewart, Michelle S Turner, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Jordan R Smith
INTRODUCTION: Oritavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide approved for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. The pharmacokinetic profile and convenient one-time dosing make oritavancin an enticing option for other serious Gram-positive infections requiring prolonged treatment courses. Unfortunately, data for using oritavancin in these populations are limited. METHODS: We report ten cases of oritavancin use for invasive Gram-positive infections in our health system, and provide a review of the currently available literature regarding oritavancin therapy for invasive infections...
April 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#18
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367386/a-case-of-miller-fisher-syndrome-and-literature-review
#19
Sumera Bukhari, Javier Taboada
Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS)  was first recognized by James Collier in 1932 as a clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia. Later, it was described in 1956 by Charles Miller Fisher as a possible variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Here, we write a case of a patient with atypical presentation of this clinical triad as the patient presented with double vision initially due to unilateral ocular involvement that progressed to bilateral ophthalmoplegia. He developed weakness of the lower extremities and areflexia subsequently...
February 22, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367139/antibiotic-prevention-for-maternal-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-on-neonatal-gbs-related-adverse-outcomes-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Shunming Li, Jingya Huang, Zhiyao Chen, Dan Guo, Zhenjiang Yao, Xiaohua Ye
Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal infection by vertical transmission. However, it remains unclear whether treating all colonized women during labor exposes a large number of their neonates to possible adverse effects without benefit. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on neonatal adverse outcomes. We identified studies by searching several English and Chinese electronic databases and reviewing relevant articles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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