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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646960/the-controversial-role-of-breast-milk-in-gbs-late-onset-disease
#1
Petra Zimmermann, Amanda Gwee, Nigel Curtis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most common causes of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis does not play a significant role in reducing the risk of GBS late-onset disease. One of the proposed mechanisms for GBS late-onset disease is infection through contaminated breast milk. Infants in whom breast milk is thought to be the source for GBS late-onset disease are more heavily colonised and reports suggest they have a higher recurrence rate compared to infants with other potential sources...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644069/concomitant-idiopathic-hypertrophic-spinal-pachymeningitis-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-patient-coincidence-or-a-triggering-mechanism
#2
Farouk Olubajo, Tatyana Yermakova, J Robin Highley, Vasileios Arzoglou
Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP), a rare diffuse inflammatory thickening of the dura mater, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are known entities but they have never been reported as concomitant diagnoses. To their knowledge, the authors present the first reported case in the international literature with supportive evidence for both IHSP (based on MRI, intraoperative, and histological findings) and GBS (based on history, clinical examination, and electrophysiological findings). They review the literature on IHSP and the diagnostic criteria for GBS, with the view of identifying a possible causative connection...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639826/imaging-appearance-of-advanced-chronic-adhesive-arachnoiditis-a-retrospective-review
#3
Tara L Anderson, Jonathan M Morris, John T Wald, Amy L Kotsenas
OBJECTIVE: Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis (CAA) is rare and has potentially devastating clinical consequences. The objective of this article is to review the clinical features of CAA and describe its appearance on imaging, to increase radiologists' awareness of this challenging diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine cases of advanced CAA seen at our institution over 18 years (1995-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Chart review was performed, with attention given to data on clinical presentation, suspected cause, and interventions performed...
June 22, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#4
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622911/demyelination-strokes-and-eculizumab-lessons-from-the-congenital-cd59-gene-mutations
#5
Adi Tabib, Netanel Karbian, Dror Mevorach
Neurological symptoms of patients with p.Cys89Tyr mutation in the CD59 gene include recurrent peripheral neuropathy resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome, characterized by sensory-motor demyelinating neuropathy with secondary axonal damage and moderate enhancement of the nerve roots on spine MRI, together with recurrent strokes and retinal involvement. Three additional mutations in CD59, leading to loss of function, have been described, and overall, 12/12 (100%) of patients with any mutation presented with neurological symptoms; 11/12 (92%) patients presented with recurrent peripheral neuropathy, 6/12 (50%) with recurrent strokes, and 1/12 (8%) with retinal involvement...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619262/the-parkland-grading-scale-for-cholecystitis
#6
Tarik D Madni, David E Leshikar, Christian T Minshall, Paul A Nakonezny, Canon C Cornelius, Jonathan B Imran, Audra T Clark, Brian H Williams, Alexander L Eastman, Joseph P Minei, Herb A Phelan, Michael W Cripps
BACKGROUND: Gallbladders (GBs) with severe inflammation have longer operative times and an increased risk for complications. We propose a grading system using intraoperative images to better stratify GB inflammation. METHODS: After reviewing the intraoperative images of GBs obtained during several hundred laparoscopic cholecystectomies, we developed a five-tiered grading system based on anatomy and inflammatory changes. Fifty intraoperative photographs were taken prior to dissection and then distributed to 11 surgeons who rated each GB's severity per the grading system...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617719/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-zika-virus-outbreaks
#7
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Ivan R F da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses have been associated with central and peripheral nervous system injuries, in special the flaviviruses. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications have been recently associated to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this review, we aim to analyze the epidemiological aspects, possible pathophysiology, and what we have learned about the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as treatment of patients with ZIKV-associated neurological complications...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612899/recurrent-miller-fisher-a-new-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#8
F Barbato, A Di Paolantonio, M Distefano, A Mastrorosa, M Sabatelli, S Servidei, M Luigetti
Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is considered to be an uncommon variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome. The disease is clinically characterized by acute ataxia of limbs, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, although the set of symptoms and signs can be quite heterogeneous, with a benign and monophasic course. We describe a case of recurrent MFS where there have been four clinical episodes occurred with complete remission after each relapse. Last recurrence was treated with oral steroids. The reported frequency of recurrent MFS in literature is variable as well as the best treatment in these cases...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601976/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-neuropathogen-mechanisms-of-neurovirulence-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Tatiana Barichello, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe. Convincing evidence has implicated the ZIKV to incident cases of neonatal microcephaly and a set of neurodevelopmental abnormalities referred to as the congenital Zika virus syndrome. In addition, emerging data points to an association with the ZIKV and the development of the so-called Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute autoimmune polyneuropathy...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599839/evidence-based-effects-of-yoga-in-neurological-disorders
#10
REVIEW
A Mooventhan, L Nivethitha
Though yoga is one of the widely used mind-body medicine for health promotion, disease prevention and as a possible treatment modality for neurological disorders, there is a lack of evidence-based review. Hence, we performed a comprehensive search in the PubMed/Medline electronic database to review relevant articles in English, using keywords "yoga and neurological disorder, yoga and multiple sclerosis, yoga and stroke, yoga and epilepsy, yoga and Parkinson's disease, yoga and dementia, yoga and cerebrovascular disease, yoga and Alzheimer disease, yoga and neuropathy, yoga and myelopathy, and yoga and Guillain-Barre syndrome"...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545574/initiating-change-locally-in-bullying-and-aggression-through-the-school-environment-inclusive-trial-update-to-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#11
Chris Bonell, Anne Mathiot, Elizabeth Allen, Leonardo Bevilacqua, Deborah Christie, Diana Elbourne, Adam Fletcher, Richard Grieve, Rosa Legood, Stephen Scott, Emily Warren, Meg Wiggins, Russell M Viner
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538257/what-s-in-the-literature
#12
Mark Bromberg, Nicholas J Silvestri, David Lacomis
In this edition, we provide a detailed summary of an informative book, "GBS100: Celebrating a Century of Progress in Guillain-Barré Syndrome" developed by the Peripheral Nerve Society to honor the centenary of the original paper on Guillain-Barré Syndrome. We also review various studies in myasthenia gravis including: management with rituximab; the efficacy of early fast-acting treatment with corticosteroids; and various dosing strategies for tacrolimus. Finally, we review new studies including: the potential pathogenesis, risk factors, and functional decline of patients with inclusion body myositis; MxA immunoreactivity in dermatomyositis; diagnostic approaches for evaluating patients with myalgia, fatigue, and exercise intolerance; MRI patterns in genetic muscle disease; and MRI as an outcome measure in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#13
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#14
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491217/-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-diabetic-acido-ketotic-decompensation-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Lilia Affes, Mouna Elleuch, Fatma Mnif, Faten Hadj Kacem, Dhouha Ben Salah, Mouna Mnif, Nadia Charfi, Nabila Rekik, Mohamed Abid
A 27-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to the resuscitation department with severe spontaneous acute ketoacidosis as early symptom of type 1 diabetes. The patient underwent resuscitation and insulin treatment with good clinical and biological evolution. On day 4, the patient had polyradiculoneuritis characterised by acute onset. Additional emergency examinations were negative. Lumbar cytopunction showed albuminocytologic dissociation. Electromyogram confirmed the diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489146/acute-muscular-weakness-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli
Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit). Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488363/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-nervous-system-pathologies
#17
REVIEW
Samuel S Duffy, Brooke A Keating, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a special subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells that are essential for sustaining immune homeostasis. They maintain self-tolerance, inhibit autoimmunity, and act as critical negative regulators of inflammation in various pathological states including autoimmunity, injury, and degeneration of the nervous system. Treg cells are known to convey both beneficial and detrimental influences in certain disease contexts, and accumulating research suggests that their action may be altered in a range of peripheral and central nervous system pathologies...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487557/humoral-cross-reactivity-between-zika-and-dengue-viruses-implications-for-protection-and-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Lalita Priyamvada, William Hudson, Rafi Ahmed, Jens Wrammert
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently caused extensive outbreaks in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Given its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and neurological and ocular malformities in neonates, ZIKV has become a pathogen of significant public health concern worldwide. ZIKV shares a considerable degree of genetic identity and structural homology with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In particular, the surface glycoprotein envelope (E), which is involved in viral fusion and entry and is therefore a chief target for neutralizing antibody responses, contains regions that are highly conserved between the two viruses...
May 10, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484930/heart-shaped-bilateral-medullary-pyramidal-infarction-as-a-pathognomonic-finding-of-anterior-spinal-artery-occlusion
#19
Sammy Searcy, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Andrew Spector, Jang W Yoon, Benjamin L Brown, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Unilateral anterior spinal artery (ASA) occlusion resulting in bilateral medullary pyramidal (BMP) infarction is a rare and devastating stroke subtype. We present two cases highlighting the diagnostic and clinical challenges of BMP infarction. METHODS: Case reports and literature review. RESULTS: A 57-year-old man rapidly had severe vomiting and diarrhea 2 h after a meal. Examination revealed bulbar weakness and areflexic tetraplegia...
May 8, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475395/patient-and-prescriber-factors-and-the-prolongation-of-antibiotics-after-birth-in-infants-less-than-29-weeks
#20
Mohamad Rami Alturk, Ronald John Baier
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to delineate whether patient-related or prescriber-related factors account for the prolongation of antibiotic therapy beyond 48 h in premature infants whose initial blood cultures are negative. METHODS: Retrospective review of infants born <29 weeks born between January 2011 and December 2012. Infants who had positive blood cultures or who died in the first 48 h were excluded from analysis. Antibiotic courses were categorized as prolonged if antibiotics were continued for greater than 48 h and not prolonged if antibiotics were stopped by 48 h...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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