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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#1
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150683/null-functions-in-three-dimensional-imaging-of-alpha-and-beta-particles
#2
Yijun Ding, Luca Caucci, Harrison H Barrett
Null functions of an imaging system are functions in the object space that give exactly zero data. Hence, they represent the intrinsic limitations of the imaging system. Null functions exist in all digital imaging systems, because these systems map continuous objects to discrete data. However, the emergence of detectors that measure continuous data, e.g. particle-processing (PP) detectors, has the potential to eliminate null functions. PP detectors process signals produced by each particle and estimate particle attributes, which include two position coordinates and three components of momentum, as continuous variables...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148696/the-epidermal-penetration-of-gold-nanoparticles-and-its-underlying-mechanism-based-on-human-reconstructed-3d-episkin-tm-model
#3
Fang Hao, Xiaoting Jin, Qian S Liu, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Nanomaterials are widely used in diverse aspects and their translocation behavior through the skin would be helpful in understanding the corresponding exposure risks. To reveal how surface functionalization of nanoparticles influence the skin penetration, three kinds of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with negatively, neutrally and positively charged surfaces, i.e. cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated GNPs (CTAB@GNP), polyvinyl pyrrolidone-coated GNPs (PVP@GNP), and citrate-coated GNPs (Citrate@GNP), were studied using human reconstructed 3D EpiskinTM model...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148430/low-dose-4d-cardiac-imaging-in-small-animals-using-dual-source-micro-ct
#4
Matthew Holbrook, Darin P Clark, Cristian T Badea
Micro-CT is widely used in preclinical studies, generating substantial interest in extending its capabilities in functional imaging applications such as blood perfusion and cardiac function. However, imaging cardiac structure and function in mice is challenging due to their small size and rapid heart rate. To overcome these challenges, we propose and compare improvements on two strategies for cardiac gating in dual-source, preclinical micro-CT: fast prospective gating (PG) and uncorrelated retrospective gating (RG)...
November 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148085/built-to-bite-differences-in-cranial-morphology-and-bite-performance-between-narrow-and-broad-headed-european-glass-eels
#5
Jens De Meyer, Sam Van Wassenbergh, Mathias Bouilliart, Jelle Dhaene, Dominique Adriaens
The presence of two phenotypes in a single species is a widespread phenomenon, also observed in European eel (Anguilla anguilla). This dimorphism has been related to dietary differences in the subadult elver and yellow eel stages, with broad-heads generally feeding on harder and/or larger-bodied prey items than narrow-heads. Nevertheless, both broad- and narrow-headed phenotypes can already be found among glass eels, the stage preceding the elver eel stage. As these glass eels are considered nonfeeding, we investigate here to what degree the observed variation in head width is reflected in variation in the musculoskeletal feeding system, as well as whether this reflects the same variation observed in the older, dimorphic yellow eels...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145529/volumetric-bone-measurement-around-dental-implants-using-3d-image-superimposition-a-methodological-and-clinical-pilot-study
#6
Eduardo Aydos Villarinho, André Correia, Alvaro Vigo, Nuno Viriato Ramos, Mário Augusto Pires Vaz, Rosemary Sadami Arai Shinkai
PURPOSE: This study describes the development of a methodology for using three-dimensional (3D) image superimposition to measure volumetric changes in bone level around dental implants in comparison with linear measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was comprised of 46 dental implants of 6-mm length and 4.1-mm diameter placed in the posterior maxilla and posterior mandible in 20 patients. All implants received screw-retained single crowns. Radiographic images were taken using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography after implantation and after 12 and 24 months of functional loading (after crown installation)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143700/improved-three-dimensional-3d-resolution-of-electron-tomograms-using-robust-mathematical-data-processing-techniques
#7
Toby Sanders, Ilke Arslan
Electron tomography has become an essential tool for three-dimensional (3D) characterization of nanomaterials. In recent years, advances have been made in specimen preparation and mounting, acquisition geometries, and reconstruction algorithms. All of these components work together to optimize the resolution and clarity of an electron tomogram. However, one important component of the data-processing has received less attention: the 2D tilt series alignment. This is challenging for a number of reasons, namely because the nature of the data sets and the need to be coherently aligned over the full range of angles...
November 16, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141673/a-customized-fixation-plate-with-novel-structure-designed-by-topological-optimization-for-mandibular-angle-fracture-based-on-finite-element-analysis
#8
Yun-Feng Liu, Ying-Ying Fan, Xian-Feng Jiang, Dale A Baur
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to design a customized fixation plate for mandibular angle fracture using topological optimization based on the biomechanical properties of the two conventional fixation systems, and compare the results of stress, strain and displacement distributions calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) virtual mandible was reconstructed from CT images with a mimic angle fracture and a 1 mm gap between two bone segments, and then a FEA model, including volume mesh with inhomogeneous bone material properties, three loading conditions and constraints (muscles and condyles), was created to design a customized plate using topological optimization method, then the shape of the plate was referenced from the stress concentrated area on an initial part created from thickened bone surface for optimal calculation, and then the plate was formulated as "V" pattern according to dimensions of standard mini-plate finally...
November 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140117/comparison-of-radiation-dose-and-image-quality-of-abdominopelvic-ct-using-iterative-aidr-3d-and-conventional-reconstructions
#9
Caroline Duarte de Mello-Amoedo, Aparecido Nakano Martins, Adriano Tachibana, Daniella Ferraro Pinho, Ronaldo Hueb Baroni
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare radiation dose and image quality of abdominopelvic CT studies reconstructed with iterative and conventional techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 99 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT examinations with the portal venous phase images reconstructed with both filtered back projection and Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) at different time points. Subjective assessment of image quality was performed by two radiologists who scored axial images for overall quality, sharpness, noise, and acceptability in a blinded fashion...
November 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139147/the-development-of-lingual-glands-in-the-domestic-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-f-domestica-3d-reconstruction-lm-and-sem-study
#10
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Pieter Cornillie, Hanna Jackowiak
The major salivary glands of birds develop by branching or elongation of the epithelial cords. The development of the minor salivary glands in form of the lingual glands has never been described. Among birds, only Anatidae have three types of the lingual glands: rostral, caudo-lateral, and caudo-medial lingual glands. The study aims to characterize the manner and rate of the lingual glands development in the domestic duck and their topographical arrangement relative to the hyoid apparatus. The study reveals that all three types of the lingual glands develop by branching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138260/chloroplast-division-protein-arc3-acts-on-ftsz2-by-preventing-filament-bundling-and-enhancing-gtpase-activity
#11
Rahamthulla S Shaik, Min Woo Sung, Stanislav Vitha, Andreas Holzenburg
Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbiotic ancestors and their division is a complex process initiated by assembly of cytoskeletal FtsZ proteins into a ring structure at the division site (Z-ring). The cyanobacterial Z-ring positioning system (MinCDE proteins) is also conserved in chloroplasts except that MinC was lost and replaced by the eukaryotic ARC3. Both MinC and ARC3 act as negative regulators of FtsZ assembly, but ARC3 bears little sequence similarity with MinC. Here, light scattering assays, co-sedimentation, GTPase assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with single particle analysis have been used to elucidate the structure of ARC3 and its effect on its main target in chloroplast division: FtsZ2...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135976/loss-of-peri-wolffian-duct-stromal-frs2%C3%AE-expression-in-mice-leads-to-abnormal-ureteric-bud-induction-and-vesicoureteral-reflux
#12
Deepti Narla, Stacey B Slagle, Caitlin M Schaefer, Daniel S Bushnell, Pawan Puri, Carlton M Bates
BackgroundFibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) deletion from murine peri-Wolffian duct stroma (ST) results in aberrant ureteric bud induction, abnormal ureteral insertion into the bladder, and high rates of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). It is unclear which receptor docking protein(s) is/are responsible for Fgfr2 actions in these tissues. We investigated whether the docking protein, fibroblast receptor substrate 2α (Frs2α), had a role in peri-Wolffian duct ST similar to Fgfr2.MethodsWe conditionally deleted Frs2α in peri-Wolffian duct ST with a Tbx18cre mouse line (Frs2α(ST-/-))...
December 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134773/design-and-biological-functionality-of-a-novel-hybrid-ti-6al-4v-hydrogel-system-for-reconstruction-of-bone-defects
#13
Alok Kumar, K C Nune, R D K Misra
We have designed a unique injectable bioactive hydrogel comprising of alginate, gelatin, and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and loaded with osteoblasts, with the ability to infiltrate into three-dimensional Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds with interconnected porous architecture, fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM). A two-step crosslinking process using the EDC/NHS and CaCl2 was adopted and found to be effective in the fabrication of cell-loaded hydrogel/Ti-6Al-4V scaffold system. This hybrid Ti-6Al-4V scaffold/hydrogel system was designed for the reconstruction of bone defects, which are difficult to heal in the absence of suitable support materials...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131353/accelerated-nonrigid-motion-compensated-isotropic-3d-coronary-mr-angiography
#14
Teresa Correia, Gastão Cruz, Torben Schneider, René M Botnar, Claudia Prieto
PURPOSE: To develop an accelerated and nonrigid motion compensated technique for efficient isotropic 3D whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) with Cartesian acquisition. METHODS: Highly efficient whole-heart 3D CMRA was achieved by combining image reconstruction from undersampled data using compressed sensing (CS) with a nonrigid motion compensation framework. Undersampled acquisition was performed using a variable-density Cartesian trajectory with radial order (VD-CAPR)...
November 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131203/computer-generated-hologram-using-binary-phase-with-an-aperture
#15
Wen Chen
Computer-generated holograms (CGHs) have attracted more and more attention in some application fields, such as 3D displays, optical security, and beam shaping. In this paper, a strategy is presented for optical information verification based on CGH using binary phase (1 bit) with an aperture. The input is encoded into the cascaded phase-only masks based on CGH via iterative phase retrieval, and one extracted phase mask is binarized in which one part is selected according to an aperture and further embedded into a random binary-phase host mask...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131189/3d-shape-deformation-and-vibration-measurements-using-infrared-kinect-sensors-and-digital-image-correlation
#16
Hieu Nguyen, Zhaoyang Wang, Patrick Jones, Bing Zhao
Consumer-grade red-green-blue and depth (RGB-D) sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect and the Asus Xtion, are attractive devices due to their low cost and robustness for real-time sensing of depth information. These devices provide the depth information by detecting the correspondences between the captured infrared (IR) image and the initial image sent to the IR projector, and their essential limitation is the low accuracy of 3D shape reconstruction. In this paper, an effective technique that employs the Kinect sensors for accurate 3D shape, deformation, and vibration measurements is introduced...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130414/occlusal-angles-of-equine-incisors
#17
Laura Listmann, Patricia Schrock, Klaus Failing, Carsten Staszyk
The angulation of equine incisors is frequently used as a parameter for dental corrections. However, the term incisor angle is only vaguely defined, and no studies exist presenting a series of reliable measurements in individual incisors of multiple horses. The aim of this study was to establish an exact method to determine incisor angles and to test whether clinically accessible landmarks (facial crest and bars) are suitable to estimate incisor angles. Eighteen horses were used to create 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the skulls from computed tomography (CT) data sets...
December 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130196/super-resolution-single-molecule-fish-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#18
Joshua S Titlow, Lu Yang, Richard M Parton, Ana Palanca, Ilan Davis
The lack of an effective, simple, and highly sensitive protocol for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has hampered the study of mRNA biology. Here, we describe our modified single molecule FISH (smFISH) methods that work well in whole mount Drosophila NMJ preparations to quantify primary transcription and count individual cytoplasmic mRNA molecules in specimens while maintaining ultrastructural preservation. The smFISH method is suitable for high-throughput sample processing and 3D image acquisition using any conventional microscopy imaging modality and is compatible with the use of antibody colabeling and transgenic fluorescent protein tags in axons, glia, synapses, and muscle cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130188/quantification-of-2-o-me-residues-in-rna-using-next-generation-sequencing-illumina-ribomethseq-protocol
#19
Lilia Ayadi, Yuri Motorin, Virginie Marchand
RNA 2'-O-methylation is one of the ubiquitous nucleotide modifications found in many RNA types from bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. We and others have recently published accurate and sensitive detection of these modifications on native RNA at a single base resolution by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Relative quantification of these modifications is still under progress and would probably reduce the number of false positives due to 3D RNA structure. Therefore, here, we describe a reliable and optimized protocol for quantification of 2'-O-Methylations based on alkaline fragmentation of RNA coupled to a commonly used ligation approach followed by Illumina sequencing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128913/radiographic-markers-for-measuring-tibial-rotation-based-on-ct-reconstructed-radiographs-an-accuracy-and-feasibility-study
#20
David Hakimian, Amal Khoury, Rami Mosheiff, Meir Liebergall, Yoram A Weil
OBJECTIVES: Malreduction in the axial plane (malrotation) following tibial fracture surgery is often undiagnosed. A few clinical and radiographic methods have been proposed for measuring tibial rotation intraoperatively, yet have failed to match the accuracy of computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to develop radiographic tools for future intraoperative assessment of the tibial shaft rotation profile. METHODS: The setting was a laboratory computerized analysis...
November 11, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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