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Elena S Don, Alexandra G Emelyanova, Natalia N Yakovleva, Nataliia V Petrova, Marina V Nikiforova, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Sergey A Tarasov, Sergey G Morozov, Oleg I Epstein
The assessment of dose-response is an essential part of drug development in terms of the determination of a drug's effective dose, finding the safety endpoint, estimation of the pharmacokinetic profile and even validation of drug activity, especially for therapeutic agents with a principally novel mechanism of action. Drugs based on released-active forms of antibodies are a good example of such a target. In this study, the efficacy of the antiviral drug Anaferon for children (released-active form of antibodies to interferon-gamma) was tested in a dose-dependent manner (at doses of 0...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jae Hoon Lee, Duke Whan Chung, Jong Hun Baek, Young Jun Kim, So Young Park
Background Although proximal fibular flaps have been widely applied in wrist arthroplasty, controversy remains regarding which side of the proximal fibula is better for reconstruction of the distal radius. If the articular surface of the proximal fibula shows dorsal tilting, the ipsilateral (right) proximal fibula should be harvested in right wrist arthroplasty because the articular surface of the distal radius normally has volar tilt. This study investigated anatomical similarities between the proximal fibular articular surface and the distal radius articular surface based on morphologic analysis of the proximal fibula using computed tomography (CT)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Yanyan Zheng, Li Zhu, Lulu Fan, Wenna Zhao, Jianlong Wang, Xianxiao Hao, Yunhui Zhu, Xiufang Hu, Yaofeng Yuan, Jingwei Shao, Wenfeng Wang
Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L., has been demonstrated to exhibit good anti-cancer effect. In this study, a series of novel quaternary ammonium salts of emodin, anthraquinone and anthrone were synthesized and their anticancer activities were tested in vitro. The effects of emodin quaternary ammonium salts on cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were investigated in A375, BGC-823, HepG2 and HELF cells. The results demonstrated that compound 4a induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emilia Fisicaro, Carlotta Compari, Franco Bacciottini, Laura Contardi, Erika Pongiluppi, Nadia Barbero, Guido Viscardi, Pierluigi Quagliotto, Gaetano Donofrio, Marie Pierre Krafft
Biological and thermodynamic properties of a new homologous series of highly fluorinated bispyridinium cationic gemini surfactants, differing in the length of the spacer bridging the pyridinium polar heads in 1,1' position, are reported for the first time. Interestingly, gene delivery ability is closely associated with the spacer length due to a structural change of the molecule in solution. This conformation change is allowed when the spacer reaches the right length, and it is suggested by the trends of the apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jowita Marszewska, Mietek Jaroniec
Highly-porous carbon spheres were prepared by modified Stöber method combined with silica templating and CO2 activation. Silica was delivered in the form of either colloids or tetraethyl orthosilicate and used to create porosity. Subsequently, CO2 activation was used to develop microporosity. CO2 activation was done either: (1) on carbon spheres, following silica etching or (2) on silica-carbon composites, before silica removal. Both methods delivered carbon materials with well-developed structures and, importantly, preserved spherical morphology...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
Interaction of proflavine with hemoglobin (Hgb) was studied employing spectroscopy, calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy. The equilibrium constant was found to be of the order 10(4)M(-1). The quenching of Hgb fluorescence by proflavine was due to the complex formation. Calculation of the molecular distance (r) between the donor (β-Trp37 of Hgb) and acceptor (proflavine) suggested that energy can be efficiently transferred from the β-Trp37 residue at the α1β2 interface of the protein to the dye. Proflavine induced significant secondary structural changes in Hgb...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Evgeny Z Kvon, Olga K Kamneva, Uirá S Melo, Iros Barozzi, Marco Osterwalder, Brandon J Mannion, Virginie Tissières, Catherine S Pickle, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Elizabeth A Lee, Momoe Kato, Tyler H Garvin, Jennifer A Akiyama, Veena Afzal, Javier Lopez-Rios, Edward M Rubin, Diane E Dickel, Len A Pennacchio, Axel Visel
The evolution of body shape is thought to be tightly coupled to changes in regulatory sequences, but specific molecular events associated with major morphological transitions in vertebrates have remained elusive. We identified snake-specific sequence changes within an otherwise highly conserved long-range limb enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Transgenic mouse reporter assays revealed that the in vivo activity pattern of the enhancer is conserved across a wide range of vertebrates, including fish, but not in snakes...
October 20, 2016: Cell
A L Litvinenko, A E Moskalensky, N A Karmadonova, V M Nekrasov, D I Strokotov, A I Konokhova, M A Yurkin, E A Pokushalov, A V Chernyshev, V P Maltsev
Whereas commercially available hematological analyzers measure volume of individual platelets, angle-resolved light-scattering provides unique ability to additionally measure their shape index. We utilized the scanning flow cytometer to measure light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets taken from 16 healthy donors and the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem to retrieve the volume and shape index of each platelet. In normal conditions, the platelet shape index distribution (PSID) demonstrates three peaks, which relate to resting, partially activated, and fully activated platelets...
October 21, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Morio Ueno, Kazuko Asada, Munetoyo Toda, Asako Hiraga, Monty Montoya, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Junji Hamuro
Purpose: To elucidate a noninvasive method to qualify and identify cultured human corneal endothelial cells (cHCECs) devoid of cell-state transition and adaptable for cell-based therapy. Methods: The variations of cHCECs in their composition of heterogeneous subpopulations (SPs) were verified in relation to their surface cluster-of-differentiation (CD) markers and their morphology. The profiles of microRNA (miRNA) in cultured cells or supernatants were detected by 3D-Gene Human microRNA Chips (Toray Industries, Inc...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yendouban Lamboni, Kristian F Nielsen, Anita R Linnemann, Yüksel Gezgin, Kerstin Hell, Martinus J R Nout, Eddy J Smid, Manuele Tamo, Martinus A J S van Boekel, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Jens Christian Frisvad
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
2016: PloS One
Kerry A Geiler-Samerotte, Yuan O Zhu, Benjamin E Goulet, David W Hall, Mark L Siegal
The protein-folding chaperone Hsp90 has been proposed to buffer the phenotypic effects of mutations. The potential for Hsp90 and other putative buffers to increase robustness to mutation has had major impact on disease models, quantitative genetics, and evolutionary theory. But Hsp90 sometimes contradicts expectations for a buffer by potentiating rapid phenotypic changes that would otherwise not occur. Here, we quantify Hsp90's ability to buffer or potentiate (i.e., diminish or enhance) the effects of genetic variation on single-cell morphological features in budding yeast...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Qingwen Lin, Jiali Chang, Mengfan Gao, Hongzhu Ma
Epichlorohydrin cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres (ECH/CMC) obtained by inverse suspension method and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles encasing the ECH/CMC microspheres (M-ECH/CMC) obtained by two different methods were successfully prepared and compared. Their structures and morphologies were analyzed using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption behaviors of M1-ECH/CMC for methylene blue (MB) in the single cationic dye wastewater, the cationic/anionic dye mixture in the absence or presence of co-existed additives (salt and surfactant) wastewater, were also investigated with UV-vis spectrometer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
James Starrett, Shahan Derkarabetian, Marshal Hedin, Robert W Bryson, John E McCormack, Brant C Faircloth
Arachnida is an ancient, diverse, and ecologically important animal group that contains a number of species of interest for medical, agricultural, and engineering applications. Despite their importance, many aspects of the arachnid tree of life remain unresolved, hindering comparative approaches to arachnid biology. Biologists have made considerable efforts to resolve the arachnid phylogeny; yet, limited and challenging morphological characters, as well as a dearth of genetic resources, have hindered progress...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré, Hugo de Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Over-exploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the most...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Brent C Emerson, Juliane Casquet, Heriberto López, Pedro Cardoso, Paulo A V Borges, Noémy Mollaret, Pedro Oromí, Dominique Strasberg, Christophe Thébaud
Obtaining fundamental biodiversity metrics such as alpha, beta and gamma diversity for arthropods is often complicated by a lack of prior taxonomic information and/or taxonomic expertise, which can result in unreliable morphologically based estimates. We provide a set of standardized ecological and molecular sampling protocols that can be employed by researchers whose taxonomic skills may be limited, and where there may be a lack of robust a priori information regarding the regional pool of species. These protocols combine mass sampling of arthropods, classification of samples into parataxonomic units (PUs), and selective sampling of individuals for mtDNA sequencing to infer biological species...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Vesela Ivanova, Tihomir Dikov, Nadya Dimitrova
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the morphologic subtypes of ovarian carcinomas in Bulgaria in relation to current healthcare organization using Bulgarian National Cancer Registry data. Further, we investigated hospital volume as a factor influencing the quality of care for patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Bulgarian National Cancer Registry ovarian carcinoma data were retrieved (2009-2011) and distribution of histologic types was analyzed. Cases were divided and compared with respect to main treatment: no surgery, surgery at hospitals dealing with ≥30 ovarian cancer patients/year (high volume), and surgery at hospitals dealing with <30 ovarian cancer patients/year (low volume)...
October 8, 2016: Tumori
Colin G Murphy, Michel P Bonnin, Antoine H Desbiolles, Yannick Carrillon, Tarik Aїt Si Selmi
BACKGROUND: Varus inclination of the uncemented stem is not necessarily a technical error. The proximal femoral anatomy of hips with a coxa vara deformity frequently predisposes varus inclination. METHODS: We reviewed a series of 200 patients undergoing primary uncemented THA with the Corail® hip system. Preoperative data were based on patient demographics, diagnosis, and radiographic information (preoperative templating-CT measurements), and compared postoperative alignment for each stem and type of stem used...
October 15, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Vimarsha G Swami, Lei Liu, Myles Mabee, Jacob L Jaremko
PURPOSE: Indices from 3-D ultrasound may have a role in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) assessment, but require a way to determine spatial orientation relative to body axes. The lateral iliac wall angle is a potentially suitable reference axis in 3-D ultrasound. We sought to quantify normal values and variations of the infant iliac wall angle on radiography, and compare with computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Acetabular and lateral iliac angles were measured on frontal pelvic radiographs of 200 patients (400 hips, 183 with DDH) and coronal CT of 20 patients (40 hips) aged 0-12 months...
October 15, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Loreta Brandão Freitas
Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX) are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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