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Clizia Guccione, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Khaled M Awada, Vieri Piazzini, Anna Rita Bilia
The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17...
March 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Amanda A Soares, Jonathan P Castro, Pedro Balieiro, Sidnei Dornelles, Tiago M Degrandi, Ives J Sbalqueiro, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Iris Hass
B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes found in the karyotypes of approximately 15% of all eukaryotic species. They present parasitic behavior and do not follow the standard Mendelian pattern of inheritance, resulting in an imbalance in gametogenesis. The evolutionary dynamics of B chromosomes is still unknown for many species, but studies indicate that the accumulation of repetitive sequences plays an important role in the differentiation of these elements. We analyzed morphology, frequency, and possible homologies amongst different B chromosomes found in an isolated Akodon montensis population in southern Brazil...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kshiti Singh, Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain
Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2 /IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Suhyung Cho, Donghui Choe, Eunju Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Bernhard Ø Palsson, Byung-Kwan Cho
Along with functional advances in the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing, endonuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) has provided a versatile molecular tool for exploring gene functions. In principle, differences in cell phenotypes that result from the RNA-guided modulation of transcription levels by dCas9 are critical for inferring with gene function; however, the effect of intracellular dCas9 expression on bacterial morphology has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we observed unexpected morphological changes in Escherichia coli mediated by dCas9, which were then characterized using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Christopher J Lambert, Briana C Freshner, Arlen Chung, Tamara J Stevenson, D Miranda Bowles, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Zebrafish are a valuable model organism in biomedical research. Their rapid development, ability to model human diseases, utility for testing genetic variants identified from next-generation sequencing, amenity to CRISPR mutagenesis, and potential for therapeutic compound screening, has led to their wide-spread adoption in diverse fields of study. However, their power for large-scale screens is limited by the absence of automated genotyping tools for live animals. This constrains potential drug screen options, limits analysis of embryonic and larval phenotypes, and requires raising additional animals to adulthood to ensure obtaining an animal of the desired genotype...
2018: PloS One
Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Miguel Marchena, Laura Ramírez, Diego García-Ayuso, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro de la Villa, Francisco Germain
Light causes damage to the retina (phototoxicity) and decreases photoreceptor responses to light. The most harmful component of visible light is the blue wavelength (400-500 nm). Different filters have been tested, but so far all of them allow passing a lot of this wavelength (70%). The aim of this work has been to prove that a filter that removes 94% of the blue component may protect the function and morphology of the retina significantly. Three experimental groups were designed. The first group was unexposed to light, the second one was exposed and the third one was exposed and protected by a blue-blocking filter...
2018: PloS One
Mariusz Kanturski, Shalva Barjadze, Andrew S Jensen, Karina Wieczorek
The aphid genus Myzaphis van der Goot, 1913 from the tribe Macrosiphini is revised to include eight species. Apterous and alate viviparous females, known fundatrices and known sexual morphs (oviparous females and males) of Myzaphis bucktoni, M. juchnevitschae, M. rosarum, M. tianshanica and M. turanica are re-described and illustrated. Lectotype and paralectotypes of Myzaphis bucktoni and M. turanica are designated. The status of M. komatsubarae nomen dubium is discussed. Myzaphis avariolosa is regarded as a species belonging to the genus Ericaphis...
2018: PloS One
Clarisse Ribeiro, Carlos M Costa, Daniela M Correia, João Nunes-Pereira, Juliana Oliveira, Pedro Martins, Renato Gonçalves, Vanessa F Cardoso, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers are the polymers with the highest dielectric constants and electroactive responses, including piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric effects. This semicrystalline polymer can crystallize in five different forms, each related to a different chain conformation. Of these different phases, the β phase is the one with the highest dipolar moment and the highest piezoelectric response; therefore, it is the most interesting for a diverse range of applications...
April 2018: Nature Protocols
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska
This study investigates the biological activity of two cationic gemini surfactants, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) C6 and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecyla,.mmonium bromide) C5, and their two neutral analogs, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A5). Experiments were performed with Aspergillus brasiliensis , which is used in the standard tests for biocides. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for conidia and mycelium were determined using the dilution method...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tongyang Li, Shaoping Wang, Enrico Zio, Jian Shi, Wei Hong
Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Martina Baneckova, Abbas Agaimy, Simon Andreasen, Tomas Vanecek, Petr Steiner, David Slouka, Tomas Svoboda, Marketa Miesbauerova, Michael Michal, Alena Skálová
Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC), is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands. Moreover, ETV6-rearranged carcinomas with secretory features have been reported recently in the thyroid (with and without a history of radiation exposure), skin, and in very rare instances in the sinonasal tract. Here, we describe 2 cases of primary MASC in the sinonasal tract and provide a detailed clinical and histopathologic characterization of their morphology, immunohistochemical profile, and genetic background and highlight features allowing for its separation from its recently described molecular mimicker, ETV6-rearranged low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Simone B S P Terra, Scott W Aesif, Joseph J Maleszewski, Andrew L Folpe, Jennifer M Boland
Synovial sarcoma (SS), a translocation-associated sarcoma characterized by SS18-SSX1/2 fusion, presents most often in the extremities of young adults. While SS regularly occurs in the pleuropulmonary parenchyma, the mediastinum is an exceedingly rare primary site; the literature on this subject is predominantly composed of case reports and small series, mostly without molecular confirmation. Cases of mediastinal SS were selected from our institutional and consultation archives. Diagnoses were confirmed by either SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization (n=6) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SS18-SSX1/2 (n=15)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Ting Wang, Muchen Dong, Yin Jiang, Shuting Wang, Weiyun Shi
PURPOSE: To observe the pathological changes in dendritic cells (DCs) and inflammatory cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium using in vivo confocal microscopy during the management of herpetic endotheliitis. METHODS: A total of 110 eyes with herpetic endotheliitis were included. All patients were treated with antiviral agents combined with glucocorticoids. Changes in corneal edema were observed using slit-lamp microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography...
March 14, 2018: Cornea
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Stephen S Curran, Eric E Pulis, Michael J Andres, Robin M Oversteet
Two cryptic species of haploporid digeneans belonging in Saccocoelioides are described from Costa Rica; one from a poeciliid fish Poecilia gillii and the other from a characid fish, Astyanx aeneus. Traditional morphological features are examined and found to be largely inefficient for differentiate among new species and 20 New World congeners. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences among the 2 new species, 2 North American, 4 Middle American, and 3 South American species of Saccocoelioides, including the type-species Saccocoelioides nanii from Argentina and Saccocoelioides sogandaresi from Texas, is effective for differentiating among these species...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Yogesh Patil, Panayiotis Bilalis, Georgios Polymeropoulos, Sarah R Almahdali, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Valentin O Rodionov
A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Eunji Kim, Hyeri Kim, Byung-Jun Park, Young-Hee Han, Jong Hyuk Park, Jinhan Cho, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong Gon Son
From graphene oxide wrapped iron oxide particles with etching/reduction process, high-performance anode and cathode materials of lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors are obtained in the same process with different etching conditions, which consist of partially etched crumpled graphene (CG) wrapped spiky iron oxide particles (CG@SF) for a battery-type anode, and fully etched CG for a capacitive-type cathode. The CG is formed along the shape of spikily etched particles, resulting in high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, thus the CG-based cathode exhibits remarkable capacitive performance of 210 F g-1 and excellent rate capabilities...
March 15, 2018: Small
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