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Morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645163/variations-in-chloroplast-movement-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-among-chloroplast-division-mutants-under-light-stress
#1
Siddhartha Dutta, Jeffrey A Cruz, Saif M Imran, Jin Chen, David M Kramer, Katherine W Osteryoung
Chloroplasts divide to maintain consistent size, shape, and number in leaf mesophyll cells. Altered expression of chloroplast division proteins in Arabidopsis results in abnormal chloroplast morphology. To better understand the influence of chloroplast morphology on chloroplast movement and photosynthesis, we compared the chloroplast photorelocation and photosynthetic responses of a series of Arabidopsis chloroplast division mutants with a wide variety of chloroplast phenotypes. Chloroplast movement was monitored by red light reflectance imaging of whole plants under increasing intensities of white light...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645142/polyphyly-of-arundinoideae-poaceae-and-evolution-of-the-twisted-geniculate-lemma-awn
#2
J K Teisher, M R McKain, B A Schaal, E A Kellogg
Background and Aims: Subfamily Arundinoideae represents one of the last unsolved taxonomic mysteries in the grass family (Poaceae) due to the narrow and remote distributions of many of its 19 morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous genera. Resolving the phylogenetic relationships of these genera could have substantial implications for understanding character evolution in the grasses, for example the twisted geniculate awn - a hygroscopic awn that has been shown to be important in seed germination for some grass species...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645068/fracture-roughness-and-phase-transformation-in-cad-cam-milling-and-subsequent-surface-treatments-of-lithium-metasilicate-disilicate-glass-ceramics
#3
Abdur-Rasheed Alao, Richard Stoll, Xiao-Fei Song, John R Abbott, Yu Zhang, Jaafar Abduo, Ling Yin
This paper studied surface fracture, roughness and morphology, phase transformations, and material removal mechanisms of lithium metasilicate/disilicate glass ceramics (LMGC/LDGC) in CAD/CAM-milling and subsequent surface treatments. LMGC (IPS e.max CAD) blocks were milled using a chairside dental CAD/CAM milling unit and then treated in sintering, polishing and glazing processes. X-ray diffraction was performed on all processed surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to analyse surface fracture and morphology...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645053/assessment-of-imaging-in-flow-system-flowcam-for-systematic-ballast-water-management
#4
Leonardo Romero-Martínez, Cees van Slooten, Enrique Nebot, Asunción Acevedo-Merino, Louis Peperzak
Assessing the disinfection of ballast water and its compliance with international standards requires determining the size, viability, and concentration of planktonic organisms. The FlowCAM (Flow Cytometer and Microscope) is an Imaging Flow Cytometry designed to obtain the particle concentration, images, and quantitative morphologic information. The objective in this paper is to establish the basis for transforming the FlowCAM from being a laboratory analyzer into a tool for systematic monitoring of ballast water...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645045/hydra-amphiphiles-using-three-heads-and-one-tail-to-influence-aggregate-formation-and-to-kill-pathogenic-bacteria
#5
Tara M Gallagher, John N Marafino, Brenden K Wimbish, Brandi Volkers, Gabriel Fitzgerald, Kristin McKenna, Jason Floyd, Nicholas T Minahan, Brenna Walsh, Kirstie Thompson, David Bruno, Monica Paneru, Sybelle Djikeng, Stephanie Masters, Suma Haji, Kyle Seifert, Kevin L Caran
Hydra amphiphiles mimic the morphology of the mythical multi-headed creatures for which they are named. Likewise, when faced with a pathogenic bacterium, some hydra derivatives are as destructive as their fabled counterparts were to their adversaries. This report focuses on eight new tricephalic (triple-headed), single-tailed amphiphiles. Each amphiphile has a mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) core, two benzylic trimethylammonium groups and one dimethylalkylammonium group with a linear hydrophobe ranging from short (C8H17) to ultralong (C22H45)...
June 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645037/slip-additive-migration-surface-morphology-and-performance-on-injection-moulded-high-density-polyethylene-closures
#6
Nabeen Dulal, Robert Shanks, Thomas Gengenbach, Harsharn Gill, David Chalmers, Benu Adhikari, Isaac Pardo Martinez
HYPOTHESIS: The amount and distribution of slip agents, erucamide, and behenamide, on the surface of high-density polyethene, is determined by integral characteristics of slip agent structure and polymer morphology. A suite of surface analysis techniques was applied to correlate physicochemical properties with slip-additive migration behaviour and their surface morphology. The migration, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the slip additives, crystallinity and orientation of polyethene spherulites and interaction between slip additives and high-density polyethene influence the surface characteristics...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645035/ctab-induced-hierarchical-bismuth-microspheres-for-visible-light-photocatalytic-study
#7
Fengnan Zhang, Yan Zhao, Yawen Li, Gongjuan Wu, Jingzhe Zhao
Nanosheet constructed bismuth microspheres were prepared through an aqueous reduction approach in the presence of CTAB molecules, with initial formed BiOCl as the precursor and hydrazine hydrate as the reductant. The flower-like morphology and platelet units of BiOCl precursor determined the evolution of hierarchical Bi microspheres through a morphology-heredity process. Trisodium citrate was introduced to keep the Bi microspheres from oxidation, the high purity in composition are beneficial to eliminate the influence of bismuth oxides...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645027/validity-of-the-growth-model-of-the-computerized-visual-perception-assessment-tool-for-chinese-characters-structures
#8
Huey-Min Wu, Cheng-Hsaun Li, Bor-Chen Kuo, Yu-Mao Yang, Chin-Kai Lin, Wei-Hsiang Wan
Morphological awareness is the foundation for the important developmental skills involved with vocabulary, as well as understanding the meaning of words, orthographic knowledge, reading, and writing. Visual perception of space and radicals in two-dimensional positions of Chinese characters' morphology is very important in identifying Chinese characters. The important predictive variables of special and visual perception in Chinese characters identification were investigated in the growth model in this research...
June 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645005/application-of-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-cells-to-evaluate-neurotoxic-chemotherapy
#9
Claudia Wing, Masaaki Komatsu, Shannon M Delaney, Matthew Krause, Heather E Wheeler, M Eileen Dolan
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation to cells composing major organs has opened up the possibility for a new model system to study adverse toxicities associated with chemotherapy. Therefore, we used human iPSC-derived neurons to study peripheral neuropathy, one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and cause for dose reduction. To determine the utility of these neurons in investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy, we measured morphological differences in neurite outgrowth, cell viability as determined by ATP levels and apoptosis through measures of caspase 3/7 activation following treatment with clinically relevant concentrations of platinating agents (cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin), taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel and nab-paclitaxel), a targeted proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib), an antiangiogenic compound (thalidomide), and 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic that does not cause neuropathy...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644898/spatio-temporal-orientation-of-microtubules-controls-conical-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-petals
#10
Huibo Ren, Xie Dang, Xianzhi Cai, Peihang Yu, Yajun Li, Shanshan Zhang, Menghong Liu, Binqing Chen, Deshu Lin
The physiological functions of epidermal cells are largely determined by their diverse morphologies. Most flowering plants have special conical-shaped petal epidermal cells that are thought to influence light capture and reflectance, and provide pollinator grips, but the molecular mechanisms controlling conical cell shape remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a live-confocal imaging approach to quantify geometric parameters of conical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (A.thaliana). Through genetic screens, we identified katanin (KTN1) mutants showing a phenotype of decreased tip sharpening of conical cells...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644862/high-intensity-corneal-collagen-crosslinking-with-riboflavin-and-uva-in-rat-cornea
#11
Yirui Zhu, Peter S Reinach, Hanlei Zhu, Qiufan Tan, Qinxiang Zheng, Jia Qu, Wei Chen
Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) halts human corneal ectasias progression by increasing stromal mechanical stiffness. Although some reports describe that this procedure is effective in dealing with some infectious and immunologic corneal thinning diseases, there is a need for more animal models whose corneal thickness more closely resemble those occurring in these patients. To meet this need, we describe here high-intensity protocols that are safe and effective for obtaining CXL in rat corneas. Initially, a range of potentially effective UVA doses were evaluated based on their effectiveness in increasing tissue enzymatic resistance to dissolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644737/circulatory-cnp-rescues-craniofacial-hypoplasia-in-achondroplasia
#12
S Yamanaka, Kazumasa Nakao, N Koyama, Y Isobe, Y Ueda, Y Kanai, E Kondo, T Fujii, M Miura, A Yasoda, Kazuwa Nakao, K Bessho
Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644685/application-of-immunohistochemistry-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-and-pleural-neoplasms
#13
Jennifer S Woo, Opal L Reddy, Matthew Koo, Yan Xiong, Faqian Li, Haodong Xu
CONTEXT: - A vast majority of neoplasms arising from lung or pleura are initially diagnosed based on the histologic evaluation of small transbronchial, endobronchial, or needle core biopsies. Although most diagnoses can be determined by morphology alone, immunohistochemistry can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the workup of problematic cases. OBJECTIVE: - To provide a practical approach in the interpretation and immunohistochemical selection of lung/pleura-based neoplasms obtained from small biopsy samples...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644607/electrochemical-exfoliation-of-graphite-in-aqueous-sodium-halide-electrolytes-towards-low-oxygen-content-graphene-for-energy-and-environmental-applications
#14
Jose Maria Munuera, Juan Ignacio Paredes, Marina Enterria, Ana Pagán, Silvia Villar-Rodil, Manuel Fernando R Pereira, J I Martins, José L Figueiredo, Jose Luis Cenis, Amelia Martinez-Alonso, Juan Manuel D Tascon
Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644394/synergistic-effect-of-mos%C3%A2-and-sio%C3%A2-nanoparticles-as-lubricant-additives-for-magnesium-alloy-steel-contacts
#15
Hongmei Xie, Bin Jiang, Xingyu Hu, Cheng Peng, Hongli Guo, Fusheng Pan
The tribological performances of the SiO₂/MoS₂ hybrids as lubricant additives were explored by a reciprocating ball-on-flat tribometer for AZ31 magnesium alloy/AISI 52100 bearing steel pairs. The results demonstrated that the introduction of SiO₂/MoS₂ hybrids into the base oil exhibited a significant reduction in the friction coefficient and wear volume as well as an increase in load bearing capacity, which was better than the testing results of the SiO₂ or MoS₂ nanolubricants. Specifically, the addition of 0...
June 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644388/cellular-uptake-and-delivery-dependent-effects-of-tb-3-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods
#16
Yan Wei, Ying He, Xiyu Li, Haifeng Chen, Xuliang Deng
With the increasing interest in hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructures for use in biomedicine, the systematic evaluation of their potential effects on biological systems is becoming critically important. In this work, we report the in vitro cellular uptake, in vivo tissue distributions and toxicity of Tb(3+)-doped HA (HA-Tb) after short-, intermediate-, and long-term exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that HA-Tb was taken up by cells via vesicle endocytosis. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicated excellent cell viability with no changes in cell morphology at the examined doses...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644384/characterisation-of-the-chemical-composition-and-structural-features-of-novel-antimicrobial-nanoparticles
#17
Yuen-Ki Cheong, Jesus Calvo-Castro, Lena Ciric, Mohan Edirisinghe, Elaine Cloutman-Green, Upulitha Eranka Illangakoon, Qiang Kang, Suntharavathanan Mahalingam, Rupy Kaur Matharu, Rory M Wilson, Guogang Ren
Three antimicrobial nanoparticle types (AMNP0, AMNP1, and AMNP2) produced using the Tesima(TM) thermal plasma technology were investigated and their compositions were determined using a combination of analytical methods. Scanning electron micrographs provided the morphology of these particles with observed sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm, whilst FTIR spectra confirmed the absence of polar bonds and organic impurities, and strong Raman active vibrational bands at ca. 1604 and 1311 cm(-1) ascribed to C-C vibrational motions were observed...
June 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644210/frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-plaque-morphology-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-sex-differences
#18
Luca Mariani, Francesco Burzotta, Cristina Aurigemma, Andrea Romano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Antonio M Leone, Italo Porto, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: The cause for discrepancy in the clinical presentation and outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD) between men and women is not established. Different prevalences of risk factors or specific sex-related atherosclerotic aspects have been advocated as possible explanations. We investigated coronary plaque morphology looking at possible differences in plaque vulnerability between men and women with stable CAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data and coronary plaque morphology by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography in men and women with stable CAD...
June 21, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644154/acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-concomitant-presentation-of-two-molecularly-distinct-entities
#19
Jingdong Su, Diana Veillon, Rodney Shackelford, James Cotelingam, Hazem El-Osta, Glenn Mills, Reinhold Munker, Srinivas Devarakonda
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developing in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very uncommon and usually associated with prior treatment. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) accounts for a very small proportion of treatment-associated AML. So far, there has been only one reported case of APL occurring post radiation for prostate cancer in a patient with CLL. We report herein the first case of APL and CLL presenting concomitantly in an untreated patient. Evaluation of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate with immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and FISH to confirm two morphologically, molecularly and genetically distinct leukemic populations characteristic of APL and CLL is required...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644063/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-metacercaria-of-tylodelphys-digenea-diplostomidae-from-the-piscine-host-mystus-tengara-from-india
#20
Anshu Chaudhary, Shivi Gupta, Chandni Verma, Richa Tripathi, Hridaya Shanker Singh
The diversity and taxonomy of diplostomids infecting freshwater fishes of the Indian region are predominantly poorly known. Yet compared to other trematodes, identification and discrimination of diplostomid metacercaria are difficult using morphology and site of infection. The present study provides the first molecular study of Tylodelphys sp. from India. Specimens of Tylodelphys were collected from the vitreous humor of the eyes and from the brains of siluriform fish, Mystus tengara (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Hastinapur, Meerut (U...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
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