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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732404/influence-of-the-stabilizers-on-the-toxicity-of-metallic-nanomaterials-in-aquatic-organisms-and-human-cell-lines
#1
Tatiana Andreani, Verónica Nogueira, Vera V Pinto, Maria José Ferreira, Maria Graça Rasteiro, Amélia M Silva, Ruth Pereira, Carlos M Pereira
In this study, following a systematic approach, we used aquatic species (bacteria Vibrio fischeri and microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata) and different human cell lines (Caco-2, HepG2, SV-80 and HaCaT) representing different tissues and exposure pathways, to investigate how two organic stabilizers (PVA and DMSO) used for NMs dispersion influence their physicochemical properties, the persistence of metals in suspension and the toxicity/ecotoxicity of two metallic NMs (nano-Ag and nano-Cu). Although the stabilizers are expected to contribute to improve the dispersion and stability of NMs, the results obtained clearly showed that no similar changes in toxicity and morphological properties of the nano-Ag can be expected after its stabilization with PVA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732402/characteristics-of-black-carbon-in-snow-from-laohugou-no-12-glacier-on-the-northern-tibetan-plateau
#2
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Tanguang Gao, Zhiyuan Cong, Michael Sprenger, Yajun Liu, Xiaofei Li, Junming Guo, Mika Sillanpää, Kun Wang, Jizu Chen, Yang Li, Shiwei Sun
Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732310/achieving-directional-propagation-of-elastic-waves-via-topology-optimization
#3
Jingjie He, Zhan Kang
This paper presents a study on topology optimization of novel material microstructural configurations to achieve directional elastic wave propagation through maximization of partial band gaps. A waveguide incorporating a periodic-microstructure material may exhibit different propagation properties for the plane elastic waves incident from different inlets. A topology optimization problem is formulated to enhance such a property with a gradient-based mathematical programming algorithm. For alleviating the issue of local optimum traps, the random morphology description functions (RMDFs) are introduced to generate random initial designs for the optimization process...
July 12, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732290/synergistic-effect-of-uv-pretreated-fe-zsm-5-catalysts-for-heterogeneous-catalytic-complete-oxidation-of-voc-a-technology-development-for-sustainable-use
#4
Abdul Aziz, Kwang Soo Kim
In this work, the performance of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal and degradation from gas, air streams on UV pretreated Fe-ZSM-5 in a batch reactor at room temperature were studied. The Fe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction method. The influence of UV pre-irradiation time on the removal of BTEX were assessed by varying the time, ranging from 15min to 60smin. Then, sustainability of the activation of the catalyst resulted by UV pretreatment was studied by the four-cycle experiment with one time UV irradiation and after each cycle irradiation followed by BTEX removal after every cycle respectively...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732247/repairing-sciatic-nerve-injury-with-an-epo-loaded-nerve-conduit-and-sandwiched-in-strategy-of-transplanting-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Wei Zhang, Lihai Zhang, Jianheng Liu, Licheng Zhang, Jian Zhang, Peifu Tang
Transplantation of a biosynthetic nerve conduit carrying neuro-protective cytokines is promising for treating peripheral nerve injury. Here we developed a novel strategy for repairing sciatic nerve injury by EPO-loaded Chitosan nerve conduit (EPO/Chi) and sandwiched-in transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Then, the beneficial effect of EPO/Chi + MSCs on nerve regeneration was also further investigated by in vitro cellular experiments. In vivo experiment showed that combination of EPO-loaded Chitosan nerve conduit with MSCs could significantly accelerate nerve healing and improve morphological repair...
July 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732239/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-mitochondrial-functions-morphology-kinetics-biogenesis-and-survival
#6
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A Scorza
OBJECTIVES: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit adverse and beneficial effects on mitochondria, which have a strong impact on the treatment of patients with a mitochondrial disorder (MID) with epilepsy (mitochondrial epilepsy). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent findings concerning the effect of AEDs on mitochondrial functions and the clinical consequences with regard to therapy of mitochondrial epilepsy and of MIDs in general. METHODS: Literature review...
July 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732188/adapted-methods-for-scanning-electron-microscopy-in-assessment-of-human-sperm-morphology
#7
Petra Nussdorfer, Ines Cilenšek, Branko Zorn, Daniel Petrovič
Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice...
July 21, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732182/stim1-regulates-enamel-mineralization-and-ameloblast-modulation
#8
Y Furukawa, N Haruyama, M Nikaido, M Nakanishi, N Ryu, M Oh-Hora, K Kuremoto, K Yoshizaki, Y Takano, I Takahashi
Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and result in ectodermal dysplasia with amelogenesis imperfecta. However, because of the limited availability of patient tissue, analyses of enamel mineralization or possible changes in ameloblast function or morphology have not been possible. Here, we generated mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Stim1 ( Stim1 cKO [conditional knockout]), Stim2 ( Stim2 cKO), and Stim1 and Stim2 ( Stim1/2 cKO) and analyzed their enamel phenotypes as compared with those of control ( Stim1/2(fl/fl)) animals...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732145/evaluation-of-primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma-by-flow-cytometry
#9
Sindhu Cherian, Jonathan R Fromm
BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) that shows morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic similarities to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). We evaluated the neoplastic and reactive infiltrate of PMLBCL by flow cytometry (FC). METHODS: 24 cases of PMLBCL were retrospectively characterized using FC combinations for B-NHL, T-NHL, and CHL. RESULTS: The CHL assay identified the neoplastic population (NP) in all cases, while the B-NHL assay identified the NP in 18 of 24 cases...
July 21, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732129/%C3%A3-1-6-glucan-synthesis-associated-genes-are-required-for-proper-spore-wall-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Hua-Ping Pan, Ning Wang, Hiroyuki Tachikawa, Hideki Nakanishi, Xiao-Dong Gao
The yeast spore wall is an excellent model to study the assembly of an extracellular macromolecule structure. In the present study, mutants defective in ß-1,6-glucan synthesis, including kre1∆, kre6∆, kre9∆, and big1∆, were sporulated to analyze the effect of ß-1,6-glucan defects on the spore wall. Except for kre6∆, these mutant spores were sensitive to treatment with ether, suggesting that the mutations perturb the integrity of the spore wall. Morphologically, the mutant spores were indistinguishable from wild-type spores...
July 21, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732089/cx47-fine-tunes-the-handling-of-serum-lipids-but-is-dispensable-for-lymphatic-vascular-function
#11
Merlijn J Meens, Issa Kutkut, Viviane Rochemont, Juan Dubrot, Fouad R Kaladji, Amélie Sabine, Oliver Lyons, Stefanie Hendrikx, Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Friedemann Kiefer, Alberto Smith, Stéphanie Hugues, Tatiana V Petrova, Brenda R Kwak
Mutations in the gap junction protein connexin47 (Cx47) are associated with lymphedema. However, the role of Cx47 in lymphatic pathophysiology is unknown. We demonstrate that Cx47 is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells by whole-mount immunostaining and qPCR. To determine if Cx47 plays a role in lymphatic vessel function we analysed Cx47-/- mice. Cx47-deficiency did not affect lymphatic contractility (contractile amplitude or frequency) or lymphatic morphology (vessel diameter or number of valves). Interstitial fluid drainage or dendritic cell migration through lymphatic vessels was also not affected by Cx47-deficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732084/increased-parb-level-affects-expression-of-stress-response-adaptation-and-virulence-operons-and-potentiates-repression-of-promoters-adjacent-to-the-high-affinity-binding-sites-pars3-and-pars4-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Adam Kawalek, Krzysztof Glabski, Aneta Agnieszka Bartosik, Anna Fogtman, Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy
Similarly to its homologs in other bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa partitioning protein ParB facilitates segregation of newly replicated chromosomes. Lack of ParB is not lethal but results in increased frequency of anucleate cells production, longer division time, cell elongation, altered colony morphology and defective swarming and swimming motility. Unlike in other bacteria, inactivation of parB leads to major changes of the transcriptome, suggesting that, directly or indirectly, ParB plays a role in regulation of gene expression in this organism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732070/characterization-of-human-enterovirus71-virus-like-particles-used-for-vaccine-antigens
#13
Dandan Zhao, Bo Sun, Shiyang Sun, Bin Fu, Chuntian Liu, Dawei Liu, Yanfei Chu, Youlei Ma, Lu Bai, Yongge Wu, Yan Zhou, Weiheng Su, Ali Hou, Linjun Cai, Fei Xu, Wei Kong, Chunlai Jiang
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and has caused outbreaks with significant mortality among young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Towards developing a vaccine for this disease, we have expressed and purified EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble the authentic virus in appearance, capsid structure and protein sequence, from insect cells (Sf9) using a multistep chromatography process. We demonstrated intracellular localization of the VLPs in host cells by in situ immunogold detection, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732010/biofilm-imaging-in-porous-media-by-laboratory-x-ray-tomography-combining-a-non-destructive-contrast-agent-with-propagation-based-phase-contrast-imaging-tools
#14
Maxence Carrel, Mario A Beltran, Verónica L Morales, Nicolas Derlon, Eberhard Morgenroth, Rolf Kaufmann, Markus Holzner
X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731996/-pancreatitis-genes-and-islet-cells-auto-transplant-updates-and-new-horizons
#15
Edgardo D Rivera Rivera
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can progress from an acute presentation to an acute recurring presentation and eventually to chronic pancreatitis, which is characterized by irreversible morphological changes and scarring of the pancreas. The entity known as hereditary pancreatitis has been recognized in the literature for years and certainly the discovery of the PRSS1 gene in 1996 marked the beginning of a new era of genetic discoveries associated with the disease. Since then, multiple genes have been described as the causing agents of pancreatitis or disease modifiers, some of the most important ones being the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CASR, CTRC, CLDN2, and CPA1...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731888/elevated-plasma-levels-of-mac-2-binding-protein-predict-poor-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
Hao Xie, Zhun Zhang, Liming Chen, Pu Zhang, Yuqi Cui, Hang Liu, Hongrui Ma, Yufan Jiang, Ying Wang, Le Yang, Hongpeng Wu, Lianqun Cui
BACKGROUND: Mac-2 binding protein (M2BP) is an inflammatory glycoprotein associated with carotid atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with suspected coronary artery diseases. We aimed to explore the potential association of plasma M2BP levels with unstable plaque morphology and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared plasma M2BP levels among three groups: 216 patients with ACS, 82 patients with stable angina pectoris, and 50 controls...
July 20, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731868/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumors-of-the-female-genital-tract-are-under-recognized-a-low-threshold-for-alk-immunohistochemistry-is-required
#17
Justine L Pickett, Angela Chou, Juliana A Andrici, Adele Clarkson, Loretta Sioson, Amy Sheen, Jessica Reagh, Fedaa Najdawi, Yoomee Kim, Denise Riley, Jayne Maidens, David Nevell, Kirsten McIlroy, Susan Valmadre, Greg Gard, Russell Hogg, John Turchini, Gregory Robertson, Michael Friedlander, Anthony J Gill
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the female genital tract is under-recognized. We investigated the prevalence of ALK-positive IMT in lesions previously diagnosed as gynecologic smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ALK was performed on tissue microarrays of unselected tumors resected from 2009 to 2013. Three of 1176 (0.26%) "leiomyomas" and 1 of 44 (2.3%) "leiomyosarcomas" were ALK IHC positive, confirmed translocated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and therefore more appropriately classified as IMT...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731830/convergence-and-divergence-in-a-long-term-experiment-with-bacteria
#18
Richard E Lenski
Suitably designed experiments offer the possibility of quantifying evolutionary convergence because the fraction of replicate populations that converge is known. Here I review an experiment with Escherichia coli, in which 12 populations were founded from the same ancestral strain and have evolved for almost 30 years and more than 65,000 generations under the same conditions. The tension between divergence and convergence has been a major focus of this experiment. I summarize analyses of competitive fitness, correlated responses to different environments, cell morphology, the capacity to use a previously untapped resource, mutation rates, genomic changes, and within-population polymorphisms...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731819/the-close-up-imager-onboard-the-esa-exomars-rover-objectives-description-operations-and-science-validation-activities
#19
Jean-Luc Josset, Frances Westall, Beda A Hofmann, John Spray, Charles Cockell, Stephan Kempe, Andrew D Griffiths, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Luigi Colangeli, Detlef Koschny, Karl Föllmi, Eric Verrecchia, Larryn Diamond, Marie Josset, Emmanuelle J Javaux, Francesca Esposito, Matthew Gunn, Audrey L Souchon-Leitner, Tomaso R R Bontognali, Oleg Korablev, Suren Erkman, Gerhard Paar, Stephan Ulamec, Frédéric Foucher, Philippe Martin, Antoine Verhaeghe, Mitko Tanevski, Jorge L Vago
The Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover is a powerful high-resolution color camera specifically designed for close-up observations. Its accommodation on the movable drill allows multiple positioning. The science objectives of the instrument are geological characterization of rocks in terms of texture, structure, and color and the search for potential morphological biosignatures. We present the CLUPI science objectives, performance, and technical description, followed by a description of the instrument's planned operations strategy during the mission on Mars...
June 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731801/diversification-of-trait-combinations-in-coevolving-plant-and-insect-lineages
#20
John N Thompson, Christopher Schwind, Magne Friberg
Closely related species often have similar traits and sometimes interact with the same species. A crucial problem in evolutionary ecology is therefore to understand how coevolving species diverge when they interact with a set of closely related species from another lineage rather than with a single species. We evaluated geographic differences in the floral morphology of all woodland star plant species (Lithophragma, Saxifragaceae) that are pollinated by Greya (Prodoxidae) moths. Flowers of each woodland star species differed depending on whether plants interact locally with one, two, or no pollinating moth species...
August 2017: American Naturalist
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