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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453442/white-matter-integrity-in-medication-free-women-with-peripartum-depression-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#1
Michelle Silver, Constance M Moore, Vanessa Villamarin, Nina Jaitly, Janet E Hall, Anthony J Rothschild, Kristina M Deligiannidis
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in depression show decreased structural connectivity in the left anterior limb of the internal capsule and the genu of the corpus callosum but no such studies exist in peripartum depression (PPD), which affects 1 in 8 women. We analyzed fractional anisotropy (FA) as a measure of white matter integrity of these two tracts using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). We then conducted an exploratory whole-brain analysis to identify additional regions implicated in PPD. Seventy-five pregnant, medication-free women were evaluated with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV-TR in pregnancy and in the postpartum...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453214/renal-nutcracker-syndrome-in-a-young-lady-unusual-findings-and-endovascular-management
#2
Manish Taneja, Benjamin Soo Yeng Chua, Kanika Daga
Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is caused by compression of left renal vein (LRV), usually between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). This can lead to obstruction of flow into the inferior vena cava and secondary left renal venous hypertension. Despite potential serious consequences, diagnosing NCS is often challenging, circuitous and commonly delayed. We report an extremely unique case of NCS. A 34-year-old woman presented with left flank pain and discomfort. On investigation, it was found that high pressure in the LRV, due to compression by the SMA, had led to a large venous aneurysm that had caused pelviureteric junction obstruction and hydronephrosis...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453206/elevation-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-induces-a-temporally-graded-pattern-of-forgetting-of-contextual-fear-memories
#3
Aijing Gao, Frances Xia, Axel Guskjolen, Adam I Ramsaran, Adam Santoro, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Throughout life neurons are continuously generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The subsequent integration of newly-generated neurons alters patterns of dentate gyrus input and output connectivity, potentially rendering memories already stored in those circuits harder to access. Consistent with this prediction, we previously showed that increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after training induces forgetting of hippocampus-dependent memories, including contextual fear memory. However, the brain regions supporting contextual fear memories change with time, and this time-dependent memory reorganization might regulate the sensitivity of contextual fear memories to fluctuations in hippocampal neurogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453104/controlling-shape-anisotropy-of-hexagonal-cds-for-highly-stable-and-efficient-photocatalytic-h-2-evolution-and-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#4
Yongjin Ma, Yi Liu, Yuan Bian, Anquan Zhu, Yang Yang, Jun Pan
Photocorrosion and low solar conversion efficiency hindered widely applications of CdS in photocatalytic (PC) H 2 evolution and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Hence, this work reports the shape anisotropy of hexagonal CdS possesses highly stable and efficient PC H 2 evolution and PEC water splitting by simply mixed diethylenetriamine (DETA) and deionized water (DIW) solvothermal. Here we demonstrate that the shape of hexagonal CdS plays an important role in their PC activity. The CdS-Nanorod yields optimal 5...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452898/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-innate-like-t-lymphocyte-development
#5
REVIEW
Mihalis Verykokakis, Barbara L Kee
Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a heterogeneous innate T cell population that recognizes lipid antigens. Despite the monospecific nature of their T cell receptor, iNKT cells differentiate into stable sublineages during thymic development, before foreign antigen encounter. How iNKT cell subsets acquire and maintain their functional programs is a central question in innate lymphocyte biology. Global transcriptional and epigenetic profiling of iNKT subsets has provided insights into the internal wiring of these subsets that defines their identity...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452595/fertility-preservation-healthcare-circuit-and-networks-in-cancer-patients-worldwide-what-are-the-issues
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen Melan, Frederic Amant, Jacqueline Veronique-Baudin, Clarisse Joachim, Eustase Janky
BACKGROUND: Fertility preservation (FP) is a major determinant of quality of life after cancer remission for women who may not have achieved their ideal family size. This article describes the FP services and strategy currently available, highlighting issues of oncofertility worldwide. For these patients in complex situations, health networks are essential to improve coordination of care, and the strengthening of this coordination is a major challenge to improve the performance of the health system...
February 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452121/an-open-label-pilot-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-tofacitinib-in-moderate-to-severe-patch-type-alopecia-areata-totalis-and-universalis
#7
A Jabbari, F Sansaricq, J Cerise, J C Chen, A Bitterman, G Ulerio, J Borbon, R Clynes, A M Christiano, J Mackay-Wiggan
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease, with a lifetime risk of ∼2%. In AA, the immune systems targets the hair follicle, resulting in clinical hair loss. AA prognosis is unpredictable, and currently there is no definitive treatment. Our previous whole genome expression studies identified active immune circuits in AA lesions, including common γ-chain cytokine and IFN pathways. Since these pathways are mediated through JAK kinases, we prioritized clinical exploration of small molecule JAK inhibitors...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451222/injury-of-the-papez-circuit-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-and-concomitant-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451210/intravenous-morphine-self-administration-alters-accumbal-microrna-profiles-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Juhwan Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
A significant amount of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in drug addiction. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical part of the brain's reward circuit and is involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. However, few studies have examined the expression of miRNAs and their functional roles in the NAc under conditions of morphine addiction. In this study, mice were intravenously infused with morphine (0.01, 0.03, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/infusion) and showed inverted U-shaped response...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451056/epidemiology-of-injuries-in-portuguese-senior-male-rugby-union-sevens-a-cohort-prospective-study
#10
Antonio Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo Miguel Cruz-Ferreira, João Diogo Silva, Ricardo Maia Ferreira, Luiz Miguel Santiago, Luis Taborda-Barata
OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence, type and location of injuries sustained during the Portuguese rugby union sevens circuit. To investigate the influence of players' training loads on injury risk. METHODS: A prospective cohort study recording time-loss injuries was conducted with all teams competing in the Portuguese national rugby sevens circuit (eight from the top-tier and seven from the second-tier). Main outcome measures included: incidence rate, anatomical location, type, injury incident and severity...
February 16, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450928/conjugated-polyelectrolytes-bearing-various-ion-densities-spontaneous-dipole-generation-poling-induced-dipole-alignment-and-interfacial-energy-barrier-control-for-optoelectronic-device-applications
#11
Seungjin Lee, Thanh Luan Nguyen, Sang Yun Lee, Chung Hyeon Jang, Bo Ram Lee, Eui Dae Jung, Song Yi Park, Yung Jin Yoon, Jin Young Kim, Han Young Woo, Myoung Hoon Song
Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with π-delocalized main backbones and ionic pendant groups are intensively studied as interfacial layers for efficient polymer-based optoelectronic devices (POEDs) because they facilitate facile control of charge injection/extraction barriers. Here, a simple and effective method of performing precise interfacial energy level adjustment is presented by employing CPEs with different thicknesses and various ion densities under electric poling to realize efficient charge injection/extraction of POEDs...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450427/performance-enhancement-of-carbon-nanotube-thin-film-transistor-by-yttrium-oxide-capping
#12
Jiye Xia, Jie Zhao, Hu Meng, Qi Huang, Guodong Dong, Han Zhang, Fang Liu, Defeng Mao, Xuelei Liang, Lianmao Peng
Carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs) are regarded as promising technology for active matrix pixel driving circuits of future flat panel displays (FPD). For FPD application, unipolar thin film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility (μ), high on-state current (I ON ), low off-current (I OFF ) at high source/drain bias and small hysteresis are required simultaneously. Though excellent values of those performance metrics have been realized individually in different reports, the overall performance of previously reported CNT-TFTs has not met the above requirements...
February 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450220/recent-insights-into-corticostriatal-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-habits-invited-review-for-current-opinions-in-behavioral-sciences
#13
Justin O'Hare, Nicole Calakos, Henry H Yin
Habits have been studied for decades, but it was not until recent years that experiments began to elucidate the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms. The latest experiments have been enabled by advances in cell-type specific monitoring and manipulation of activity in large neuronal populations. Here we will review recent efforts to understand the neural substrates underlying habit formation, focusing on rodent studies on corticostriatal circuits.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449554/dynamic-allocation-of-orthogonal-ribosomes-facilitates-uncoupling-of-co-expressed-genes
#15
Alexander P S Darlington, Juhyun Kim, José I Jiménez, Declan G Bates
Introduction of synthetic circuits into microbes creates competition between circuit and host genes for shared cellular resources, such as ribosomes. This can lead to the emergence of unwanted coupling between the expression of different circuit genes, complicating the design process and potentially leading to circuit failure. By expressing a synthetic 16S rRNA with altered specificity, we can partition the ribosome pool into host-specific and circuit-specific activities. We show mathematically and experimentally that the effects of resource competition can be alleviated by targeting genes to different ribosomal pools...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449490/dentate-gyrus-mossy-cells-control-spontaneous-convulsive-seizures-and-spatial-memory
#16
Anh D Bui, Theresa M Nguyen, Charles Limouse, Hannah K Kim, Gergely G Szabo, Sylwia Felong, Mattia Maroso, Ivan Soltesz
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449429/heterogeneous-origins-of-human-sleep-spindles-in-different-cortical-layers
#17
Donald J Hagler, Istvan Ulbert, Lucia Wittner, Lorand Erőss, Joseph R Madsen, Orrin Devinsky, Werner Doyle, Daniel Fabo, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren
Sleep spindles are a cardinal feature in human NREM sleep and may be important for memory consolidation. We studied the intracortical organization of spindles in men and women by recording spontaneous sleep spindles from different cortical layers using linear microelectrode arrays. Two patterns of spindle generation were identified using visual inspection, and confirmed with factor analysis. Spindles (10-16Hz) were largest and most common in upper and middle channels, with limited involvement of deep channels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449113/characterization-of-the-non-metal-fraction-of-the-processed-waste-printed-circuit-boards
#18
Amit Kumar, Maria E Holuszko, Travis Janke
Electronic waste is one the fastest growing waste streams in the world and waste printed circuit boards (PCB) are the most valuable part of this stream due to the presence of gold, silver, copper, and palladium. The metal present in PCBs is mostly recovered for the market value whereas the nonmetal fractions are often ignored. This research explored the characteristics of the non-metal fraction (NMF) obtained after the processing of milled waste PCBs with a focus on responsible end-of-life solutions, in the form of non-hazardous landfilling or incineration...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448966/exosomes-taken-up-by-neurons-hijack-the-endosomal-pathway-to-spread-to-interconnected-neurons
#19
Juan Carlos Polanco, Chuanzhou Li, Nela Durisic, Robert Sullivan, Jürgen Götz
In Alzheimer disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates and forms cytoplasmic lesions that impair neuronal physiology at many levels. In addition to affecting the host neuron, tau aggregates also spread to neighboring, recipient cells where the misfolded tau aggregates, in a manner similar to prions, actively corrupt the proper folding of soluble tau, and thereby impair cellular functions. One vehicle for the transmission of tau aggregates are secretory nanovesicles known as exosomes...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448653/self-powered-sensors-and-flexible-triboelectric-nanogenerator-for-powering-portable-electronics
#20
Piyush Kanti Sarkar, Subrata Maji, Somobrata Acharya
We report on a flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG) designed using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aluminium (Al) combinations to convert ambient mechanical energy into electrical outputs. An open-circuit output voltage of ~40 V and short-circuit current density of ~63.6 mA m-2 with power density 0.62 W m-2 was easily obtained from the FTENG. The harvested mechanical energy is used for lighting ~100 light emitting diodes and to operate seven segment display enabling prospects for carbon-emission free environment friendly source for powering portable electronic devices...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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