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Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Francisco Zarate-Perez, Jesús B Velázquez-Fernández, Gareth K Jennings, Lisa S Shock, Charles E Lyons, John C Hackett
Cytochrome P450 19 (CYP19, aromatase) catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in a sequence of three reactions that each depend on NADPH and O2 . Aromatase is a phylogenetically-ancient enzyme and its breadth of expression in other species has highlighted distinct physiological functions. In songbirds, estrogen production is required for programming the neural circuits controlling song and in the determination of sex in fish and reptiles. This work describes the expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor penguin, af) aromatase...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Elizabeth Y Toomarian, Edward M Hubbard
Mapping numbers onto space is a common cognitive representation that has been explored in both behavioral and neuroimaging contexts. Empirical work probing the diverse nature of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) has led researchers to question 1) how the human brain links numbers with space, and 2) whether this link is biologically vs. culturally determined. We review the existing literature on the development of SNAs and situate that empirical work within cognitive and neuroscientific theoretical frameworks...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Amrita Saha, Moumita Basu, Anindita Ukil
Invasion of host cell by pathogens induce various intracellular signalling pathways. The host cell through the initiation of these signalling circuits desperately wants to get rid of the pathogen, whereas the pathogen tries to subvert these defence strategies to create an environment for their successful survival. Leishmania spp. is not an exception. Leishmania have to evolve a range of strategic mechanisms to neutralize macrophage defensive arsenals which enable the parasite to replicate within the phagolysosome of infected host...
April 23, 2018: IUBMB Life
Linwei Wang, Omar A Gharbia, Saman Nazarian, B Milan Horácek, John L Sapp
Aims: Contact mapping is currently used to guide catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) but usually provides incomplete assessment of 3D re-entry circuits and their arrhythmogenic substrates. This study investigates the feasibility of non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) in mapping scar substrates and re-entry circuits throughout the epicardium and endocardium. Methods and results: Four patients undergoing endocardial and epicardial mapping and ablation of scar-related VT had computed tomography scans and a 120-lead electrocardiograms, which were used to compute patient-specific ventricular epicardial and endocardial unipolar electrograms (CEGMs)...
April 18, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Guillaume Drion, Julie Dethier, Alessio Franci, Rodolphe Sepulchre
Neuronal information processing is regulated by fast and localized fluctuations of brain states. Brain states reliably switch between distinct spatiotemporal signatures at a network scale even though they are composed of heterogeneous and variable rhythms at a cellular scale. We investigated the mechanisms of this network control in a conductance-based population model that reliably switches between active and oscillatory mean-fields. Robust control of the mean-field properties relies critically on a switchable negative intrinsic conductance at the cellular level...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
UnCheol Lee, George A Mashour
The heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms, target neural circuits, and neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics makes it difficult to develop a reliable and drug-invariant index of general anesthesia. No single brain region or mechanism has been identified as the neural correlate of consciousness, suggesting that consciousness might emerge through complex interactions of spatially and temporally distributed brain functions. The goal of this review article is to introduce the basic concepts of networks and explain why the application of network science to general anesthesia could be a pathway to discover a fundamental mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
April 23, 2018: Anesthesiology
Yu Han, Jingdian Zou, Zhen Li, Wenqiang Wang, Yang Jie, Jinming Ma, Bin Tang, Qi Zhang, Xia Cao, Shengming Xu, Zhong Lin Wang
In recent years, research in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been focused on improving their performance in various ways, such as density, capacity and life time, but little attention has been paid to the energy consumption costed in the manufacturing process. Herein, we report an energy-efficient preparation method of anode materials for LIBs based on a self-powered electrospinning system without an external power source, which consists of a rotatory triboelectric nanogenerator (r-TENG), a power management circuit and an electrospinning unit...
April 23, 2018: ACS Nano
Ziping Wu, Kaixi Liu, Chao Lv, Shengwen Zhong, Qinghui Wang, Ting Liu, Xianbin Liu, Yanhong Yin, Yingyan Hu, Di Wei, Zhongfan Liu
Moore's law predicts the performance of integrated circuit doubles every two years, lasting for more than five decades. However, the improvements of the performance of energy density in batteries lag far behind that. In addition, the poor flexibility, insufficient-energy density, and complexity of incorporation into wearable electronics remain considerable challenges for current battery technology. Herein, a lithium-ion cable battery is invented, which is insensitive to deformation due to its use of carbon nanotube (CNT) woven macrofilms as the charge collectors...
April 23, 2018: Small
Cibelle Celestino Silva, Peter Heering
In this paper, we examine the period that immediately followed the invention of the Leiden jar. Historians of science have developed narrations that emphasize the role of grounding during the process of charging the jar. In this respect, this episode shows significant aspects that can be used to characterize science, scientific knowledge production, and the nature of science. From our own experimentation, we learned that grounding was not necessary in order to produce the effect. These experiences inspired us to go back to primary sources...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Yinan Zhang, Yi Xu, Shiren Chen, Hua Lu, Kai Chen, Yaoyu Cao, Andrey E Miroshnichenko, Min Gu, Xiangping Li
Emerging high-index all-dielectric nanostructures, capable of manipulating light at the subwavelength scale, empower designing and implementing novel antireflection and light trapping layers in many photonic and optoelectronic devices. However, their performance and practicality are compromised by relatively narrow bandwidths and highly sophisticated fabrications. In this paper, we demonstrate an ultra-broadband (300-1200 nm) directional light scattering strategy using high-index surface silicon oligomer resonators fabricated by a facile, scalable and low-cost colloidal lithography technique...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nina de Lacy, Ian Kodish, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun
From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ying Zhao, Wengeng Zhang
Microfluidic impedance pulse sensor has emerged as easy-handling and low-cost platform in the electrical analysis of biological cells. In the conventional method, impedance sensor demanded expensively patterning metal electrodes on the substrate, which are directly in touch with electrolytes in order to measure the microfluidic channel impedance change. In this letter, a cost-effective microfluidic impedance sensor building upon a dielectric film coated printed circuit board is introduced. Impedance electrodes are protected by a dielectric film layer from electrochemical erosion between electrodes and electrolyte...
April 22, 2018: Electrophoresis
Madison Force, Morgan Moroi, Shigang Wang, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to assess the hemodynamic properties of the i-cor ECG-synchronized cardiac assist system for off-label use as a short-term cardiac assist device for neonatal and pediatric patients and compare nonpulsatile to pulsatile flow with different amplitudes. The circuit consisted of the i-cor diagonal pump with 3 feet of ¼ inch arterial and venous tubing and a soft-shell reservoir, primed with lactated Ringer's solution and human packed red blood cells (hematocrit 42%). Trials were conducted with three different sets of cannulas (8-Fr arterial 10-Fr venous, 10-Fr arterial 12 Fr-venous, and 12-Fr arterial 14-Fr venous) with increasing flow rates at varying pseudo-patient pressures (40, 60, 80, and 100 mm Hg) and under nonpulsatile mode and pulsatile mode with pulsatile amplitudes 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm at 36°C...
April 22, 2018: Artificial Organs
Zai-Quan Xu, Christopher Elbadawi, Toan Trong Tran, Mehran Kianinia, Xiuling Li, Daobin Liu, Timothy B Hoffman, Minh Nguyen, Sejeong Kim, James H Edgar, Xiaojun Wu, Li Song, Sajid Ali, Mike Ford, Milos Toth, Igor Aharonovich
Artificial atomic systems in solids are becoming increasingly important building blocks in quantum information processing and scalable quantum nanophotonic networks. Amongst numerous candidates, 2D hexagonal boron nitride has recently emerged as a promising platform hosting single photon emitters. Here, we report a number of robust plasma and thermal annealing methods for fabrication of emitters in tape-exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) crystals. A two-step process comprising Ar plasma etching and subsequent annealing in Ar is highly robust, and yields an eight-fold increase in the concentration of emitters in hBN...
April 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Mark H Histed
Brain computations depend on how neurons transform inputs to spike outputs. Here, to understand input-output transformations in cortical networks, we recorded spiking responses from visual cortex (V1) of awake mice of either sex while pairing sensory stimuli with optogenetic perturbation of excitatory and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory neurons. We found that V1 neurons' average responses were primarily additive (linear). We used a recurrent cortical network model to determine whether these data, as well as past observations of nonlinearity, could be described by a common circuit architecture...
January 2018: ENeuro
Wojciech Czardybon, Renata Windak, Aniela Gołas, Michał Gałęzowski, Aleksandra Sabiniarz, Izabela Dolata, Magdalena Salwińska, Paweł Guzik, Magdalena Zawadzka, Ewelina Gabor-Worwa, Bożena Winnik, Małgorzata Żurawska, Ewa Kolasińska, Ewelina Wincza, Marta Bugaj, Monika Danielewicz, Eliza Majewska, Milena Mazan, Grzegorz Dubin, Monika Noyszewska-Kania, Ewa Jabłońska, Maciej Szydłowski, Tomasz Sewastianik, Bartosz Puła, Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Monika Prochorec-Sobieszek, Elżbieta Mądro, Ewa Lech-Marańda, Krzysztof Warzocha, Jerome Tamburini, Przemysław Juszczyński, Krzysztof Brzózka
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is one of the most common genetic lesions in acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML). Although FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors initially exhibit clinical activity, resistance to treatment inevitably occurs within months. PIM kinases are thought to be major drivers of the resistance phenotype and their inhibition in relapsed samples restores cell sensitivity to FLT3 inhibitors. Thus, simultaneous PIM and FLT3 inhibition represents a promising strategy in AML therapy...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Yixin Pan, Linbin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Chencheng Zhang, Xian Qiu, Yuyan Tan, Haiyan Zhou, Bomin Sun, Dianyou Li
Background: Impulse control disorder is not uncommon in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy and subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Internal globus pallidus (GPi)-DBS is increasingly used, but its role in inhibitory control has rarely been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GPi-DBS on inhibitory control in PD patients. Methods: A stop-signal paradigm was used to test response initiation, proactive inhibition, and reactive inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rebecca J Park, Jessica C Scaife, Tipu Z Aziz
Background: Research suggests that altered eating and the pursuit of thinness in anorexia nervosa (AN) are, in part, a consequence of aberrant reward circuitry. The neural circuits involved in reward processing and compulsivity overlap significantly, and this has been suggested as a transdiagnostic factor underpinning obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions and eating disorders. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is central to both reward processing and compulsivity. In previous studies, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to the NAcc has been shown to result in neural and symptomatic improvement in both obsessive compulsive disorder and addictions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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