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Steven M Markowitz, Bruce B Lerman
In delaying transmission of the cardiac impulse from the atria to the ventricles, the atrioventricular (AV) node serves a critical function in augmenting ventricular filling during diastole and limiting the ventricular response during atrial tachyarrhythmias. The complex structure of the nodal region, however, also provides the substrate for reentrant rhythms. Recent discoveries have elucidated the cellular basis and anatomical determinants of slow conduction in the node. Based on analysis of gap junction proteins, distinct structural components of the AV node have been defined, including the compact node, right and left inferior nodal extensions, the lower nodal bundle, and transitional tissue...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Jovica Ninkovic, Magdalena Götz
Cell replacement therapies aim at reestablishment of neuronal circuits after brain injury, stroke or neurodegeneration. Recently, direct reprogramming of resident glial cells into the affected neuronal subtypes has become a feasible and promising option for central nervous system regeneration. Direct reprogramming relies on the implementation of a new transcriptional program defining the desired neuronal identity in fully differentiated glial cells implying the more or less complete down-regulation of the program for the former identity of the glial cell...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Hyosang Yoon, Xing Xuan, Sungkwan Jeong, Jae Y Park
Electroplating of nanoporous Pt (nPt) induces an extremely strong tensile stress, which results in the exfoliation of nPt on flexible polymer substrate despite plasma treatment to improve adhesion. Here, we overcame this challenge by modifying flexible stainless-steel, and developed wearable, robust, flexible, and non-enzymatic continuous glucose monitoring system. The flexible stainless-steel was highly effective in improving the adhesion between the metal layer and substrate. The developed wireless system included electrochemical analysis circuits, a microcontroller unit, and a wireless communication module...
June 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Gerd Tinkhauser, Flavie Torrecillos, Yann Duclos, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Petra Fischer, Romain Carron, Marie-Laure Welter, Carine Karachi, Wim Vandenberghe, Bart Nuttin, Tatiana Witjas, Jean Régis, Jean-Philippe Azulay, Alexandre Eusebio, Peter Brown
Exaggerated activity in the beta band (13-35 Hz) is a hallmark of basal ganglia signals in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Beta activity however is not constantly elevated, but comes in bursts. In previous work we showed that the longer beta bursts are maintained, the more the oscillatory synchronisation within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) increases, which is posited to limit the information coding capacity of local circuits. Accordingly, a higher incidence of longer bursts correlates positively with clinical impairment, while the opposite is true for short, more physiological bursts...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Stefan Doering, Andre Wachowiak, Hagen Roetz, Stefan Eckl, Thomas Mikolajick
Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) with its high spatial resolution and high dynamic signal range is a powerful tool for two-dimensional characterization of semiconductor dopant areas. However, the application of the method is limited to devices in equilibrium condition, as the investigation of actively operated devices would imply potential differences within the device, whereas SSRM relies on a constant voltage difference between sample surface and probe tip. Furthermore, the standard preparation includes short circuiting of all device components, limiting applications to devices in equilibrium condition...
June 1, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Oliver Vranjkovic, Garrett Winkler, Danny G Winder
Forced abstinence from chronic two bottle-choice ethanol drinking produces the development of negative affective states in female C57BL/6J mice. We previously reported that this disrupted behavior is acutely reversed by administration of ketamine 30 min-prior to testing. Here we assessed whether ketamine can be used as an inoculant against the development of abstinence- dependent affective disturbances. In parallel, we examined the impact of ketamine administration on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a region implicated in affective disturbances...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Antoine Ménoret, James A Buturla, Maria M Xu, Julia Svedova, Sanjeev Kumar, Vijay A K Rathinam, Anthony T Vella
Immune-mediated lung is considered the result of an exacerbated innate injury immune response, although a role for adaptive lymphocytes is emerging. αβ T cells specific for S. aureus enterotoxin A orchestrate a Tγδ17 response during lung injury. However, the mechanism driving IL-17 production is unclear. Here, we show a role for IL-2 triggering IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells as IL-17 synthesis and neutrophil recruitment was reduced by IL-2 blocking mAbs in vitro and in vivo. Mass cytometry analysis revealed that lung γδ T cells responded directly to IL-2 as evident from STAT5 phosphorylation and RoRγt expression...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Majid Aalizadeh, Amin Khavasi, Bayram Butun, Ekmel Ozbay
Achieving broadband absorption has been a topic of intensive research over the last decade. However, the costly and time consuming stage of lithography has always been a barrier for the large-area and mass production of absorbers. In this work, we designed, fabricated, and characterized a lithography-free, large-area compatible, omni-directional, ultra-broadband absorber that consists of the simplest geometrical configuration for absorbers: Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM). We introduced and utilized Manganese (Mn) for the first time as a very promising metal for broadband absorption applications...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin Pouvreau, Thomas Vanhercke, Surinder Singh
Genetic improvement of crops started since the dawn of agriculture and has continuously evolved in parallel with emerging technological innovations. The use of genome engineering in crop improvement has already revolutionised modern agriculture in less than thirty years. Plant metabolic engineering is still at a development stage and faces several challenges, in particular with the time necessary to develop plant based solutions to bio-industrial demands. However the recent success of several metabolic engineering approaches applied to major crops are encouraging and the emerging field of plant synthetic biology offers new opportunities...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Tessema K Kassaw, Alberto J Donayre-Torres, Mauricio S Antunes, Kevin J Morey, June I Medford
Plant synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging field that aims to engineer genetic circuits to function in plants with the same reliability and precision as electronic circuits. These circuits can be used to program predictable plant behavior, producing novel traits to improve crop plant productivity, enable biosensors, and serve as platforms to synthesize chemicals and complex biomolecules. Herein we introduce the importance of developing orthogonal plant parts and the need for quantitative part characterization for mathematical modeling of complex circuits...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Da Un Jeong, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although studies on the relation between arrhythmias and the action potential duration (APD) have been carried out, most of them are based only on electrophysiological factors of the heart and lack experiments that consider cardiac mechanical and electromechanical characteristics. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify the relevance of the shortening of APD of a cell in relation to the mechanical contraction activity of the heart and the associated risk of arrhythmia...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Sheue-Fen Tzeng, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tai-Kuang Chao, Yu-Ching Chou, Yu-Chih Yang, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Tai-Lung Cha, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Disseminated castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a common disease in men that is characterized by limited survival and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy. The increase in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) signaling contributes to androgen receptor activity in a subset of patients with CRPC; however, enigmatically, HER2-targeted therapies have demonstrated a lack of efficacy in patients with CRPC. Aberrant glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer and involves key processes that support cancer progression...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
C Eichler, J R Petta
We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency LC resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bradley A Moores, Lucas R Sletten, Jeremie J Viennot, K W Lehnert
We demonstrate an acoustical analog of a circuit quantum electrodynamics system that leverages acoustic properties to enable strong multimode coupling in the dispersive regime while suppressing spontaneous emission to unconfined modes. Specifically, we fabricate and characterize a device that comprises a flux tunable transmon coupled to a 300  μm long surface acoustic wave resonator. For some modes, the qubit-cavity coupling reaches 6.5 MHz, exceeding the cavity loss rate (200 kHz), qubit linewidth (1...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Alessio Plebe
This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be "canonical". This "canonical" core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks informing this research...
June 15, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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