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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319611/functional-electronic-inversion-layers-at-ferroelectric-domain-walls
#1
J A Mundy, J Schaab, Y Kumagai, A Cano, M Stengel, I P Krug, D M Gottlob, H Dog Anay, M E Holtz, R Held, Z Yan, E Bourret, C M Schneider, D G Schlom, D A Muller, R Ramesh, N A Spaldin, D Meier
Ferroelectric domain walls hold great promise as functional two-dimensional materials because of their unusual electronic properties. Particularly intriguing are the so-called charged walls where a polarity mismatch causes local, diverging electrostatic potentials requiring charge compensation and hence a change in the electronic structure. These walls can exhibit significantly enhanced conductivity and serve as a circuit path. The development of all-domain-wall devices, however, also requires walls with controllable output to emulate electronic nano-components such as diodes and transistors...
March 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319524/combined-therapy-of-ventricular-assist-device-and-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-profound-acute-cardiopulmonary-failure
#2
Kevin Fujita, Koji Takeda, Boyganzi Li, Christine Mauro, Paul Kurlansky, Sowmyashree Sreekanth, Jiho Han, Lauren K Truby, Reshad Garan, Veli Topkara, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Paolo Colombo, Yoshifumi Naka, Hiroo Takayama
Short-term ventricular assist devices (ST-VAD) have been effective in treating patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Membrane oxygenators (MO) can be added to the circuit for concomitant profound refractory hypoxia. This study reports outcomes of combined therapy in this portion of patients. This is a retrospective review of 166 patients who received an ST-biventricular assist device (BiVAD) or right ventricular assist device (RVAD) for cardiogenic shock between November 2007 and November 2014. An MO was added to the RVAD for profound hypoxia refractory to maximized ventilation...
March 17, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#3
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319257/hunger-and-thirst-interact-to-regulate-ingestive-behavior-in-flies-and-mammals
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas Jourjine
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#5
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319019/recycling-of-metals-from-pretreated-waste-printed-circuit-boards-effectively-in-stirred-tank-reactor-by-a-moderately-thermophilic-culture
#6
Ming-Chen Xia, Ya-Ping Wang, Tang-Jian Peng, Li Shen, Run-Lan Yu, Yuan-Dong Liu, Miao Chen, Jiao-Kun Li, Xue-Ling Wu, Wei-Min Zeng
To seek a feasible technique for processing waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), pretreatment of PCBs by table separation and further bioleached by moderate thermophiles in a stirred tank reactor were investigated. The shaking table separation, conducted after grinding and sieving of PCBs, produced two fractions: metal-rich parts (RPCBs), which is more suitable for pyrometallurgy process than untreated PCBs, and metal-poor parts (PPCBs) with only 8.83% metals was then bioleached by a mixed culture of moderate thermophiles effectively...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318937/semantics-surplus-meaning-and-the-science-of-fear
#7
Joseph E LeDoux
When subjective state words are used to describe behaviors, or brain circuits that control them nonconsciously, the behaviors and circuits take on properties of the subjective state. Research on fear illustrates the problems that can result. Subjective state words should be limited to the description of inner experiences, and avoided when referring to circuits underlying nonsubjectively controlled behaviors.
March 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318531/national-survey-on-postoperative-care-and-treatment-circuits-in-neurosurgery
#8
R Valero, E Carrero, N Fàbregas, F Iturri, N Saiz-Sapena, L Valencia
INTRODUCTION: The analysis of surgical processes should be a standard of health systems. We describe the circuit of care and postoperative treatment for neurosurgical interventions in the centres of our country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June to October 2014, a survey dealing with perioperative treatments and postoperative circuits after neurosurgical procedures was sent to the chiefs of Anaesthesiology of 73 Spanish hospitals with neurosurgery and members of the Neuroscience Section of SEDAR...
March 16, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318459/mitigating-curtaining-artifacts-during-ga-fib-tem-lamella-preparation-of-a-14-nm-finfet-device
#9
Andrey Denisyuk, Tomáš Hrnčíř, Jozef Vincenc Oboňa, Sharang, Martin Petrenec, Jan Michalička
We report on the mitigation of curtaining artifacts during transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella preparation by means of a modified ion beam milling approach, which involves altering the incident angle of the Ga ions by rocking of the sample on a special stage. We applied this technique to TEM sample preparation of a state-of-the-art integrated circuit based on a 14-nm technology node. Site-specific lamellae with a thickness <15 nm were prepared by top-down Ga focused ion beam polishing through upper metal contacts...
March 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317938/on-the-determination-of-%C3%AF-2-in-thin-films-a-comparison-of-one-beam-second-harmonic-generation-measurement-methodologies
#10
Artur Hermans, Clemens Kieninger, Kalle Koskinen, Andreas Wickberg, Eduardo Solano, Jolien Dendooven, Martti Kauranen, Stéphane Clemmen, Martin Wegener, Christian Koos, Roel Baets
The determination of the second-order susceptibility (χ((2))) of thin film samples can be a delicate matter since well-established χ((2)) measurement methodologies such as the Maker fringe technique are best suited for nonlinear materials with large thicknesses typically ranging from tens of microns to several millimeters. Here we compare two different second-harmonic generation setups and the corresponding measurement methodologies that are especially advantageous for thin film χ((2)) characterization. This exercise allows for cross-checking the χ((2)) obtained for identical samples and identifying the main sources of error for the respective techniques...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#11
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317841/rectifying-the-output-of-vibrational-piezoelectric-energy-harvester-using-quantum-dots
#12
Lijie Li
Piezoelectric energy harvester scavenges mechanical vibrations and generates electricity. Researchers have strived to optimize the electromechanical structures and to design necessary external power management circuits, aiming to deliver high power and rectified outputs ready for serving as batteries. Complex deformation of the mechanical structure results in charges with opposite polarities appearing on same surface, leading to current loss in the attached metal electrode. External power management circuits such as rectifiers comprise diodes that consume power and have undesirable forward bias...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317415/uninterrupted-dabigatran-versus-warfarin-for-ablation-in-atrial-fibrillation
#13
Hugh Calkins, Stephan Willems, Edward P Gerstenfeld, Atul Verma, Richard Schilling, Stefan H Hohnloser, Ken Okumura, Harvey Serota, Matias Nordaby, Kelly Guiver, Branislav Biss, Marc A Brouwer, Massimo Grimaldi
Background Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation is typically performed with uninterrupted anticoagulation with warfarin or interrupted non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant therapy. Uninterrupted anticoagulation with a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant, such as dabigatran, may be safer; however, controlled data are lacking. We investigated the safety of uninterrupted dabigatran versus warfarin in patients undergoing ablation of atrial fibrillation. Methods In this randomized, open-label, multicenter, controlled trial with blinded adjudicated end-point assessments, we randomly assigned patients scheduled for catheter ablation of paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation to receive either dabigatran (150 mg twice daily) or warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2...
March 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316348/new-skills-new-jobs-return-migration-skill-transfers-and-business-formation-in-mexico
#14
Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Joshua Wassink
Numerous studies have documented a high propensity for self-employment and business formation among return migrants relative to non-migrants. The literature points to the importance of remitted savings, migration duration, and number and types of jobs abroad for business formation upon return. Implicit in this scholarship is the assumption that migrants acquire not only financial capital, but also human capital, which expands their opportunities upon return. Empirical work has demonstrated how the transfer of formal human capital, such as language skills and professional credentials, influences the mobility pathways of professional return migrants...
November 2016: Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316317/direct-two-minute-unassisted-breathing-evaluation-dtube-is-an-attractive-alternative-to-longer-spontaneous-breathing-trials-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Matthew B Bloom, Jonathan Lu, Tri Tran, Marko Bukur, Rex Chung, Eric J Ley, Nicolas Melo, Ali Salim, Daniel R Margulies
We sought to identify a simple bedside method to predict successful extubation outcomes that might be used during rounds. We hypothesized that a direct 2-minute unassisted breathing evaluation (DTUBE) could replace a longer spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Data were prospectively collected on all patients endotracheally intubated for >48 hours nearing extubation in a tertiary center's mixed trauma/surgical intensive care unit from August 2012 to August 2013. The SBT was performed for at least 30 minutes at 40 per cent FiO2, PEEP 5, and PS 8...
March 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#16
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modelling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315952/kinetic-analysis-size-profiling-and-bioenergetic-association-of-dna-released-by-selected-cell-lines-in-vitro
#17
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Dimetrie L Peters, Hayley C Van Dyk, Francois H Van der Westhuizen, Piet J Pretorius
Although circulating DNA (cirDNA) analysis shows great promise as a screening tool for a wide range of pathologies, numerous stumbling blocks hinder the rapid translation of research to clinical practice. This is related directly to the inherent complexity of the in vivo setting, wherein the influence of complex systems of interconnected cellular responses and putative DNA sources creates a seemingly arbitrary representation of the quantitative and qualitative properties of the cirDNA in the blood of any individual...
March 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#18
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315455/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-facilitates-the-action-exercise-to-restore-plasticity-and-functionality-implications-for-early-brain-trauma-recovery
#19
Gokul Krishna, Rahul Agrawal, Yumei Zhuang, Zhe Ying, Afshin Paydar, Neil G Harris, Luiz Fernando F Royes, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Metabolic dysfunction accompanying traumatic brain injury (TBI) severely impairs the ability of injured neurons to comply with functional demands. This limits the success of rehabilitative strategies by compromising brain plasticity and function, and highlights the need for early interventions to promote energy homeostasis. We sought to examine whether the TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) normalizes brain energy deficits and restablishes more normal patterns of functional connectivity, while enhancing the effects of exercise during post-TBI period...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#20
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
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