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Shyr-Shea Chang, Shenyinying Tu, Kyung In Baek, Andrew Pietersen, Yu-Hsiu Liu, Van M Savage, Sheng-Ping L Hwang, Tzung K Hsiai, Marcus Roper
In animals, gas exchange between blood and tissues occurs in narrow vessels, whose diameter is comparable to that of a red blood cell. Red blood cells must deform to squeeze through these narrow vessels, transiently blocking or occluding the vessels they pass through. Although the dynamics of vessel occlusion have been studied extensively, it remains an open question why microvessels need to be so narrow. We study occlusive dynamics within a model microvascular network: the embryonic zebrafish trunk. We show that pressure feedbacks created when red blood cells enter the finest vessels of the trunk act together to uniformly partition red blood cells through the microvasculature...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Daniel P Bliss, Mark D'Esposito
Recent work has established that visual working memory is subject to serial dependence: current information in memory blends with that from the recent past as a function of their similarity. This tuned temporal smoothing likely promotes the stability of memory in the face of noise and occlusion. Serial dependence accumulates over several seconds in memory and deteriorates with increased separation between trials. While this phenomenon has been extensively characterized in behavior, its neural mechanism is unknown...
2017: PloS One
Manuela Tondelli, Fabio Pizza, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Giuseppe Plazzi, Stefano Meletti
Study Objectives: Neuroimaging studies on structural alterations in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) have shown controversial and heterogeneous results. The purpose of this study was to investigate microstructural brain changes in patients with NT1 close to disease onset. Methods: We examined cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes in 20 drug-naïve children and adolescents with NT1 compared with 19 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, shape and volumetric analyses, and cortical thickness analysis were used...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
Antonella Amodio, Mario Quarantelli, Armida Mucci, Anna Prinster, Andrea Soricelli, Annarita Vignapiano, Giulia Maria Giordano, Eleonora Merlotti, Alessia Nicita, Silvana Galderisi
The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
Quorum sensing (QS) is the chemical communication processes between bacteria, which may be inter-genus or intra-genus. In general, several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, competence development, biofilm formation, sporulation, and toxin secretion, are accomplished through QS process. The QS (cell density-dependent process) circuit in Gram-positive bacteria consists mainly of two parts: an inducer molecule and a receptor protein. The binding of inducer molecule to receptor activates the target gene, which then performs the necessary function in bacteria...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Ovid J L Tzeng, Chia Ying Lee, Jun Ren Lee, Denise H Wu, Rose R-W Lee, Daisy L Hung
Using the Chinese writing system, which is unique with respect to the composition of each character in terms of its graphic shape, as an example, this chapter addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of reading and writing and how these brain circuits are used in different languages.
December 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Rosemary Fama, Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Cheshire Hardcastle, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr
Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al...
December 15, 2017: Addiction Biology
Nabila Brihmat, Mohamed Tarri, Yann Quidé, Ketty Anglio, Bernard Pavard, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, David Gasq, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque, Isabelle Loubinoux
Virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms use visual stimuli that can modulate visuo-motor networks leading to the stimulation of brain circuits. The aims of this study were to compare the changes in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal when watching and imitating moving real (RH) and virtual hands (VH) in 11 healthy participants (HP). No differences were found between the observation of RH or VH making this VR-based experiment a promising tool for rehabilitation protocols. VH-imitation involved more the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) as part of the mirror neuron system (MNS) compared to execution and VH-observation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Chun-Li Liu, Jing-Yi Cai, Hao-Ran Bi, Tian-Wei Tan
High-throughput screening is a popular tool for collating biological data which would otherwise require the use of excessive resources. In this study, an artificial genetic circuit sensor responding to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) was constructed based on a modified L-arabinose operon for high-throughput screening and isoprene synthase (ispS) evolution in Escherichia coli (E. coli). As a first step, the DNA sequence of the L-arabinose ligand-binding domain (LBD) was replaced with an ispS gene to enable the AraC operon responding to DMAPP, which is the substrate of the IspS enzyme...
December 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chitra Rajeswari Thangaswamy, Patel Roushan, Lal Pooja, Guru Krishnakumar, Lenin Babu Elakkumanan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Lawrence H Friedman, Wen-Li Wu, Wei-En Fu, Yunsan Chien
Features sizes in integrated circuits (ICs) are often at the scale of 10 nm and are ever shrinking. ICs appearing in today's computers and hand held devices are perhaps the most prominent examples. These smaller feature sizes demand equivalent advances in fast and accurate dimensional metrology for both development and manufacturing. Techniques in use and continuing to be developed include X-ray based techniques, optical scattering and of course the electron and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Each of these techniques have their advantages and limitations...
September 2017: Applied Physics Letters
Ben P Williams, Mary Gehring
Epigenetic states are stably propagated in eukaryotes. In plants, DNA methylation patterns are faithfully inherited over many generations but it is unknown how the dynamic activities of cytosine DNA methyltransferases and 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases interact to maintain epigenetic homeostasis. Here we show that a methylation-sensing gene regulatory circuit centered on a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase gene is required for long-term epigenetic fidelity in Arabidopsis. Disrupting this circuit causes widespread methylation losses and abnormal phenotypes that progressively worsen over generations...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Vladimir Kornijcuk, Hyungkwang Lim, Inho Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Wook-Seong Lee, Jung-Hae Choi, Byung Joon Choi, Doo Seok Jeong
We propose a scalable synaptic circuit realizing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-compatible with randomly spiking neurons. The feasible working of the circuit was examined by circuit simulation using the BSIM 4.6.0 model. A distinguishable feature of the circuit is the use of floating-gate integrators that provide the compact implementation of biologically plausible relaxation time scale. This relaxation occurs on the basis of charge tunneling that mainly relies upon area-independent tunnel barrier properties (e...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Veldhorst, H G J Eenink, C H Yang, A S Dzurak
Recent advances in quantum error correction codes for fault-tolerant quantum computing and physical realizations of high-fidelity qubits in multiple platforms give promise for the construction of a quantum computer based on millions of interacting qubits. However, the classical-quantum interface remains a nascent field of exploration. Here, we propose an architecture for a silicon-based quantum computer processor based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We show how a transistor-based control circuit together with charge-storage electrodes can be used to operate a dense and scalable two-dimensional qubit system...
December 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Jiyang Wang, Shanzhi Wang, Ke Hu, Jun Yang, Xiaoyun Xin, Wenqing Zhou, Jiangbo Fan, Fuhao Cui, Baohui Mou, Shiyong Zhang, Guo-Liang Wang, Wenxian Sun
The calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 has been demonstrated to play important roles in salt and drought tolerance, plant growth and development in rice. However, little is known on molecular mechanisms underlying OsCPK4 function in rice immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the generation of oxidative burst and pathogenesis-related gene expression triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) were significantly enhanced in the oscpk4 mutants. These mutant lines are more resistant to bacterial blight and fungal blast diseases than the wild-type plants, indicating that OsCPK4 negatively regulates innate immunity in rice...
December 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
Judith M Gault, Rachel Davis, Nicola G Cascella, Elyn R Saks, Iluminada Corripio-Collado, William S Anderson, Ann Olincy, John A Thompson, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Akira Sawa, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Nir Lipsman, Aviva Abosch
Based on the success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating movement disorders, there is growing interest in using DBS to treat schizophrenia (SZ). We review the unmet needs of patients with SZ and the scientific rationale behind the DBS targets proposed in the literature in order to guide future development of DBS to treat this vulnerable patient population. SZ remains a devastating disorder despite treatment. Relapse, untreated psychosis, intolerable side effects and the lack of effective treatment for negative and cognitive symptoms contribute to poor outcome...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Hillary L Woodworth, Bethany G Beekly, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Patricia Perez-Bonilla, Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The central mechanism by which neurotensin (Nts) potentiates weight loss has remained elusive. We leveraged chemogenetics to reveal that Nts-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) promote weight loss in mice by increasing volitional activity and restraining food intake. Intriguingly, these dual weight loss behaviors are mediated by distinct signaling pathways: Nts action via NtsR1 is essential for the anorectic effect of the LHA Nts circuit, but not for regulation of locomotor or drinking behavior...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
Shane R Crandall, Saundra L Patrick, Scott J Cruikshank, Barry W Connors
The rodent somatosensory cortex includes well-defined examples of cortical columns-the barrel columns-that extend throughout the cortical depth and are defined by discrete clusters of neurons in layer 4 (L4) called barrels. Using the cell-type-specific Ntsr1-Cre mouse line, we found that L6 contains infrabarrels, readily identifiable units that align with the L4 barrels. Corticothalamic (CT) neurons and their local axons cluster within the infrabarrels, whereas corticocortical (CC) neurons are densest between infrabarrels...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
Tania A Seabrook, Onkar S Dhande, Nao Ishiko, Victoria P Wooley, Phong L Nguyen, Andrew D Huberman
The use of sensory information to drive specific behaviors relies on circuits spanning long distances that wire up through a range of axon-target recognition events. Mechanisms assembling poly-synaptic circuits and the extent to which parallel pathways can "cross-wire" to compensate for loss of one another remain unclear and are crucial to our understanding of brain development and models of regeneration. In the visual system, specific retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to designated midbrain targets connected to downstream circuits driving visuomotor reflexes...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
Tianqi Lai, Liangang Xiao, Ke Deng, Tianxiang Liang, Xuebin Chen, Xiaobin Peng, Yong Cao
Small molecules with elongated backbones are promising for achieving higher photovoltaic performance. Herein, a dimeric porphyrin small molecule ZnP2-DPP consisting of two porphyrin units linked with an ethynylene as the core and two diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) units as the arms is designed and synthesized as an electron donor for solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs). And a significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency of 8.45% with an impressive short-circuit current density (JSC) up to 19.65 mA cm-2 is achieved for the OSCs based on ZnP2-DPP under AM 1...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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