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Retroactive research

Jessica L DiSante, Angela Macci Bires, Thomas W Cline, Kristen Waterstram-Rich
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. The World Bank and the World Health Organization predict that depression and coronary heart disease will be the largest causes of global health burden and disability by the year 2020. Studies have demonstrated that patients with CAD experience depression at a higher rate than the general population. Because of this connection, it is critical to recognize depression and manage depression effectively for people with CAD. Studies have also provided evidence that identifying and treating depression in patients early after a myocardial infarction improve clinical outcomes...
April 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Pia Kontos, Shabbir M H Alibhai, Karen-Lee Miller, Dina Brooks, Romeo Colobong, Trisha Parsons, Sarbjit Vanita Jassal, Alison Thomas, Malcolm Binns, Gary Naglie
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We developed a research-based film, Fit for Dialysis, designed to introduce, motivate, and sustain exercise for wellness amongst older hemodialysis patients, and exercise counseling and support by nephrologists, nurses, and family caregivers. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether and in what ways Fit for Dialysis improves outcomes and influences knowledge/attitudes regarding the importance of exercise for wellness in the context of end-stage renal disease...
January 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Ronald J Prinz
Critical issues about scientific reproducibility have been raised about biomedical research, including the reliability of data and analyses within a given study. The case example in this article examined a reproducibility issue pertaining to the use of administrative data systems for evaluation of child maltreatment (CM) prevention, making use of a prevention study conducted over a decade ago that provided a unique opportunity. The place-randomization study, which randomized counties to condition, found that community-wide implementation of a parenting and family support intervention produced positive impact on county-wide rates for substantiated CM cases and out-of-home placements, documented through a state information system...
December 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Adam L Putnam, Victor W Sungkhasettee, Henry L Roediger
In two experiments, we explored the effects of noticing and remembering change in the misinformation paradigm. People watched slide shows, read narratives containing misinformation about the events depicted in the slide shows, and took a recognition test on which they reported whether any details had changed between the slides and the narratives. As expected, we found a strong misinformation effect overall. In some cases, however, misinformation led to improved recognition, which is opposite the usual finding...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
Eric C Prichard, Stephen D Christman
Past research using handedness as a proxy for functional access to the right hemisphere demonstrates that individuals who are mixed/inconsistently handed outperform strong/consistently handed individuals when performing episodic recall tasks. However, research has generally been restricted to stimuli presented in a list format. In the present paper, we present two studies in which participants were presented with paragraph-level material and then asked to recall material from the passages. The first study was based on a classic study looking at retroactive interference with prose materials...
November 21, 2016: Memory
K Nakamura, C J Brainerd
It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words...
October 25, 2016: Memory
Handan Can, Elvin Doğutepe, Nakşidil Torun Yazıhan, Hamdi Korkman, Emel Erdoğan Bakar
OBJECTIVE: Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in neuropsychology literature to comprehensively assess the memory. The test measures verbal learning as immediate and delayed free recall, recognition, and retroactive and proactive interference. Adaptation of AVLT to the Turkish society has been completed, whereas research and development studies are still underway. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the construct validity of the test in order to contribute to the research and development process...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Velma L Payne, Sylvia J Hysong
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior...
July 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Maria T Greig, Russell M Bauer, Marian Rosado, Dawn Bowers, Meredith Wicklund, Elizabeth Crocco, Michael Pontecorvo, Abhinay D Joshi, Rosemarie Rodriguez, Warren W Barker, Jacqueline Hidalgo, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of a novel "cognitive stress test" to detect subtle cognitive impairments and amyloid load within the brains of neuropsychologically normal community-dwelling elders. METHODS: Participants diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN), subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and preclinical mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI) were administered the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test of proactive semantic interference (PSI), retroactive semantic interference, and, uniquely, the ability to recover from the effects of PSI...
October 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jamie R Yoder, Jesse Hansen, Donna Ruch, Ashleigh Hodge
Youth with sexually problematic behaviors are impacted by the reciprocal interplay between individual characteristics and the key social and ecological systems in which they are embedded. The paucity of research on protective factors mitigating risks within various socioecological systems is of concern, as the school is one such system that has been overlooked. This study retroactively investigated probation files among youth who were adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 85) to determine how school-level variables are associated with treatment completion...
April 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Marijke De Couck, Raphaël Maréchal, Sofie Moorthamers, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Yori Gidron
Recent research findings suggest neuro-modulation of tumors. Finding new modifiable prognostic factors paves the way for additional treatments, which is crucial in advanced cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer. This study examined the relationship between vagal nerve activity, indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), and overall survival (OS) in patients (N=272) with advanced pancreatic cancer. A "historical prospective" design was employed, where vagal activity and other confounders were retroactively obtained from medical charts at diagnosis, and subsequent OS was examined...
February 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Henning Schöttke, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on post-stroke affective disorders has been mainly focusing on post-stroke depression (PSD). In contrast, research on post-stroke anxiety (PSA) is in its early stages. The present study proposes a broad picture on post-stroke affective disorders, including PSD and PSA in German stroke in-patients during rehabilitation. In addition, we investigated whether lifetime affective disorders predict the emergence of PSD and PSA. METHODS: 289 stroke patients were assessed in the early weeks following stroke for a range of mood and anxiety disorders by means of the Structured Clinical Interview relying on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV...
November 2015: International Psychogeriatrics
Patricia Reid Ponte, Patrice K Nicholas
PURPOSE: This article examines the evolution of Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS or DNSc) and Doctor of Science in Nursing (DSN) degrees, including their emergence as research-intensive doctoral degrees in the 1960s, efforts to distinguish the degrees from the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees, the recent decline in program numbers, and implications for degree holders. APPROACH: The article reviews the U.S. history of doctoral education in nursing, research examining similarities and differences between the PhD and DNS, DNSc, or DSN degrees, and how the DNS, DNSc, or DSN degree differs from DNP programs...
July 2015: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Jacob A Berry, Isaac Cervantes-Sandoval, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
Early studies from psychology suggest that sleep facilitates memory retention by stopping ongoing retroactive interference caused by mental activity or external sensory stimuli. Neuroscience research with animal models, on the other hand, suggests that sleep facilitates retention by enhancing memory consolidation. Recently, in Drosophila, the ongoing activity of specific dopamine neurons was shown to regulate the forgetting of olfactory memories. Here, we show this ongoing dopaminergic activity is modulated with behavioral state, increasing robustly with locomotor activity and decreasing with rest...
June 18, 2015: Cell
Kevin P Darby, Vladimir M Sloutsky
Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a 3-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David A Soltysik, David Thomasson, Sunder Rajan, Nadia Biassou
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Christian C Joyal, Laurence Jacob, Marie-Hélène Cigna, Jean-Pierre Guay, Patrice Renaud
BACKGROUND: Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open-up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human-Computer retroactions between physiological measures and the virtual agent. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to initially assess concomitants and construct validity of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust)...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Okeefe L Simmons, Jochen Kressler, Mark S Nash
OBJECTIVE: Establish reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness applicable to the general, untrained spinal cord injury (SCI) population. DESIGN: Data were retroactively obtained from 12 studies (May 2004 to May 2012). SETTING: An institution-affiliated applied physiology research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 men and 26 women (age, 18-55y) with chronic SCI (N=179) were included. Participants were not involved in training activities for 1 or more months before testing and were able to complete a progressive resistance exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (Vo2peak)...
December 2014: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
J Guerrero, J W McCall, C Genchi, C Bazzocchi, L Kramer, F Simòn, M Martarino
This compilation of articles consists of four papers presented at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) (held in New Orleans, LA, USA, on 10–14 August 2003) in a symposium session titled “ Recent Advances in Heartworm Disease,” organized and chaired by JohnW. McCall and Jorge Guerrero. The first paper(Guerrero) covered the American Heartworm Society’s most recent revision of their guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in dogs, based on new research and clinical experience, particularly in the areas of heartworm chemoprophylaxis, adulticide therapy,and serologic testing and retesting...
October 28, 2004: Veterinary Parasitology
Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Flurin Babst, Stefan Klesse, Magdalena Nötzli, Olivier Bouriaud, Raphael Neukom, Matthias Dobbertin, David Frank
Tree-rings offer one of the few possibilities to empirically quantify and reconstruct forest growth dynamics over years to millennia. Contemporaneously with the growing scientific community employing tree-ring parameters, recent research has suggested that commonly applied sampling designs (i.e. how and which trees are selected for dendrochronological sampling) may introduce considerable biases in quantifications of forest responses to environmental change. To date, a systematic assessment of the consequences of sampling design on dendroecological and-climatological conclusions has not yet been performed...
September 2014: Global Change Biology
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