Read by QxMD icon Read

Retroactive research

K Nakamura, C J Brainerd
It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words...
October 25, 2016: Memory
Handan Can, Elvin Doğutepe, Nakşidil Torun Yazıhan, Hamdi Korkman, Emel Erdoğan Bakar
OBJECTIVE: Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in neuropsychology literature to comprehensively assess the memory. The test measures verbal learning as immediate and delayed free recall, recognition, and retroactive and proactive interference. Adaptation of AVLT to the Turkish society has been completed, whereas research and development studies are still underway. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the construct validity of the test in order to contribute to the research and development process...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Velma L Payne, Sylvia J Hysong
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Maria T Greig, Russell M Bauer, Marian Rosado, Dawn Bowers, Meredith Wicklund, Elizabeth Crocco, Michael Pontecorvo, Abhinay D Joshi, Rosemarie Rodriguez, Warren W Barker, Jacqueline Hidalgo, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of a novel "cognitive stress test" to detect subtle cognitive impairments and amyloid load within the brains of neuropsychologically normal community-dwelling elders. METHODS: Participants diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN), subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and preclinical mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI) were administered the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test of proactive semantic interference (PSI), retroactive semantic interference, and, uniquely, the ability to recover from the effects of PSI...
October 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jamie R Yoder, Jesse Hansen, Donna Ruch, Ashleigh Hodge
Youth with sexually problematic behaviors are impacted by the reciprocal interplay between individual characteristics and the key social and ecological systems in which they are embedded. The paucity of research on protective factors mitigating risks within various socioecological systems is of concern, as the school is one such system that has been overlooked. This study retroactively investigated probation files among youth who were adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 85) to determine how school-level variables are associated with treatment completion...
April 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Marijke De Couck, Raphaël Maréchal, Sofie Moorthamers, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Yori Gidron
Recent research findings suggest neuro-modulation of tumors. Finding new modifiable prognostic factors paves the way for additional treatments, which is crucial in advanced cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer. This study examined the relationship between vagal nerve activity, indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), and overall survival (OS) in patients (N=272) with advanced pancreatic cancer. A "historical prospective" design was employed, where vagal activity and other confounders were retroactively obtained from medical charts at diagnosis, and subsequent OS was examined...
February 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Henning Schöttke, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on post-stroke affective disorders has been mainly focusing on post-stroke depression (PSD). In contrast, research on post-stroke anxiety (PSA) is in its early stages. The present study proposes a broad picture on post-stroke affective disorders, including PSD and PSA in German stroke in-patients during rehabilitation. In addition, we investigated whether lifetime affective disorders predict the emergence of PSD and PSA. METHODS: 289 stroke patients were assessed in the early weeks following stroke for a range of mood and anxiety disorders by means of the Structured Clinical Interview relying on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV...
November 2015: International Psychogeriatrics
Patricia Reid Ponte, Patrice K Nicholas
PURPOSE: This article examines the evolution of Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS or DNSc) and Doctor of Science in Nursing (DSN) degrees, including their emergence as research-intensive doctoral degrees in the 1960s, efforts to distinguish the degrees from the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees, the recent decline in program numbers, and implications for degree holders. APPROACH: The article reviews the U.S. history of doctoral education in nursing, research examining similarities and differences between the PhD and DNS, DNSc, or DSN degrees, and how the DNS, DNSc, or DSN degree differs from DNP programs...
July 2015: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Jacob A Berry, Isaac Cervantes-Sandoval, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
Early studies from psychology suggest that sleep facilitates memory retention by stopping ongoing retroactive interference caused by mental activity or external sensory stimuli. Neuroscience research with animal models, on the other hand, suggests that sleep facilitates retention by enhancing memory consolidation. Recently, in Drosophila, the ongoing activity of specific dopamine neurons was shown to regulate the forgetting of olfactory memories. Here, we show this ongoing dopaminergic activity is modulated with behavioral state, increasing robustly with locomotor activity and decreasing with rest...
June 18, 2015: Cell
Kevin P Darby, Vladimir M Sloutsky
Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a 3-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
David A Soltysik, David Thomasson, Sunder Rajan, Nadia Biassou
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Christian C Joyal, Laurence Jacob, Marie-Hélène Cigna, Jean-Pierre Guay, Patrice Renaud
BACKGROUND: Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open-up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human-Computer retroactions between physiological measures and the virtual agent. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to initially assess concomitants and construct validity of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust)...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Okeefe L Simmons, Jochen Kressler, Mark S Nash
OBJECTIVE: Establish reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness applicable to the general, untrained spinal cord injury (SCI) population. DESIGN: Data were retroactively obtained from 12 studies (May 2004 to May 2012). SETTING: An institution-affiliated applied physiology research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 men and 26 women (age, 18-55y) with chronic SCI (N=179) were included. Participants were not involved in training activities for 1 or more months before testing and were able to complete a progressive resistance exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (Vo2peak)...
December 2014: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
J Guerrero, J W McCall, C Genchi, C Bazzocchi, L Kramer, F Simòn, M Martarino
This compilation of articles consists of four papers presented at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) (held in New Orleans, LA, USA, on 10–14 August 2003) in a symposium session titled “ Recent Advances in Heartworm Disease,” organized and chaired by JohnW. McCall and Jorge Guerrero. The first paper(Guerrero) covered the American Heartworm Society’s most recent revision of their guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of heartworm infection in dogs, based on new research and clinical experience, particularly in the areas of heartworm chemoprophylaxis, adulticide therapy,and serologic testing and retesting...
October 28, 2004: Veterinary Parasitology
Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Flurin Babst, Stefan Klesse, Magdalena Nötzli, Olivier Bouriaud, Raphael Neukom, Matthias Dobbertin, David Frank
Tree-rings offer one of the few possibilities to empirically quantify and reconstruct forest growth dynamics over years to millennia. Contemporaneously with the growing scientific community employing tree-ring parameters, recent research has suggested that commonly applied sampling designs (i.e. how and which trees are selected for dendrochronological sampling) may introduce considerable biases in quantifications of forest responses to environmental change. To date, a systematic assessment of the consequences of sampling design on dendroecological and-climatological conclusions has not yet been performed...
September 2014: Global Change Biology
B R Williams, S K Sullivan, L F Morra, J R Williams, P J Donovick
Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults...
2014: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Amanda Calder, K Geoffrey White
Wixted (Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 235 – 269, 2004) has argued that forgetting is due to consolidation failure. Previous research with humans and nonhuman animals has reported evidence for consolidation in intermediate or long-term memory (LTM). The present study examines whether consolidation occurs in short-term memory in pigeons. Delayed matching-to-sample accuracy was reduced when retroactive interference (an extraneous task in Experiment 1 or houselight illumination in Experiment 2) was interpolated in the retention interval...
March 2014: Learning & Behavior
K H Bäuml
Prior research has generally shown that the greater the degree of original learning of a list, the greater the amount of retroactive interference that list suffers. In addition, greater learning of interpolated lists produces more retroactive interference. However, in prior research, the degree of learning has typically been confounded with the amount of retrieval practice on the list. Two free-recall experiments are reported in which subjects studied one original list and then 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 interpolated lists...
September 1996: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
R S Hutton, J L Stevens, F Stevens
In view of reported effects of strenuous and exhaustive exercise on CNS activity, it was hypothesized that "fatiguing" exercise may influence learning retroactively as predicted by consolidation theory. Prelimary findings from two animal experiments are reported followed by a discussion of implications for future research.
December 1972: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kai-Wen Deng, Fu-Yuan He
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status of reaching meridian research for the Chinese Matria Medica and to raise point-medicine method. METHOD: To review and analyze the studied situation of the corresponding relationships between "materials", as the constituents in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) as reaching meridian material foundation, and "image", as the function states of the zang-fu viscera, to investigate the problems and the measures to solve it. RESULT: There are imprinting relationships among "materials", as the constituents alike metabolic pathway in the CMM as reaching meridian material foundation, and "image", as the function of the zang-fu viscera related with meridians, and "symptom", the states of them, retroacted, represented and explored by the corresponding meridianed constituents in the CMM as quantitative pharmacologic parameters,also modified by special acupuncture points, finally to establish the new method of reaching meridian according to meridian point-medicine action and also to investigate the relations between the constituents in the CMM and network targets of disease as to kill two birds with one arrow...
May 2013: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"