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Retroactive research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540164/methodological-and-clinical-implications-of-a-three-in-one-russian-doll-design-for-tracking-health-trajectories-and-improving-health-and-function-through-innovative-exercise-treatments-in-adults-with-disability
#1
James H Rimmer, Cassandra Herman, Brooks Wingo, Kevin Fontaine, Tapan Mehta
BACKGROUND: Hybrid research designs targeting adults with neurologic disability are critical for improving the efficiency of models that can identify, track and intervene on identified health issues. METHODS: Our Russian doll framework encompasses three study phases. Phase 1 involves prospectively following a cohort of participants with disability to examine the relationships between rates of health and functional deficits (e.g., pain, fatigue, deconditioning), functional measures (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157416/the-temporal-dynamics-involved-in-object-representation-updating-to-predict-change
#2
Naomi du Bois, Mark A Elliott
The synchronization of cortically disparate neural assemblies at frequencies in the gamma-band range (30-70Hz) is considered to be involved in the perceptual organization of the environment. In support of this Elliott (2014) demonstrated improved detection of a target stimulus when this target was primed in a matrix that flickered at specific frequencies in the gamma-band range, each found to be separated by regular intervals which correspond with a 6.69Hz period. This can be explained in terms of the interaction of the stimulus (and stimulus-induced) rhythm with a slow endogenous theta rhythm...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083221/testing-positive-for-a-genetic-predisposition-to-depression-magnifies-retrospective-memory-for-depressive-symptoms
#3
Matthew S Lebowitz, Woo-Kyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Depression, like other mental disorders and health conditions generally, is increasingly construed as genetically based. This research sought to determine whether merely telling people that they have a genetic predisposition to depression can cause them to retroactively remember having experienced it. METHOD: U.S. adults (men and women) were recruited online to participate (Experiment 1: N = 288; Experiment 2: N = 599). After conducting a test disguised as genetic screening, we randomly assigned some participants to be told that they carried elevated genetic susceptibility to depression, whereas others were told that they did not carry this genetic liability or were told that they carried elevated susceptibility to a different disorder...
November 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937800/when-is-neuropsychological-testing-medically-necessary-for-children-on-medicaid-in-new-mexico
#4
Noah K Kaufman, Carola Mullins, Andrew S Davis, Silvina Tonarelli, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran
Healthcare for poor children, also known as Medicaid, is disproportionately relied upon by citizens of poor states such as New Mexico, where (a) there are more unintended pregnancies, (b) domestic violence during and after pregnancies occurs with regularity, (c) youth substance use is much more common, (d) crime rates are some of the worst in the country, (e) many never graduate from high school, and (f) incarceration is often inevitable. Yet, there is a dearth of research into the neuropsychological health of these children...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651642/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-acupuncture-at-the-si-guan-xue-for-cancer-pain
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
To-Yi Lam, Li-Ming Lu, Wai-Man Ling, Li-Zhu Lin
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom in cancer patients. Acupuncture is a suggested treatment for a wide range of clinical conditions, usually for its beneficial effects on pain control. Si guan xue (the four points) have been widely used in clinical practice, and has shown that it is highly effective, effective in obtaining qi, shows strong acupuncture stimulation, and is simple to manipulate and safe to use. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the protocol and safety of acupuncture at the si guan xue in the management of cancer pain...
June 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516420/event-models-and-the-fan-effect
#6
G A Radvansky, Andrea E O'Rear, Jerry S Fisher
The current study explored the persistence of event model organizations and how this influences the experience of interference during retrieval. People in this study memorized lists of sentences about objects in locations, such as "The potted palm is in the hotel." Previous work has shown that such information can either be stored in separate event models, thereby producing retrieval interference, or integrated into common event models, thereby eliminating retrieval interference. Unlike prior studies, the current work explored the impact of forgetting up to 2 weeks later on this pattern of performance...
August 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499115/a-comparison-of-long-vs-short-term-recall-of-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behaviors
#7
Tim Janssen, Jordan M Braciszewski, Adam Vose-O'Neal, Robert L Stout
OBJECTIVE: The Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) questionnaire has become a pre-eminent tool in substance use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk research, allowing researchers to assess fine-grained changes in risk behavior over long periods. However, data on accuracy of recall over long (12-month) periods are sparse, especially combined data on HIV risk and substance use from post-treatment samples. Studies on the development of substance use and HIV risk stand to benefit from data on the accurate recall of such behavior over longer retroactive spans of time...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240695/an-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-depression-post-myocardial-infarction
#8
Jessica L DiSante, Angela Macci Bires, Thomas W Cline, Kristen Waterstram-Rich
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. The World Bank and the World Health Organization predict that depression and coronary heart disease will be the largest causes of global health burden and disability by the year 2020. Studies have demonstrated that patients with CAD experience depression at a higher rate than the general population. Because of this connection, it is critical to recognize depression and manage depression effectively for people with CAD. Studies have also provided evidence that identifying and treating depression in patients early after a myocardial infarction improve clinical outcomes...
April 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122510/a-prospective-2-site-parallel-intervention-trial-of-a-research-based-film-to-increase-exercise-amongst-older-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Pia Kontos, Shabbir M H Alibhai, Karen-Lee Miller, Dina Brooks, Romeo Colobong, Trisha Parsons, Sarbjit Vanita Jassal, Alison Thomas, Malcolm Binns, Gary Naglie
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We developed a research-based film, Fit for Dialysis, designed to introduce, motivate, and sustain exercise for wellness amongst older hemodialysis patients, and exercise counseling and support by nephrologists, nurses, and family caregivers. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether and in what ways Fit for Dialysis improves outcomes and influences knowledge/attitudes regarding the importance of exercise for wellness in the context of end-stage renal disease...
January 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992829/assessing-child-maltreatment-prevention-via-administrative-data-systems-a-case-example-of-reproducibility
#10
Ronald J Prinz
Critical issues about scientific reproducibility have been raised about biomedical research, including the reliability of data and analyses within a given study. The case example in this article examined a reproducibility issue pertaining to the use of administrative data systems for evaluation of child maltreatment (CM) prevention, making use of a prevention study conducted over a decade ago that provided a unique opportunity. The place-randomization study, which randomized counties to condition, found that community-wide implementation of a parenting and family support intervention produced positive impact on county-wide rates for substantiated CM cases and out-of-home placements, documented through a state information system...
December 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879321/when-misinformation-improves-memory
#11
Adam L Putnam, Victor W Sungkhasettee, Henry L Roediger
In two experiments, we explored the effects of noticing and remembering change in the misinformation paradigm. People watched slide shows, read narratives containing misinformation about the events depicted in the slide shows, and took a recognition test on which they reported whether any details had changed between the slides and the narratives. As expected, we found a strong misinformation effect overall. In some cases, however, misinformation led to improved recognition, which is opposite the usual finding...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868481/inconsistent-handed-advantage-in-episodic-memory-extends-to-paragraph-level-materials
#12
Eric C Prichard, Stephen D Christman
Past research using handedness as a proxy for functional access to the right hemisphere demonstrates that individuals who are mixed/inconsistently handed outperform strong/consistently handed individuals when performing episodic recall tasks. However, research has generally been restricted to stimuli presented in a list format. In the present paper, we present two studies in which participants were presented with paragraph-level material and then asked to recall material from the passages. The first study was based on a classic study looking at retroactive interference with prose materials...
November 21, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778754/disjunction-and-conjunction-fallacies-in-episodic-memory
#13
K Nakamura, C J Brainerd
It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words...
October 25, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711940/construct-validity-of-auditory-verbal-learning-test
#14
Handan Can, Elvin Doğutepe, Nakşidil Torun Yazıhan, Hamdi Korkman, Emel Erdoğan Bakar
OBJECTIVE: Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in neuropsychology literature to comprehensively assess the memory. The test measures verbal learning as immediate and delayed free recall, recognition, and retroactive and proactive interference. Adaptation of AVLT to the Turkish society has been completed, whereas research and development studies are still underway. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the construct validity of the test in order to contribute to the research and development process...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412170/model-depicting-aspects-of-audit-and-feedback-that-impact-physicians-acceptance-of-clinical-performance-feedback
#15
Velma L Payne, Sylvia J Hysong
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior...
July 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160985/a-novel-cognitive-stress-test-for-the-detection-of-preclinical-alzheimer-disease-discriminative-properties-and-relation-to-amyloid-load
#16
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Maria T Greig, Russell M Bauer, Marian Rosado, Dawn Bowers, Meredith Wicklund, Elizabeth Crocco, Michael Pontecorvo, Abhinay D Joshi, Rosemarie Rodriguez, Warren W Barker, Jacqueline Hidalgo, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of a novel "cognitive stress test" to detect subtle cognitive impairments and amyloid load within the brains of neuropsychologically normal community-dwelling elders. METHODS: Participants diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN), subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and preclinical mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI) were administered the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test of proactive semantic interference (PSI), retroactive semantic interference, and, uniquely, the ability to recover from the effects of PSI...
October 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135384/effects-of-school-based-risk-and-protective-factors-on-treatment-success-among-youth-adjudicated-of-a-sexual-crime
#17
Jamie R Yoder, Jesse Hansen, Donna Ruch, Ashleigh Hodge
Youth with sexually problematic behaviors are impacted by the reciprocal interplay between individual characteristics and the key social and ecological systems in which they are embedded. The paucity of research on protective factors mitigating risks within various socioecological systems is of concern, as the school is one such system that has been overlooked. This study retroactively investigated probation files among youth who were adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 85) to determine how school-level variables are associated with treatment completion...
April 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618335/vagal-nerve-activity-predicts-overall-survival-in-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-mediated-by-inflammation
#18
Marijke De Couck, Raphaël Maréchal, Sofie Moorthamers, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Yori Gidron
Recent research findings suggest neuro-modulation of tumors. Finding new modifiable prognostic factors paves the way for additional treatments, which is crucial in advanced cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer. This study examined the relationship between vagal nerve activity, indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), and overall survival (OS) in patients (N=272) with advanced pancreatic cancer. A "historical prospective" design was employed, where vagal activity and other confounders were retroactively obtained from medical charts at diagnosis, and subsequent OS was examined...
February 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26178418/post-stroke-depression-and-post-stroke-anxiety-prevalence-and-predictors
#19
Henning Schöttke, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on post-stroke affective disorders has been mainly focusing on post-stroke depression (PSD). In contrast, research on post-stroke anxiety (PSA) is in its early stages. The present study proposes a broad picture on post-stroke affective disorders, including PSD and PSA in German stroke in-patients during rehabilitation. In addition, we investigated whether lifetime affective disorders predict the emergence of PSD and PSA. METHODS: 289 stroke patients were assessed in the early weeks following stroke for a range of mood and anxiety disorders by means of the Structured Clinical Interview relying on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV...
November 2015: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26078101/addressing-the-confusion-related-to-dns-dnsc-and-dsn-degrees-with-lessons-for-the-nursing-profession
#20
Patricia Reid Ponte, Patrice K Nicholas
PURPOSE: This article examines the evolution of Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS or DNSc) and Doctor of Science in Nursing (DSN) degrees, including their emergence as research-intensive doctoral degrees in the 1960s, efforts to distinguish the degrees from the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees, the recent decline in program numbers, and implications for degree holders. APPROACH: The article reviews the U.S. history of doctoral education in nursing, research examining similarities and differences between the PhD and DNS, DNSc, or DSN degrees, and how the DNS, DNSc, or DSN degree differs from DNP programs...
July 2015: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
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