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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905004/ocular-disposition-of-%C3%A2-8-tetrahydrocannabinol-from-various-topical-ophthalmic-formulations
#1
Nagendra S Punyamurthula, Goutham R Adelli, Waseem Gul, Michael A Repka, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Soumyajit Majumdar
The purposes of this project are to enhance the trans-membrane penetration of Δ(8)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(8)-THC) and to study the effect of various lipid based systems in delivering the compound, non-invasively, to anterior and posterior ocular chambers. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), fast gelling films were manufactured using high pressure homogenization and melt cast techniques, respectively. The formulations were characterized for drug content, entrapment efficiency, particle size and subsequently evaluated in vitro for trans-corneal permeation...
November 30, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904075/in-vitro-permeation-and-skin-retention-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-proniosome
#2
Gan Siaw Chin, Hiroaki Todo, Wesam Radhi Kadhum, Mariani Abdul Hamid, Kenji Sugibayashi
The current investigation evaluated the potential of proniosome as a carrier to enhance skin permeation and skin retention of a highly lipophilic compound, α-mangostin. α-Mangostin proniosomes were prepared using the coacervation phase seperation method. Upon hydration, α-mangostin loaded niosomes were characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and ζ-potential. The in vitro permeation experiments with dermis-split Yucatan Micropig (YMP) skin revealed that proniosomes composed of Spans, soya lecithin and cholesterol were able to enhance the skin permeation of α-mangostin with a factor range from 1...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900658/fixed-combination-gels-of-adapalene-and-benzoyl-peroxide-provide-optimal-percutaneous-absorption-compared-to-monad-formulations-of-these-compounds-results-from-two-in-vitro-studies
#3
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Karine Sevin, Alexandre Gaborit, Nathalie Wagner, Michel Poncet
INTRODUCTION: Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% (0.1% A/BPO) and adapalene 0.3%/BPO 2.5% (0.3% A/BPO) gels are fixed-combination options for the topical treatment of acne. However, the active compounds of these combinations are also available as monads, to be used in association or as monotherapy. These two in vitro studies determined the effect of different treatment regimens on the percutaneous absorption of adapalene (0.1% and 0.3%) gels and BPO 2.5% gel in ex vivo human skin. METHODS: In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were conducted using full-thickness human skin from six donors...
November 30, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900410/-%C3%AE-bisabolol-reduces-orofacial-nociceptive-behavior-in-rodents
#4
Luana Torres Melo, Mariana Araújo Braz Duailibe, Luciana Moura Pessoa, Flávio Nogueira da Costa, Antonio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Ana Paula de Vasconcellos Abdon, Adriana Rolim Campos
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effect of oral and topical administration of (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA) in rodent models of formalin- or cinnamaldehyde-induced orofacial pain and to explore the inhibitory mechanisms involved. Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 1.5% formalin into the upper lip of mice (20 μL) or into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats (50 μL). In another experiment, orofacial pain was induced with cinnamaldehyde (13.2 μg/lip). Nociceptive behavior was proxied by time (s) spent rubbing the injected area and by the incidence of head flinching...
November 29, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899298/mechanisms-and-time-course-of-menthol-induced-cutaneous-vasodilation
#5
Daniel H Craighead, Nathaniel B McCartney, James H Tumlinson, Lacy M Alexander
Menthol is a vasoactive compound that is widely used in topical analgesic agents. Menthol induces cutaneous vasodilation, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Determining the rates of appearance and clearance of menthol in the skin is important for optimizing topical treatment formulation and dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms contributing to menthol-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and to establish a time course for menthol appearance/clearance in the skin. Ten young (23±1years, 5 males 5 females) subjects participated in two protocols...
November 26, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897120/dropless-cataract-surgery-an-overview
#6
Richard L Lindstrom, M Stewart Galloway, Andrzej Grzybowski, Jeffrey T Liegner
Risk reduction and the attainment of good outcomes in contemporary cataract surgery depend in part on patient compliance with a postoperative regimen of topical eye drops. Topical drops are expensive and challenging to instill properly for patients. The consequences of noncompliance or poor compliance can be significant for the patient (in the case of a complication) and for society (in the case of development of antibiotic resistance). For all of these reasons, new approaches that reduce the need for topical therapy are beginning to emerge, including intracameral injection, sustained or slow-release drug delivery mechanisms, and the recently introduced "Dropless cataract surgery," which involves intravitreal injection of single-use, compounded combination of antibiotics and corticosteroids...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#7
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875502/sniffing-out-paediatric-gastrointestinal-diseases-the-potential-of-volatile-organic-compounds-as-biomarkers-for-disease
#8
Martin Buijck, Daniel J C Berkhout, Evelien F J de Groot, Marc A Benninga, Marc P C van der Schee, Corneille Marie Frank Kneepkens, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
The diagnostic work-up and follow-up of paediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders and organic conditions usually includes invasive tests, carrying a high burden on patients. There is a place, therefore, for novel, noninvasive disease-specific biomarkers. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), originating from (patho)physiological metabolic processes in the human body, are excreted as waste products through all conceivable bodily excrements. The spectrum of VOCs harbours a magnificent source of information, with the potential to serve as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers and to monitor disease activity...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873251/mass-sensitive-biosensor-systems-to-determine-the-membrane-interaction-of-analytes
#9
Sebastian G Hoß, Gerd Bendas
Biosensors are devices that transform a biological interaction into a readout signal, which is evaluable for analytical purposes. The general strength of biosensor approaches is the avoidance of time-consuming and cost-intensive labeling procedures of the analytes. In this chapter, we give insight into a mass-sensitive surface-acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, which represents an elegant and highly sensitive method to investigate binding events at a molecular level. The principle of SAW technology is based on the piezoelectric properties of the sensors, so as to binding events and their accompanied mass increase at the sensor surface are detectable by a change in the oscillation of the surface acoustic wave...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870138/promise-of-combining-antifungal-agents-in-denture-adhesives-to-fight-candida-species-infections
#10
Jorge L Garaicoa, Carol L Fischer, Amber M Bates, Julie Holloway, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz, Janet M Guthmiller, Georgia K Johnson, Clark Stanford, Kim A Brogden
PURPOSE: Several complications may arise in patients wearing complete prosthetic appliances, including denture-associated infections and mucosal stomatitis due to Candida species. This study evaluated the activity of anti-Candida agents in denture adhesive and the cytotoxicities of these preparations for primary human gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-Candida activities of antimicrobial peptides, antimicrobial lipids, and antifungal agents against C...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868472/topical-and-systemic-antifungals-in-dermatology-practice
#11
Murat Durdu, Macit Ilkit, Yalda Tamadon, Ali Tolooe, Haleh Rafati, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Dermatophytosis is generally defined as an infection of the hair, nails, or glabrous skin. These infections are caused by the keratinophilic fungi Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epidermophyton, which have been recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Although dermatophytosis is generally not a life-threatening condition, these types of infections are among the most common infections worldwide, and their incidence has continued to increase consistently in recent years. Area covered: This article provides an overview of the general characteristics of dermatophytes, including their taxonomy and epidemiology, as well as the different clinical forms and laboratory diagnostics of dermatophytosis...
November 19, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865989/drug-delivery-across-intact-and-disrupted-skin-barrier-identification-of-cell-populations-interacting-with-penetrated-thermoresponsive-nanogels
#12
F Rancan, M Giulbudagian, J Jurisch, U Blume-Peytavi, M Calderón, A Vogt
Nanoscaled soft particles, such as nanogels, can be designed to incorporate different types of compounds and release them in a controlled and triggered manner. Thermoresponsive nanogels (tNG), releasing their cargo above a defined temperature, are promising carrier systems for inflammatory skin diseases, where the temperature of diseased skin differs from that of healthy skin areas. In this study a polyglycerol-based tNG with diameter of 156 nm was investigated for penetration and release properties upon topical application on ex vivo human skin with intact or disrupted barrier...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862339/novel-trpm8-agonist-cooling-compound-against-chronic-itch-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-pilot-study-in-dry-skin
#13
S Ständer, M Augustin, D Roggenkamp, C Blome, T Heitkemper, A C Worthmann, G Neufang
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic pruritus (CP) due to dry skin with are often applying emollients containing menthol. However, topical menthol may be irritating and of weak potency in severe pruritus. Two TRPM8 agonists, (1R,2S,5R)-N-(2-(2-pyridinyl)ethyl)-2-ispropyl-5-methylcyclohexancarboxamide and menthoxypropan-ediol, combined as Cooling Compound (CC) have shown stronger activation of TRPM8 than menthol. OBJECTIVES: Objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CC in alleviating pruritus in patients with dry itchy skin...
November 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854332/fractional-co%C3%A2-laser-pretreatment-facilitates-transdermal-delivery-of-two-vitamin-c-derivatives
#14
Chien-Yu Hsiao, Hsin-Ching Sung, Sindy Hu, Yau-Li Huang, Chun-Hsun Huang
BACKGROUND: Topical vitamin C derivatives have been used to treat melasma and used as a skin whitener. The aim of this study was to compare skin histology and permeation of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt (MAP-1) and magnesium l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (MAP-2) after fractional CO₂ laser pretreatment. METHODS: The effect of fractional laser treatment on porcine skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning electron microscopy...
November 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849039/an-insecticide-resistance-breaking-mosquitocide-targeting-inward-rectifier-potassium-channels-in-vectors-of-zika-virus-and-malaria
#15
Daniel R Swale, Darren W Engers, Sean R Bollinger, Aaron Gross, Edna Alfaro Inocente, Emily Days, Fariba Kanga, Reed M Johnson, Liu Yang, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Corey R Hopkins, Peter M Piermarini, Jerod S Denton
Insecticide resistance is a growing threat to mosquito control programs around the world, thus creating the need to discover novel target sites and target-specific compounds for insecticide development. Emerging evidence suggests that mosquito inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels represent viable molecular targets for developing insecticides with new mechanisms of action. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of VU041, a submicromolar-affinity inhibitor of Anopheles (An.) gambiae and Aedes (Ae...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848070/diadenosine-tetraphosphate-as-a-potential-therapeutic-nucleotide-to-treat-glaucoma
#16
Begoña Fonseca, Alejandro Martínez-Águila, María J Pérez de Lara, Jesús Pintor
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that produces blindness. The main factor associated with this disease is an abnormally elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). To date, some attempts have been made to demonstrate the role of nucleotides modulating IOP, but never in a model of glaucoma. The DBA/2J mouse is an animal that develops the pathology spontaneously, starting from the typical rise in IOP at 9 months of age. Using this animal model, together with a control mouse, C57BL/6J, it has been possible to monitor the elevation in IOP in the glaucomatous mice and to check the ability of the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate AKA Ap4A to reduce IOP...
November 16, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847336/mexican-arnica-heterotheca-inuloides-cass-asteraceae-astereae-ethnomedical-uses-chemical-constituents-and-biological-properties
#17
REVIEW
José Luis Rodríguez-Chávez, Verónica Egas, Edelmira Linares, Robert Bye, Tzasna Hernández, Francisco J Espinosa-García, Guillermo Delgado
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in Mexico in the treatment of rheumatism, topical skin inflammation, muscular pain colic, and other painful conditions associated with inflammatory processes, additionally has been used to treat dental diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. This species has also been used for the treatment of cancer and diabetes. This review provides up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, chemical constituents, as well as the biolological activities of H...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843896/surgical-reconstruction-of-ocular-surface-tumors-using-fibrin-sealant-tissue-adhesive
#18
Aline Roseane Queiroz de Paiva, Larissa Abreu de Azevedo Fraga, Virgínia Laura Lucas Torres
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical outcomes of ocular surface reconstruction in corneal-conjunctival tumors using fibrin tissue adhesive. METHODS: A prospective noncomparative study was performed between May 2013 and February 2015. Patients were submitted to routine surgical procedure for corneal-conjunctival tumor excision followed by amniotic membrane graft transplantation using fibrin tissue adhesive (Evicel®, Omrix Biopharmaceuticals Ltd., Israel). Results were assessed on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th postoperative days to analyze subjective complaints, adhesiveness and positioning of the graft, potential complications and recurrences...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842856/hyaluronan-polymeric-micelles-for-topical-drug-delivery
#19
Daniela Šmejkalová, Tomáš Muthný, Kristina Nešporová, Martina Hermannová, Eva Achbergerová, Gloria Huerta-Angeles, Marek Svoboda, Martin Čepa, Veronika Machalová, Dominika Luptáková, Vladimír Velebný
Nanosized materials offer promising strategy for topical drug delivery due to their enhancing effect on drug percutaneous transport across the stratum corneum barrier. In this work, polymeric micelles made from hydrophobized hyaluronic acid (HA) were probed for skin delivery. Compared to non-polymeric micelle solutions containing similar drug amount, in vitro skin penetration analysis indicated 3 times larger deposition of drug in the epidermis and 6 times larger drug deposition in the dermis after 5h of topical treatment in Franz diffusion cells...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836717/therapeutic-agents-and-biocides-for-ocular-infections-by-free-living-amoebae-of-acanthamoeba-genus
#20
REVIEW
Linda Christian Carrijo-Carvalho, Viviane Peracini Sant'ana, Annette Silva Foronda, Denise de Freitas, Fabio Ramos de Souza Carvalho
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infectious disease. Resistance of the cystic form of the protozoan to biocides and the potential toxicity of chemical compounds to corneal cells are the main concerns related to long-term treatment with the clinically available ophthalmic drugs. Currently, a limited number of recognized antimicrobial agents are available to treat ocular amoebic infections. Topical application of biguanide and diamidine antiseptic solutions is the first-line therapy. We consider the current challenges when treating AK and review the chemical properties, toxicities, and mechanisms of action of the available biocides...
November 8, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
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