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Topical Compounds

Mikyung Lee, Zhichao Liu, Ruili Huang, Weida Tong
BACKGROUND: All biological processes are inherently dynamic. Biological systems evolve transiently or sustainably according to sequential time points after perturbation by environment insults, drugs and chemicals. Investigating the temporal behavior of molecular events has been an important subject to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the biological system in response to, such as, drug treatment. The intrinsic complexity of time series data requires appropriate computational algorithms for data interpretation...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
András Perczel, Atanas G Atanasov, Vladimír Sklenář, Jiří Nováček, Veronika Papoušková, Pavel Kadeřávek, Lukáš Žídek, Henryk Kozłowski, Joanna Wątły, Aleksandra Hecel, Paulina Kołkowska, Jaroslav Koča, Radka Svobodová-Vařeková, Lukáš Pravda, David Sehnal, Vladimír Horský, Stanislav Geidl, Ricardo D Enriz, Pavel Matějka, Adéla Jeništová, Marcela Dendisová, Alžběta Kokaislová, Volkmar Weissig, Mark Olsen, Aidan Coffey, Jude Ajuebor, Ruth Keary, Marta Sanz-Gaitero, Mark J van Raaij, Olivia McAuliffe, Birgit Waltenberger, Andrei Mocan, Karel Šmejkal, Elke H Heiss, Marc Diederich, Robert Musioł, Janez Košmrlj, Jarosław Polański, Josef Jampílek
The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology" was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28-September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered "Chemistry towards Biology", meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Manuel Wohde, Silvia Berkner, Thomas Junker, Sabine Konradi, Lisa Schwarz, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The spread of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) and biocides via manure onto agriculturally used areas represents a very important emission into the environment for these product groups. Within this literature study, publicly available transformation studies with liquid manure are summarized. Transformation studies were evaluated regarding the transformation fate of tested substances, the origin and characteristics of used manure, the experimental setup, and the measured parameters. As main topics within the 42 evaluated transformation studies, the high dependency of transformation on temperature, redox potential, dry matter content, and other parameters is reported...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Patrick J Buchanan, Robert H Gilman
Vitamin A-containing products have been used topically since the early 1940s to treat various skin conditions. To date, there are four generations of retinoids, a family of Vitamin A-containing compounds. Tretinoin, all-trans-retinoic acid, is a first-generation, naturally occurring, retinoid. It is available, commercially, as a gel or cream. The authors conducted a complete review of all studies, clinical- and basic science-based studies, within the literature involving tretinoin treatment recommendations for impending facial procedures...
July 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Vanessa F Carvalho, Debora P de Lemos, Camila S Vieira, Amanda Migotto, Luciana B Lopes
In this study, non-aqueous microemulsions were developed because of the challenges associated with finding pharmaceutically acceptable solvents for topical delivery of drugs sparingly soluble in water. The formulation irritation potential and ability to modulate the penetration of lipophilic compounds (progesterone, α-tocopherol, and lycopene) of interest for topical treatment/prevention of skin disorders were evaluated and compared to solutions and aqueous microemulsions of similar composition. The microemulsions (ME) were developed with BRIJ, vitamin E-TPGS, and ethanol as surfactant-co-surfactant blend and tributyrin, isopropyl myristate, and oleic acid as oil phase...
October 18, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Mariana Governo, Mónica S F Santos, Arminda Alves, Luís M Madeira
Cytostatics are part of the forefront research topics due to their high prescription, high toxicity, and the lack of effective solutions to stop their entrance and spread in the environment. Among them, 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) has received particular attention because is one of the most prescribed active substances in chemotherapy worldwide. The degradation of 5-Fu by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is a poorly addressed topic, and this work brings valuable inputs concerning this matter. Herein, the efficacy of Fenton's process in the degradation of 5-Fu is explored for the first time; the study of the main variables and its successful application to the treatment of real wastewaters is demonstrated...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J M Keppel Hesselink, D J Kopsky, N Sajben
Topical treatments of localized neuropathic pain syndromes in general are mostly neglected, mainly due to the fact that most pain physicians expect that a topical formulation needs to result in a transdermal delivery of the active compounds. On the basis of the practical experience, this study brings forth a new, somewhat neglected element of the vulvodynia pathogenesis: the cross talk between the nerve endings of nociceptors, the adjacent immunocompetent cells, and vaginal epithelial cells. Insight into this cross talk during a pathogenic condition supports the treatment of vulvodynia with topical (compounded) creams...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Julian Aragones, Jürgen Bernhagen, Andreas Boening, William A Boisvert, Hans E Bøtker, Heerajnarain Bulluck, Stuart Cook, Fabio Di Lisa, Felix B Engel, Bernd Engelmann, Fulvia Ferrazzi, Péter Ferdinandy, Alan Fong, Ingrid Fleming, Erich Gnaiger, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Siavash Beikoghli Kalkhoran, Moo Hyun Kim, Sandrine Lecour, Elisa A Liehn, Michael S Marber, Manuel Mayr, Tetsuji Miura, Sang-Bing Ong, Karlheinz Peter, Daniel Sedding, Manvendra K Singh, M Saadeh Suleiman, Hans J Schnittler, Rainer Schulz, Winston Shim, Daniel Tello, Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, Malcolm Walker, Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Derek M Yellon, Derek J Hausenloy, Klaus T Preissner
In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Lisa Elviri, Annalisa Bianchera, Carlo Bergonzi, Ruggero Bettini
The main target of tissue engineering is the preparation and application of adequate materials for the design and production of scaffolds, that possess properties promoting cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The use of natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan, to prepare hydrogels for wound healing and controlled drug delivery is a research topic of wide and increasing interest. Areas covered: This review presents the latest results and challenges in the preparation of chitosan and chitosan-based scaffold/hydrogel for wound healing applications...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Chandradhish Ghosh, Mohini Mohan Konai, Paramita Sarkar, Sandip Samaddar, Jayanta Haldar
In the global effort to thwart antimicrobial resistance, lipopeptides are an important class of antimicrobial agents, especially against Gram-negative infections. In an attempt to circumvent their synthetic complexities, we designed simple membrane-active agents involving only one amino acid and two lipid tails. Herein we show that the use of two short lipid tails instead of a single long one significantly increases selective antibacterial activity. This study yielded several selective antibacterial compounds, and investigations into the properties of this compound class were conducted with the most active compound...
October 12, 2016: ChemMedChem
Arnold L Demain, Evan Martens
We are pleased to dedicate this paper to Dr Julian E Davies. Julian is a giant among microbial biochemists. He began his professional career as an organic chemistry PhD student at Nottingham University, moved on to a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, then became a lecturer at the University of Manchester, followed by a fellowship in microbial biochemistry at Harvard Medical School. In 1965, he studied genetics at the Pasteur Institute, and 2 years later joined the University of Wisconsin in the Department of Biochemistry...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Vivian Tam, Jennifer S Edge, Steven J Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Shortages of health workers in low-income countries are exacerbated by the international migration of health workers to more affluent countries. This problem is compounded by the active recruitment of health workers by destination countries, particularly Australia, Canada, UK and USA. The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a voluntary Code of Practice in May 2010 to mitigate tensions between health workers' right to migrate and the shortage of health workers in source countries...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Alon Silberman, Michael Albeck, Benjamin Sredni, Amnon Albeck
Since its first crystallization, the aqueous structure of the tellurium-containing experimental drug AS-101 has never been studied. We show that, under the aqueous conditions in which it is administered, AS-101 is subjected to an immediate ligand-substitution reaction with water, yielding a stable hydrolyzed oxide anion product that is identified, for the first time, to be TeOCl3(-). Studying the structure of AS-101 in propylene glycol (PG), an alcoholic solvent often used for the topical and oral administration of AS-101, revealed the same phenomenon of ligand-substitution reaction between the alcoholic ligands...
October 11, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Hiroyuki Moriyama, Mariko Moriyama, Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Toshio Morikawa, Takao Hayakawa
Human malignant melanomas remain associated with dismal prognosis due to their resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy. There is growing interest in plant oligostilbenoids owing to their pleiotropic biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol, a well-known stilbenoid from red wine, exhibits cell cycle-disrupting and apoptosis-inducing activities on melanoma cells. The objective of our study was to evaluate the anti-melanoma effect of oligostilbenoids isolated from the bark of Shorea roxburghii...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Oriol Planas, Christopher J Whiteoak, Vlad Martin-Diaconescu, Ilaria Gamba, Josep M Luis, Teodor Parella, Anna Company, Xavi Ribas
The selective annulation reaction of alkynes with substrates containing inert C-H bonds using Co as catalyst is currently a topic attracting significant interest. Unfortunately, the mechanism of this transformation is still relatively poorly understood, with little experimental evidence for intermediates, although an organometallic Co(III) species is generally implicated. Herein, we describe a rare example of the preparation and characterization of bench-top stable organometallic aryl-Co(III) compounds (NMR, HRMS, XAS and XRD) prepared through a C(sp2)-H activation, using a model macrocyclic arene substrate...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Nattaya Lourith, Puxvadee Chaikul
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ryo Futahashi
Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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