keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Hominid

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419279/primates-lice-and-bacteria-speciation-and-genome-evolution-in-the-symbionts-of-hominid-lice
#1
Bret M Boyd, Julie M Allen, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, Pranjal Vachaspati, Zach Quicksall, Tandy Warnow, Lawrence Mugisha, Kevin P Johnson, David L Reed
Insects with restricted diets rely on symbiotic bacteria to provide essential metabolites missing in their diet. The blood-sucking lice are obligate, host-specific parasites of mammals and are themselves host to symbiotic bacteria. In human lice, these bacterial symbionts supply the lice with B-vitamins. Here we sequenced the genomes of symbiotic and heritable bacterial of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and monkey lice and used phylogenomics to investigate their evolutionary relationships. We find that these symbionts have a phylogenetic history reflecting the louse phylogeny, a finding contrary to previous reports of symbiont replacement...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406566/how-did-the-pelvis-and-vertebral-column-become-a-functional-unit-during-the-transition-from-occasional-to-permanent-bipedalism
#2
Christine Tardieu, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Martin Haeusler
The functional linkage between pelvis and spine remained long hidden to science. Here, we recount the history of research that led in 1992 to the discovery of the "angle of sacral incidence" by the team of G. Duval-Beaupère. This angle, formed between a ray from the hip joint center to the superior sacral surface and the perpendicular to the sacral surface, was later called pelvic incidence. Specific to each individual, pelvic incidence is tightly correlated with the degree of lumbar lordosis. It is each individual's "signature" for an efficient sagittal balance since it represents the sum of two positional parameters, sacral slope and pelvic tilt...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401291/the-human-retinoblastoma-susceptibility-gene-rb1-an-evolutionary-story-in-primates
#3
Maria C Viana, William C Tavares, Ayslan C Brant, Mariana Boroni, Héctor N Seuánez
The tumor suppressor gene RB1 (Human Retinoblastoma Susceptibility Gene) plays a prominent role in normal development, gene transcription, DNA replication, repair, and mitosis. Its complete biallelic dysfunction in retinoblasts is the main cause of retinoblastoma in the human. Although this gene has been evolutionary conserved, comparisons between the reference and human RB1 coding region with its counterparts in 19 non-human primates showed 359 sites where nucleotide replacements took place during the radiation of these species...
April 11, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397686/co-option-of-an-endogenous-retrovirus-envelope-for-host-defense-in-hominid-ancestors
#4
Daniel Blanco-Melo, Robert J Gifford, Paul D Bieniasz
Endogenous retroviral sequences provide a molecular fossil record of ancient infections whose analysis might illuminate mechanisms of viral extinction. A close relative of gammaretroviruses, HERV-T, circulated in primates for ~25 million years (MY) before apparent extinction within the past ~8 MY. Construction of a near-complete catalog of HERV-T fossils in primate genomes allowed us to estimate a ~32 MY old ancestral sequence and reconstruct a functional envelope protein (ancHTenv) that could support infection of a pseudotyped modern gammaretrovirus...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397252/is-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-a-developmental-disorder
#5
Thomas Arendt, Jens Stieler, Uwe Ueberham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of higher age that specifically occurs in human. Its clinical phase, characterized by a decline in physiological, psychological and social functioning, is preceded by a long clinically silent phase of at least several decades that might perhaps even start very early in life. Overall, key functional abilities decline in AD patients in reverse order of the development of these abilities during childhood and adolescence. Early symptoms of AD, thus, typically affect mental functions that have been acquired only during very recent hominid evolution and as such are specific to human...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369510/antagonistic-coevolution-of-mer-tyrosine-kinase-expression-and-function
#6
Amanda L Evans, Jack W D Blackburn, Kyle Taruc, Angela Kipp, Brennan S Dirk, Nina R Hunt, Stephen D Barr, Jimmy D Dikeakos, Bryan Heit
TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK (TAM) receptors are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases that maintain homeostasis through the clearance of apoptotic cells, and when defective, contribute to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease. In addition, certain enveloped viruses utilize TAM receptors for immune evasion and entry into host cells, with several viruses preferentially hijacking MERTK for these purposes...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366196/a-highly-derived-pliopithecoid-from-the-late-miocene-of-haritalyangar-india
#7
Anek R Sankhyan, Jay Kelley, Terry Harrison
The Late Miocene sequence at Haritalyangar, Himachal Pradesh, India, has produced abundant remains of the hominid Sivapithecus and the sivaladapids Sivaladapis and Indraloris. Also recovered from these sediments is an isolated and worn upper molar that was made the holotype of Krishnapithecus krishnaii and assigned to the Pliopithecoidea. However, the heavy wear and absence of definitive pliopithecoid features on the tooth rendered the assignment to this superfamily unconvincing. Here, we describe two lower molars from Haritalyangar that bear unmistakable pliopithecoid features and that are plausibly assignable to the same species as the type specimen of K...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332079/gorilla-mhc-class-i-gene-and-sequence-variation-in-a-comparative-context
#8
Jörg B Hans, Richard A Bergl, Linda Vigilant
Comparisons of MHC gene content and diversity among closely related species can provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping immune system variation. After chimpanzees and bonobos, gorillas are humans' closest living relatives; but in contrast, relatively little is known about the structure and variation of gorilla MHC class I genes (Gogo). Here, we combined long-range amplifications and long-read sequencing technology to analyze full-length MHC class I genes in 35 gorillas. We obtained 50 full-length genomic sequences corresponding to 15 Gogo-A alleles, 4 Gogo-Oko alleles, 21 Gogo-B alleles, and 10 Gogo-C alleles including 19 novel coding region sequences...
March 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279731/precuneus-proportions-and-cortical-folding-a-morphometric-evaluation-on-a-racially-diverse-human-sample
#9
Emiliano Bruner, Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Xu Chen, James K Rilling
Recent analyses have suggested that the size and proportions of the precuneus are remarkably variable among adult humans, representing a major source of geometrical difference in midsagittal brain morphology. The same area also represents the main midsagittal brain difference between humans and chimpanzees, being more expanded in our species. Enlargement of the upper parietal surface is a specific feature of Homo sapiens, when compared with other fossil hominids, suggesting the involvement of these cortical areas in recent modern human evolution...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#10
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161510/the-material-record-and-the-antiquity-of-language
#11
REVIEW
Ian Tattersall
One view of language origins sees it as ancient and selection-driven; the other as recent and emergent. Such disagreement occurs because language is ephemeral, detectable only by indirect proxies. Because internalized language and symbolic thought are tightly linked, the best archaeological proxies for language are symbolic objects. Nothing indicates convincingly that any hominid behaved symbolically prior to Homo sapiens, which originated 200 kyr ago but started behaving symbolically only 100 kyr later. Most probably the necessary neural underpinnings arose exaptively in the extensive developmental reorganization that gave rise to anatomically distinctive Homo sapiens, and were recruited subsequently via a necessarily behavioral stimulus...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128440/evolution-of-the-hominoid-scapula-and-its-implications-for-earliest-hominid-locomotion
#12
Michael S Selby, C Owen Lovejoy
OBJECTIVES: The higher primate scapula has been subject to many explanations of the putative "adaptive value" of its individual traits. However, the shift from the bone's position in above branch quadrupeds to its more posterolateral position in recent hominoids obviously required fundamental changes to its general form. We hypothesize that most features argued to be individually adaptive are more likely secondary consequences of changes in its fundamental bauplan, a view more consistent with modern developmental biology...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102010/a-muscular-imprint-on-the-anterolateral-surface-of-the-proximal-femurs-of-the-krapina-neandertal-collection
#13
Maria Giovanna Belcastro, Valentina Mariotti
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to report and interpret a feature on the anterolateral surface of the proximal femurs of the Krapina hominid collection that we briefly described in 2006 (Periodicum Biologorum, 108, 319-329). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recorded the presence or absence of the feature in all the proximal femurs of the Krapina collection (six specimens recordable) and in 622 modern human adult femurs. RESULTS: The feature consists in a series of crests delimitating three raised or depressed areas...
March 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053015/ancient-hominid-hanky-panky-also-influenced-spread-of-stis
#14
EDITORIAL
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038494/constantin-von-economo-s-last-publication-a-commentary-on-charles-fraipont-s-%C3%A3-volution-c%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-brale
#15
Lazaros C Triarhou
This paper highlights a commentary written by the neurologist Constantin von Economo on a book published by the Belgian paleontologist Charles Fraipont in 1931. The commentary appears to be Economo's last opus, published posthumously in early 1933. The reviewed work deals with the evolution of the brain in primates, hominids and humans, presenting some interesting ideas about the phylogeny of the human cerebral hemispheres in conjunction with the living conditions of the genera in consideration.
December 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036346/game-changing-innovations-how-culture-can-change-the-parameters-of-its-own-evolution-and-induce-abrupt-cultural-shifts
#16
Oren Kolodny, Nicole Creanza, Marcus W Feldman
One of the most puzzling features of the prehistoric record of hominid stone tools is its apparent punctuation: it consists of abrupt bursts of dramatic change that separate long periods of largely unchanging technology. Within each such period, small punctuated cultural modifications take place. Punctuation on multiple timescales and magnitudes is also found in cultural trajectories from historical times. To explain these sharp cultural bursts, researchers invoke such external factors as sudden environmental change, rapid cognitive or morphological change in the hominids that created the tools, or replacement of one species or population by another...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035660/morphological-integration-of-the-cranium-in-homo-pan-and-hylobates-and-the-evolution-of-hominoid-facial-structures
#17
Dimitri Neaux
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans diverge from other extant hominids (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) in a series of craniofacial morphological features. Like hylobatids, they possess a face with a reduced subnasal prognathism that is associated with a globular basicranium. These traits are not independent, as the skull is a complex integrated structure. The aim of the present study is to determine relationships between the face and the basicranium in two hominid genera (Homo and Pan) and a hylobatid genus (Hylobates) to test if these taxa share common patterns of integration linking these structures...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008637/the-edge-of-human-the-problem-with-the-posthuman-as-the-beyond
#18
David R Lawrence
This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The 'posthuman' is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term 'Human', especially in the context of the enhancement debate and the myriad meanings ascribed to it, could give 'posthuman' very different slants depending on one's assumptions...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000406/zygomatic-root-position-in-recent-and-fossil-hominids
#19
Gerhard W Weber, Viktoria A Krenn
The relative position of the zygomatic root to the dentition plays a crucial role in determining the overall strength of the face in response to bite forces. The powerful superficial head of the masseter arises there and the zygomaticoalveolar crest (ZAC) is discussed as a buttressing feature of the face. For instance, a more forwardly or backwardly positioned zygomatic root or a lower or higher vertical distance to the dentition could be indicative for evolutionary adaptations to particular loading regimes which are associated with diet...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983518/impacts-of-curatorial-and-research-practices-on-the-preservation-of-fossil-hominid-remains
#20
Adeline Le Cabec, Michel Toussaint
Fossil remains are the only physical evidence of past forms of life which researchers can use to study the evolutionary biology of a species, especially regarding the human lineage. We review and consider the way in which the conditions surrounding a fossil's discovery and its use for scientific research impacts its long-term preservation. The deterioration of the body starts soon after death, continues in the sediments and only a subsample of the anatomical elements will persist and may finally be unearthed by archeologists...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
keyword
keyword
54560
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"