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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764690/inter-ray-variation-in-metatarsal-strength-properties-in-humans-and-african-apes-implications-for-inferring-bipedal-biomechanics-in-the-olduvai-hominid-8-foot
#1
Biren A Patel, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Kristian J Carlson, Nicole L Griffin, Ian J Wallace, Caley M Orr, Randall L Susman
When measured as a ratio of mean midshaft diameter to bone length, the OH 8 fossil hominin foot exhibits a metatarsal (Mt) robusticity pattern of 1 > 5 > 3 > 4 > 2, which differs from the widely perceived "common" modern human pattern (1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2); African apes generally exhibit a third pattern (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5). Largely because of the relative ranking of Mt2 and Mt5, OH 8 metatarsals structurally resemble the pattern exhibited by bipedal humans more than the pattern of quadrupedal and climbing African apes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#2
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707199/epigenetic-silencing-of-lncrna-mort-in-16-tcga-cancer-types
#3
Lukas Vrba, Bernard W Futscher
We have previously described a hominid-specific long non-coding RNA, MORT (also known as ZNF667-AS1 , Gene ID: 100128252), which is expressed in all normal cell types, but epigenetically silenced during cancer-associated immortalization of human mammary epithelial cells.  Initial analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed that 15 of 17 cancer types, which represent the 10 most common cancers in women and men, display DNA methylation associated MORT silencing in a large fraction of their tumors.  In this study we analyzed MORT expression and DNA methylation state in the remaining 16 TCGA cancer types not previously reported...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606199/gps-identified-vulnerabilities-of-savannah-woodland-primates-to-leopard-predation-and-their-implications-for-early-hominins
#4
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Eric K Van Cleave, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Margaret C Crofoot
Predation is thought to have been a key selection pressure in primate evolution, especially in the savannah-woodland habitats where several early hominin species lived. However, predator-primate prey relationships are still poorly understood because human presence often deters predators, limiting our ability to quantify the impact of predation. Synchronized high-resolution tracking of leopards (Panthera pardus), vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and olive baboons (Papio anubis) during a 14-month study in Kenya revealed that increased vulnerability to leopard predation was not associated with higher encounter rates, smaller body size, smaller group size, or greater distance from refuges, contrary to long-standing inferences...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595121/the-expansion-segments-of-human-28s-rrna-match-micrornas-much-above-18s-rrna-or-core-segments
#5
Michael S Parker, Ambikaipakan Balasubramaniam, Steven L Parker
The size of eukaryotic 25-28S rRNAs shows a progressive phylogenetically linked increase which is pronounced in mammals, and especially in hominids. The increase is confined to specific expansion segments, inserted at points that are highly conserved from yeast to man. These segments also show a progressive increase in nucleotide bias, mostly the GC bias. Substantial parts of the large expansion segments 7, 15 and 27 of 28S rRNA are known to be exposed at the ribosome surface, with no clear association with ribosomal proteins...
March 28, 2018: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563925/the-expansion-segments-of-28s-ribosomal-rna-extensively-match-human-messenger-rnas
#6
Michael S Parker, Ambikaipakan Balasubramaniam, Floyd R Sallee, Steven L Parker
Eukaryote ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have expanded in the course of phylogeny by addition of nucleotides in specific insertion areas, the expansion segments. These number about 40 in the larger (25-28S) rRNA (up to 2,400 nucleotides), and about 12 in the smaller (18S) rRNA (<700 nucleotides). Expansion of the larger rRNA shows a clear phylogenetic increase, with a dramatic rise in mammals and especially in hominids. Substantial portions of expansion segments in this RNA are not bound to ribosomal proteins, and may engage extraneous interactants, including messenger RNAs (mRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375791/impact-of-long-term-chromosomal-shuffling-on-the-multispecies-coalescent-analysis-of-two-anthropoid-primate-lineages
#7
Carlos G Schrago, Beatriz Mello, Anieli G Pereira, Carolina Furtado, Hector N Seuánez
Multispecies coalescent (MSC) theory assumes that gene trees inferred from individual loci are independent trials of the MSC process. As genes might be physically close in syntenic associations spanning along chromosome regions, these assumptions might be flawed in evolutionary lineages with substantial karyotypic shuffling. Neotropical primates (NP) represent an ideal case for assessing the performance of MSC methods in such scenarios because chromosome diploid number varies significantly in this lineage. To this end, we investigated the effect of sequence length on the theoretical expectations of MSC model, as well as the results of coalescent-based tree inference methods...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369346/morphology-diet-and-stable-carbon-isotopes-on-the-diet-of-theropithecus-and-some-limits-of-uniformitarianism-in-paleoecology
#8
Antoine Souron
Geladas were long supposed to be the only living primates feeding almost entirely on graminoids and accordingly display dramatic dental and manual adaptive traits. A recent study of Theropithecus gelada, the first in a relatively undisturbed habitat, revealed a more diverse diet, also incorporating large quantities of forbs. The peculiar adaptive traits of T. gelada are also observed in extinct Theropithecus as early as 3.7 Ma. Stable carbon isotopic data of extinct Theropithecus from eastern Africa indicate that specimens older than 3 Ma consumed a significant proportion of C3 plants (on average ca...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358388/early-hominids-may-have-been-weed-species
#9
Richard S Meindl, Morgan E Chaney, C Owen Lovejoy
Panid, gorillid, and hominid social structures appear to have diverged as dramatically as did their locomotor patterns as they emerged from a late Miocene last common ancestor (LCA). Despite their elimination of the sectorial canine complex and adoption of bipedality with its attendant removal of their ready access to the arboreal canopy, Australopithecus was able to easily invade novel habitats after florescence from its likely ancestral genus, Ardipithecus sp. Other hominoids, unable to sustain sufficient population growth, began an inexorable decline, culminating in their restriction to modern refugia...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358369/a-neurochemical-hypothesis-for-the-origin-of-hominids
#10
Mary Ann Raghanti, Melissa K Edler, Alexa R Stephenson, Emily L Munger, Bob Jacobs, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Ralph L Holloway, C Owen Lovejoy
It has always been difficult to account for the evolution of certain human characters such as language, empathy, and altruism via individual reproductive success. However, the striatum, a subcortical region originally thought to be exclusively motor, is now known to contribute to social behaviors and "personality styles" that may link such complexities with natural selection. We here report that the human striatum exhibits a unique neurochemical profile that differs dramatically from those of other primates...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290090/rates-of-gut-microbiome-divergence-in-mammals
#11
Alex H Nishida, Howard Ochman
The variation and taxonomic diversity among mammalian gut microbiomes raises several questions about the factors that contribute to the rates and patterns of change in these microbial communities. By comparing the microbiome compositions of 112 species representing 14 mammalian orders, we assessed how host and ecological factors contribute to microbiome diversification. Except in rare cases, the same bacterial phyla predominate in mammalian gut microbiomes, and there has been some convergence of microbiome compositions according to dietary category across all mammalians lineages except Chiropterans (bats), which possess high proportions of Proteobacteria and tend to be most similar to one another regardless of diet...
December 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285965/admixture-and-ancestry-inference-from-ancient-and-modern-samples-through-measures-of-population-genetic-drift
#12
Alexandre M Harris, Michael DeGiorgio
Methods that leverage the information about population history contained within the increasingly abundant genetic sequences of extant and extinct hominid populations are diverse in form and versatile in application. Here, we review key methods recently developed to detect and quantify admixture and ancestry in modern human populations. We begin with an overview of the f- and D-statistics, covering their conceptual principles and important applications, as well as any extensions developed for them. We then cover a combination of more recent and more complex methods for admixture and ancestry inference, discussing tests for direct ancestry between two populations, quantification of admixture in large data sets, and determination of admixture dates...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282311/a-cellular-microrna-facilitates-regulatory-t-lymphocyte-development-by-targeting-the-foxp3-promoter-tata-box-motif
#13
Yiwen Zhang, Weiwei Liu, Yingshi Chen, Jun Liu, Kang Wu, Lishi Su, Wanying Zhang, Yawen Jiang, Xu Zhang, Yijun Zhang, Chao Liu, Liang Tao, Bingfeng Liu, Hui Zhang
The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate immunological self-tolerance and suppress various immune responses. FOXP3 is a key transcriptional factor for the generation and development of Tregs. Its expression is regulated by various cytokines including TGF-β, IL-2, and IL-10. It is important to further identify the regulatory factors for Tregs. Given that many microRNAs (miRNAs) could specifically interact with the core promoter region and specifically enhance the transcription of many target genes, we searched for any possible miRNA(s) targeting the core promoter region of the FOXP3 gene...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246655/the-c-305del3-in-il-2-gene-in-homonoidea-theoretically-affects-il-2-il-2r%C3%AE-interaction-as-well-as-lymphocyte-homeostasis
#14
Hamed Hosseinian, Karim Mahnam, Mostafa Shakhsi-Niaei
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a well-known monomeric T-cell growth factor that is produced primarily by activated CD4+ T cells following exposure to antigen. IL-2 structural analysis among primates showed a few polymorphisms as well as a 3-nucleotide deletion (c.305del3) in Hominoidea superfamily including Homo sapiens. On the other hand, the interaction of IL-2 with its alpha subunit of the receptor (IL-2Rα) is the first step for assembly of the whole IL-2R and considered as a species-specific phase. Four models of human IL-2, IL-2Rα, and their ancestral forms were made and were used for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187630/evolutionary-history-of-enigmatic-bears-in-the-tibetan-plateau-himalaya-region-and-the-identity-of-the-yeti
#15
Tianying Lan, Stephanie Gill, Eva Bellemain, Richard Bischof, Muhammad Ali Nawaz, Charlotte Lindqvist
Although anecdotally associated with local bears ( Ursus arctos and U. thibetanus ), the exact identity of 'hominid'-like creatures important to folklore and mythology in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region is still surrounded by mystery. Recently, two purported yeti samples from the Himalayas showed genetic affinity with an ancient polar bear, suggesting they may be from previously unrecognized, possibly hybrid, bear species, but this preliminary finding has been under question. We conducted a comprehensive genetic survey of field-collected and museum specimens to explore their identity and ultimately infer the evolutionary history of bears in the region...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169316/coevolution-of-siglec-11-and-siglec-16-via-gene-conversion-in-primates
#16
Toshiyuki Hayakawa, Zahra Khedri, Flavio Schwarz, Corinna Landig, Suh-Yuen Liang, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Naoko T Fujito, Yoko Satta, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata
BACKGROUND: Siglecs-11 and -16 are members of the sialic acid recognizing Ig-like lectin family, and expressed in same cells. Siglec-11 functions as an inhibitory receptor, whereas Siglec-16 exhibits activating properties. In humans, SIGLEC11 and SIGLEC16 gene sequences are extremely similar in the region encoding the extracellular domain due to gene conversions. Human SIGLEC11 was converted by the nonfunctional SIGLEC16P allele, and the converted SIGLEC11 allele became fixed in humans, possibly because it provides novel neuroprotective functions in brain microglia...
November 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163252/the-paradox-of-isochrony-in-the-evolution-of-human-rhythm
#17
Andrea Ravignani, Guy Madison
Isochrony is crucial to the rhythm of human music. Some neural, behavioral and anatomical traits underlying rhythm perception and production are shared with a broad range of species. These may either have a common evolutionary origin, or have evolved into similar traits under different evolutionary pressures. Other traits underlying rhythm are rare across species, only found in humans and few other animals. Isochrony, or stable periodicity, is common to most human music, but isochronous behaviors are also found in many species...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148040/the-endocranial-shape-of-australopithecus-africanus-surface-analysis-of-the-endocasts-of-sts-5-and-sts-60
#18
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Anna Oettlé, Gérard Subsol, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Assessment of global endocranial morphology and regional neuroanatomical changes in early hominins is critical for the reconstruction of evolutionary trajectories of cerebral regions in the human lineage. Early evidence of cortical reorganization in specific local areas (e.g. visual cortex, inferior frontal gyrus) is perceptible in the non-human South African hominin fossil record. However, to date, little information is available regarding potential global changes in the early hominin brain. The introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques opens up new perspectives for the study of hominin brain evolution...
February 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126115/hominid-a-framework-for-identifying-associations-between-host-genetic-variation-and-microbiome-composition
#19
Joshua Lynch, Karen Tang, Sambhawa Priya, Joanna Sands, Margaret Sands, Evan Tang, Sayan Mukherjee, Dan Knights, Ran Blekhman
Recent studies have uncovered a strong effect of host genetic variation on the composition of host-associated microbiota. Here, we present HOMINID, a computational approach based on Lasso linear regression, that given host genetic variation and microbiome taxonomic composition data, identifies host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are correlated with microbial taxa abundances. Using simulated data, we show that HOMINID has accuracy in identifying associated SNPs and performs better compared with existing methods...
December 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109249/hominid-butchers-and-biting-crocodiles-in-the-african-plio-pleistocene
#20
Yonatan Sahle, Sireen El Zaatari, Tim D White
Zooarchaeologists have long relied on linear traces and pits found on the surfaces of ancient bones to infer ancient hominid behaviors such as slicing, chopping, and percussive actions during butchery of mammal carcasses. However, such claims about Plio-Pleistocene hominids rely mostly on very small assemblages of bony remains. Furthermore, recent experiments on trampling animals and biting crocodiles have shown each to be capable of producing mimics of such marks. This equifinality-the creation of similar products by different processes-makes deciphering early archaeological bone assemblages difficult...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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