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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#1
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861590/phylosymbiosis-relationships-and-functional-effects-of-microbial-communities-across-host-evolutionary-history
#2
Andrew W Brooks, Kevin D Kohl, Robert M Brucker, Edward J van Opstal, Seth R Bordenstein
Phylosymbiosis was recently proposed to describe the eco-evolutionary pattern, whereby the ecological relatedness of host-associated microbial communities parallels the phylogeny of related host species. Here, we test the prevalence of phylosymbiosis and its functional significance under highly controlled conditions by characterizing the microbiota of 24 animal species from four different groups (Peromyscus deer mice, Drosophila flies, mosquitoes, and Nasonia wasps), and we reevaluate the phylosymbiotic relationships of seven species of wild hominids...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832586/the-human-microbiome-before-birth
#3
Martin J Blaser, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
The conservation of the microbiota within humans and other hominids suggests an ancient assembly that has been selected to optimize host fitness. Pregnancy induces changes in the maternal microbiome just before the intergenerational hand-off of the microbiota. Interventions, including peri-partum antibiotics and Cesarean sections, may have unintended effects on babies.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816558/motor-skill-for-tool-use-is-associated-with-asymmetries-in-broca-s-area-and-the-motor-hand-area-of-the-precentral-gyrus-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#4
William D Hopkins, Adrien Meguerditchian, Olivier Coulon, Maria Misiura, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Among nonhuman primates, chimpanzees are well known for their sophistication and diversity of tool use in both captivity and the wild. The evolution of tool manufacture and use has been proposed as a driving mechanism for the development of increasing brain size, complex cognition and motor skills, as well as the population-level handedness observed in modern humans. Notwithstanding, our understanding of the neurological correlates of tool use in chimpanzees and other primates remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the hand preference and performance skill of chimpanzees on a tool use task and correlated these data with measures of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pli-de-passage fronto-parietal moyen (PPFM)...
November 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789843/chimpanzee-genomic-diversity-reveals-ancient-admixture-with-bonobos
#5
Marc de Manuel, Martin Kuhlwilm, Peter Frandsen, Vitor C Sousa, Tariq Desai, Javier Prado-Martinez, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriguez, Isabelle Dupanloup, Oscar Lao, Pille Hallast, Joshua M Schmidt, José María Heredia-Genestar, Andrea Benazzo, Guido Barbujani, Benjamin M Peter, Lukas F K Kuderna, Ferran Casals, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar Kühl, Linda Vigilant, Kevin Langergraber, John Novembre, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Arcadi Navarro, Frands Carlsen, Aida M Andrés, Hans R Siegismund, Aylwyn Scally, Laurent Excoffier, Chris Tyler-Smith, Sergi Castellano, Yali Xue, Christina Hvilsom, Tomas Marques-Bonet
Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor of geographic origin at country and regional scales. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that gene flow occurred from bonobos into the ancestors of central and eastern chimpanzees between 200,000 and 550,000 years ago, probably with subsequent spread into Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees...
October 28, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743609/sva-retrotransposons-as-potential-modulators-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#6
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732658/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-human-apobec3c-enhances-restriction-of-lentiviruses
#7
Cristina J Wittkopp, Madison B Adolph, Lily I Wu, Linda Chelico, Michael Emerman
Humans express seven human APOBEC3 proteins, which can inhibit viruses and endogenous retroelements through cytidine deaminase activity. The seven paralogs differ in the potency of their antiviral effects, as well as in their antiviral targets. One APOBEC3, APOBEC3C, is exceptional as it has been found to only weakly block viruses and endogenous retroelements compared to other APOBEC3s. However, our positive selection analyses suggest that APOBEC3C has played a role in pathogen defense during primate evolution...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726759/human-lice-in-paleoentomology-and-paleomicrobiology
#8
Didier Raoult, Rezak Drali, Kosta Mumcuoglu
Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719698/spain-s-magic-mountain-narrating-prehistory-at-atapuerca
#9
Oliver Hochadel
The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719694/the-beginnings-of-human-palaeontology-prehistory-craniometry-and-the-fossil-human-races
#10
Matthew R Goodrum
Since the nineteenth century, hominid palaeontology has offered critical information about prehistoric humans and evidence for human evolution. Human fossils discovered at a time when there was growing agreement that humans existed during the Ice Age became especially significant but also controversial. This paper argues that the techniques used to study human fossils from the 1850s to the 1870s and the way that these specimens were interpreted owed much to the anthropological examination of Stone, Bronze, and Iron Age skeletons retrieved by archaeologists from prehistoric tombs throughout Europe...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611006/antibodies-against-phosphorylcholine-among-new-guineans-compared-to-swedes-an-aspect-of-the-hygiene-missing-old-friends-hypothesis
#11
Johan Frostegård, WenJing Tao, Lennart Råstam, Ulf Lindblad, Staffan Lindeberg
BACKGROUND: We here study antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) which we reported to be inversely associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and autoimmune conditions. In previous studies, we determined that this inverse association is more pronounced at low levels with high risk and at high levels, with decreased risk. We compare individuals from Kitava, New Guinea (with low risk of these conditions), with Swedish controls. METHODS: We studied a group of 178 individuals from Kitava (age 20-86), and compared those above age 40 (n = 108) with a group of age- and sex-matched individuals from a population based cohort in Sweden (n = 108)...
September 9, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584592/a-chimeric-human-apobec3a-protein-with-a-three-amino-acid-insertion-confers-differential-hiv-1-and-adeno-associated-virus-restriction
#12
Yaqiong Wang, Zekun Wang, Ankita Pramanik, Mario L Santiago, Jianming Qiu, Edward B Stephens
Old World monkey (OWM) and hominid APOBEC3Aproteins exhibit differential restriction activities against lentiviruses and DNA viruses. Human APOBEC3A(hA3A)has weak restriction activity against HIV-1Δvifbut is efficiently restricted by an artificially generated chimeric from mandrills (mndA3A/G). We show that a chimeric hA3Acontaining the "WVS" insertion (hA3A[(27)WVS(29)]) conferred potent HIV-1restriction activity. Analysis of each amino acid of the "WVS" motif show that the length and not necessarily the charge or hydrophobicity of the amino acids accounted for restriction activity...
November 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503252/effects-of-cranial-integration-on-hominid-endocranial-shape
#13
Christoph P E Zollikofer, Thibaut Bienvenu, Marcia S Ponce de León
Because brains do not fossilize, the internal surface of the braincase (endocast) serves as an important source of information about brain growth, development, and evolution. Recent studies of endocranial morphology and development in great apes, fossil hominins, and modern humans have revealed taxon-specific differences. However, it remains to be investigated to which extent differences in endocranial morphology reflect differences in actual brain morphology and development, and to which extent they reflect different interactions of the brain and its case with the cranial base and face...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487209/emergence-of-a-homo-sapiens-specific-gene-family-and-chromosome-16p11-2-cnv-susceptibility
#14
Xander Nuttle, Giuliana Giannuzzi, Michael H Duyzend, Joshua G Schraiber, Iñigo Narvaiza, Peter H Sudmant, Osnat Penn, Giorgia Chiatante, Maika Malig, John Huddleston, Chris Benner, Francesca Camponeschi, Simone Ciofi-Baffoni, Holly A F Stessman, Maria C N Marchetto, Laura Denman, Lana Harshman, Carl Baker, Archana Raja, Kelsi Penewit, Nicolette Janke, W Joyce Tang, Mario Ventura, Lucia Banci, Francesca Antonacci, Joshua M Akey, Chris T Amemiya, Fred H Gage, Alexandre Reymond, Evan E Eichler
Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution...
August 11, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472575/line-of-sight-in-hominoids
#15
Michala K Stock, David G Reynolds, Ari J Masters, Timothy G Bromage, Donald H Enlow
OBJECTIVES: It remains unclear how the realignments of the face and basicranium that characterize humans were acquired, both phylogenetically and ontogenetically. The developmentally constrained nature of the skull has been previously demonstrated in other primates using Donald H. Enlow's mammalian craniofacial architectural relationships. Here, we compare crania of our closest relatives to gain greater understanding of how and why the relationship of the face and cranial base is developmentally constrained in order to inform instances of abnormal growth and clinical intervention...
2016: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463672/cospeciation-of-gut-microbiota-with-hominids
#16
Andrew H Moeller, Alejandro Caro-Quintero, Deus Mjungu, Alexander V Georgiev, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Martin N Muller, Anne E Pusey, Martine Peeters, Beatrice H Hahn, Howard Ochman
The evolutionary origins of the bacterial lineages that populate the human gut are unknown. Here we show that multiple lineages of the predominant bacterial taxa in the gut arose via cospeciation with humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas over the past 15 million years. Analyses of strain-level bacterial diversity within hominid gut microbiomes revealed that clades of Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae have been maintained exclusively within host lineages across hundreds of thousands of host generations...
July 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463659/evolution-hominid-superorganisms
#17
COMMENT
Julia A Segre, Nick Salafsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463216/opsin-gene-repertoires-in-northern-archaic-hominids
#18
John S Taylor, Thomas E Reimchen
The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives...
August 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461130/three-distinct-glutamate-decarboxylase-genes-in-vertebrates
#19
Brian P Grone, Karen P Maruska
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a widely conserved signaling molecule that in animals has been adapted as a neurotransmitter. GABA is synthesized from the amino acid glutamate by the action of glutamate decarboxylases (GADs). Two vertebrate genes, GAD1 and GAD2, encode distinct GAD proteins: GAD67 and GAD65, respectively. We have identified a third vertebrate GAD gene, GAD3. This gene is conserved in fishes as well as tetrapods. We analyzed protein sequence, gene structure, synteny, and phylogenetics to identify GAD3 as a homolog of GAD1 and GAD2...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402101/comparing-primate-crania-the-importance-of-fossils
#20
John G Fleagle, Christopher C Gilbert, Andrea L Baden
OBJECTIVES: Extant primate crania represent a small subset of primate crania that have existed. The main objective here is to examine how the inclusion of fossil crania changes our understanding of primate cranial diversity relative to analyses of extant primates. We hypothesize that fossil taxa will change the major axes of cranial shape, occupy new areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity of major primate clades, and fill in notable gaps separating major primate taxa/clades...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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