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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452903/extracellular-vesicles-as-key-mediators-of-plant-microbe-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Brian D Rutter, Roger W Innes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452211/impact-of-change-of-matrix-crystallinity-and-polymorphism-on-ovalbumin-release-from-lipid-based-implants
#2
Luisa Duque, Martin Körber, Roland Bodmeier
The objectives of this study were to prepare lipid-based implants by hot melt extrusion (HME) for the prolonged release of ovalbumin (OVA), and to relate protein release to crystallinity and polymorphic changes of the lipid matrix. Two lipids, glycerol tristearate and hydrogenated palm oil, with different composition and degree of crystallinity were studied. Solid OVA was dispersed within the lipid matrixes and it preserved its stability during extrusion. This was partially attributed to a protective effect of the lipidic matrix...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450412/clinically-approved-liposomal-nanomedicines-lessons-learned-from-the-biomolecular-corona
#3
Giulio Caracciolo
Nowadays, liposomes are the most successful drug delivery systems with a dozen drug products available in the clinic. Grafting poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) onto the liposome surface prevents protein binding thus prolonging blood circulation, while synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule with ligands (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and peptides) should promote selective accumulation in the tumor region with respect to healthy tissues. However, despite big efforts, advances have not outgrown the development stage and just a few targeted liposomal drugs are commercially available...
February 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449809/digging-into-lipid-membrane-permeation-for-cardiac-ion-channel-blocker-d-sotalol-with-all-atom-simulations
#4
Kevin R DeMarco, Slava Bekker, Colleen E Clancy, Sergei Y Noskov, Igor Vorobyov
Interactions of drug molecules with lipid membranes play crucial role in their accessibility of cellular targets and can be an important predictor of their therapeutic and safety profiles. Very little is known about spatial localization of various drugs in the lipid bilayers, their active form (ionization state) or translocation rates and therefore potency to bind to different sites in membrane proteins. All-atom molecular simulations may help to map drug partitioning kinetics and thermodynamics, thus providing in-depth assessment of drug lipophilicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447917/insertion-of-dengue-e-into-lipid-bilayers-studied-by-neutron-reflectivity-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#5
Juan M Vanegas, Frank Heinrich, David M Rogers, Bryan D Carson, Sadie La Bauve, Briana C Vernon, Bulent Akgun, Sushil Satija, Aihua Zheng, Margaret Kielian, Susan B Rempe, Michael S Kent
The envelope (E) protein of Dengue virus rearranges to a trimeric hairpin to mediate fusion of the viral and target membranes, which is essential for infectivity. Insertion of E into the target membrane serves to anchor E and possibly also to disrupt local order within the membrane. Both aspects are likely to be affected by the depth of insertion, orientation of the trimer with respect to the membrane normal, and the interactions that form between trimer and membrane. In the present work, we resolved the depth of insertion, the tilt angle, and the fundamental interactions for the soluble portion of Dengue E trimers (sE) associated with planar lipid bilayer membranes of various combinations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol (POPG), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE), and cholesterol (CHOL) by neutron reflectivity (NR) and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
February 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444432/surface-matrix-screening-identifies-semi-specific-interactions-that-improve-potency-of-a-near-pan-reactive-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody
#6
Young D Kwon, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Baoshan Zhang, Robert T Bailer, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Tatyana S Gindin, Bob Lin, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Amarendra Pegu, Stephen D Schmidt, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Xuejun Chen, Misook Choe, Ivelin S Georgiev, Vivian Jin, Marie Pancera, Reda Rawi, Keyun Wang, Rajoshi Chaudhuri, Lisa A Kueltzo, Slobodanka D Manceva, John-Paul Todd, Diana G Scorpio, Mikyung Kim, Ellis L Reinherz, Kshitij Wagh, Bette M Korber, Mark Connors, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Highly effective HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies could have utility in the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection. To improve the potency of 10E8, an antibody capable of near pan-HIV-1 neutralization, we engineered 10E8-surface mutants and screened for improved neutralization. Variants with the largest functional enhancements involved the addition of hydrophobic or positively charged residues, which were positioned to interact with viral membrane lipids or viral glycan-sialic acids, respectively. In both cases, the site of improvement was spatially separated from the region of antibody mediating molecular contact with the protein component of the antigen, thereby improving peripheral semi-specific interactions while maintaining unmodified dominant contacts responsible for broad recognition...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438347/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-basal-and-stressful-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Naima Zemirli, Etienne Morel, Diana Molino
The historical role of mitochondria resides in converting the energy released during the oxidation of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) into adenosine tri-phosphate, a major form of chemically stored energy which sustains cell growth and homeostasis. Beyond this role in bioenergetics regulation, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular processes including lipid metabolism, cellular calcium homeostasis, autophagy and immune responses. Furthermore, mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles: as all other cellular endomembranes, they are continuously moving along cytoskeleton, and, most importantly, they constantly interact one with each other by membrane tethering, fusion and fission...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437005/s-nitrosylation-in-regulation-of-inflammation-and-cell-damage
#8
Subhajit Dasgupta, Jenny-Jaramillo Gomez, Inderjit Singh, Mushfiquddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Cell signaling through nitric oxide (NO) is a multifaceted mechanism, which regulates metabolic activities and fate in different tissues. The peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formed as reaction product of nitric oxide radical and superoxide interacts with cell membrane phospholipids and proteins causing damage. OBJECTIVE: The reaction kinetics to form nitrotyrosine (ONOO-tyrosine) and/or nitrosylated cysteine (ONOO-cysteine) in protein molecules during posttranslational modification and nitration of lipids are therefore critical in determining cells' signaling mechanism for survival or apoptosis...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435599/an-overview-of-lectin-glycan-interactions-a-key-event-in-initiating-fungal-infection-and-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Suhas Ballal, Shashikala R Inamdar
Infections due to microfungi are of serious concern in many parts of the world. Many species of microfungi are known to cause systemic infection in human beings. Pathogenic microorganisms employ various molecular strategies for colonizing a susceptible host. Recent studies have shown the importance of lectins from microfungi that enable the pathogen to interact with the host, resulting in host immune response. These fungal lectins or adhesins show specific affinities to the glycans present on the membrane proteins or lipids...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434574/basal-and-dynamic-leptin-secretion-association-with-cardiometabolic-risk-and-body-weight-trajectories-in-african-americans-and-european-americans
#10
Sotonte Ebenibo, Chimaroke Edeoga, Ibiye Owei, Sam Dagogo-Jack
Background: Fasting plasma leptin levels reflect fat mass, but dynamic leptin responses to secretagogues, and the influence of race/ethnicity, have not been well studied. Here, we compared basal and stimulated leptin levels in relation to cardiometabolic risk and weight trajectories in black and white subjects. Subjects and methods: We studied 254 (127 black and 127 white) normoglycemic adults enrolled in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433439/legionella-effector-ankx-interacts-with-host-nuclear-protein-plekhn1
#11
Xiaobo Yu, Rebecca R Noll, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Samual C Allgood, Kristi Barker, Jeffrey L Caplan, Matthias P Machner, Joshua LaBaer, Ji Qiu, M Ramona Neunuebel
BACKGROUND: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila proliferates in human alveolar macrophages, resulting in a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Throughout the course of infection, L. pneumophila remains enclosed in a specialized membrane compartment that evades fusion with lysosomes. The pathogen delivers over 300 effector proteins into the host cell, altering host pathways in a manner that sets the stage for efficient pathogen replication. The L. pneumophila effector protein AnkX targets host Rab GTPases and functions in preventing fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with lysosomes...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432955/the-evolution-function-and-mechanisms-of-action-for-plant-defensins
#12
REVIEW
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432689/influence-of-parabens-on-bacteria-and-fungi-cellular-membranes-studies-in-model-two-dimensional-lipid-systems
#13
Michał Flasiński, Sara Kowal, Marcin Broniatowski, Pawel Wydro
Langmuir monolayers were used to study the influence of four commercially applied parabens on multicomponent systems composed of lipid species characteristic for the cellular membrane of microorganisms found in carbohydrates and proteins reach products, including food and cosmetics. The aim of the undertaken studies was to shed new light onto the problem of parabens interactions with membrane lipids and their affinity toward monolayers differing as regards the composition, mutual lipid ratios and the physicochemical properties...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431423/osmosis-driven-motion-type-modulation-of-biological-nanopores-for-parallel-optical-nucleic-acid-sensing
#14
Yuqin Wang, Shuanghong Yan, Pan-Ke Zhang, Zidao Zeng, Di Zhao, Jiaxin Wang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Shuo Huang
Recent developments in nanopore sequencing have inspired new concepts in precision medicine but limited in throughput. By optically encoding calcium flux from an array of nanopores, parallel measurements from hundreds of nanopores were reported while lateral drifts of biological nanopores set obstacles for signal processing. In this paper, optical single channel recording (oSCR) serves to track nanopores with high precision and a general principle of nanopore motion kinetics is quantitatively investigated. By finely adjusting the osmosis oriented interactions between the lipid/substrate interfaces,motions of nanopores could be controllably restricted...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431257/editorial-to-the-special-issue-biochemistry-of-protein-protein-and-protein-lipid-interactions-applications-to%C3%A2-biotechnology
#15
EDITORIAL
Enrico Dainese, Gianfranco Gilardi, Mauro Maccarrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428500/electrostatic-and-hydrophobic-interactions-of-lipid-associated-%C3%AE-synuclein-the-role-of-a-water-limited-interfaces-in-amyloid-fibrillation
#16
REVIEW
Tae Su Choi, Jong Yoon Han, Chae Eun Heo, Sun Woo Lee, Hugh I Kim
Human α-synuclein (αSyn) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) whose biological and pathological functions in brain neuronal cells have not yet been fully elucidated. αSyn intrinsic functions participate in aiding neurotransmitter trafficking through αSyn associations with lipid membranes. However, lipid-associated states of αSyn also induce amyloid self-assembly that is linked to the pathogenesis of various synucleinopathies. These contradicting actions arise from the limited water content near lipid-water interfaces and controls αSyn electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions...
February 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427078/perspective-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-study-of-cardiolipin-a-key-player-in-bacterial-cell-structure-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Janet M Wood
Cardiolipin (CL) is a key player in bacterial cell biology. CL accumulates at the poles of rod-shaped cells; the polar localization and function of diverse bacterial proteins are CL-dependent. Cardiolipin (CL) is an unusual phospholipid comprised of a glycerol headgroup coupled with two phosphatidate moieties. CL-rich membrane domains are often visualized with the fluorescent indicator 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange (NAO). Recent data show that NAO can also indicate phosphatidylglycerol localization under different experimental conditions, in the absence of CL...
February 9, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424543/balancing-force-field-protein-lipid-interactions-to-capture-transmembrane-helix-helix-association
#18
Jan Domański, Mark S P Sansom, Phillip J Stansfeld, Robert B Best
Atomistic simulations have recently been shown to be sufficiently accurate to reversibly fold globular proteins and have provided insights into folding mechanisms. Gaining similar understanding from simulations of membrane protein folding and association would be of great medical interest. All-atom simulations of the folding and assembly of transmembrane protein domains are much more challenging, not least due to very slow diffusion within the lipid bilayer membrane. Here, we focus on a simple and well-characterized prototype of membrane protein folding and assembly, namely the dimerization of glycophorin A, a homodimer of single transmembrane helices...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421170/plant-bioactives-and-redox-signaling-epicatechin-as-a-paradigm
#19
REVIEW
Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza, Monica Galleano
Polyphenols are bioactives claimed to be responsible for some of the health benefits provided by fruit and vegetables. It is currently accepted that the bioactivities of polyphenols can be mostly ascribed to their interactions with proteins and lipids. Such interactions can affect cell oxidant production and cell signaling, and explain in part the ability of polyphenols to promote health. EC can modulate redox sensitive signaling by: i) defining the extent of oxidant levels that can modify cell signaling, function, and fate, e...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417057/fat-storage-inducing-transmembrane-fit-or-fitm-proteins-are-related-to-lipid-phosphatase-phosphotransferase-enzymes
#20
Matthew Hayes, Vineet Choudhary, Namrata Ojha, John Jh Shin, Gil-Soo Han, George M Carman, Christopher Jr Loewen, William A Prinz, Timothy Levine
Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM) proteins have been implicated in the partitioning of triacylglycerol to lipid droplets and the budding of lipid droplets from the ER. At the molecular level, the sole relevant interaction is that FITMs directly bind to triacyglycerol and diacylglycerol, but how they function at the molecular level is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two FITM homologues: Scs3p and Yft2p. Scs3p was initially identified because deletion leads to inositol auxotrophy, with an unusual sensitivity to addition of choline...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Cell
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