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Cross membrane signaling

Takeshi Minashima, Thorsten Kirsch
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) is expressed in articular chondrocytes at levels higher than in other mesenchymal cell types. However, the role of AnxA6 in articular chondrocytes is not known. Here we show that complete lack of AnxA6 functions resulted in increased ß-catenin activation in Wnt3a-treated murine articular chondrocytes, whereas AnxA6 expressing articular chondrocytes showed decreased ß-catenin activation. High expression of AnxA6 in human articular chondrocytes showed the highest inhibition of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling...
2018: PloS One
Miklós Lengyel, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
Two-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) are responsible for background K+ currents and regulate the resting membrane potential and cellular excitability. Their activity is controlled by a large variety of physicochemical factors and intracellular signaling pathways. The majority of these effects converge on the intracellular C-terminus of the channels, resulting in the modification of the gating at the selectivity filter. Another gating mechanism, the activation gate at the helix bundle crossing is also well documented in other K+ channel families, however, it remains uncertain whether this type of gating is functional in K2P channels...
2018: PloS One
Wenqi Yu, Dominique M Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are secreted across septal membranes for assembly into the bacterial cross-wall. This localized secretion requires the YSIRK/GXXS motif signal peptide, however the mechanisms supporting precursor trafficking are not known. We show here that the signal peptide of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is cleaved at the YSIRK/GXXS motif. A SpA signal peptide mutant defective for YSIRK/GXXS cleavage is also impaired for septal secretion and co-purifies with SecA, SecDF and LtaS...
May 14, 2018: ELife
Clément Ricard, Erica D Arroyo, Cynthia X He, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Gabriel Lepousez, Marco Canepari, Daniel Fiole
Imaging the brain of living laboratory animals at a microscopic scale can be achieved by two-photon microscopy thanks to the high penetrability and low phototoxicity of the excitation wavelengths used. However, knowledge of the two-photon spectral properties of the myriad fluorescent probes is generally scarce and, for many, non-existent. In addition, the use of different measurement units in published reports further hinders the design of a comprehensive imaging experiment. In this review, we compile and homogenize the two-photon spectral properties of 280 fluorescent probes...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yuanbo Hu, Lesha Wang, Lei Jiang, Huazi Xu, Sipin Zhu
Bone remodeling requires an intimate cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is tightly coordinated with regulatory proteins that interact through complex autocrine/paracrine processes. Osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteomacs and vascular endothelial cells also regulate bone remodeling in the basic multicellular unit (BMU) via cell signaling networks of ligand-receptor complexes. In addition, through secreted and membrane-bound factors in the bone microenvironment, T and B lymphocytes mediate bone homeostasis for osteoimmunology...
June 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Yuxiu Zou, Siqi Huang, Yixin Liao, Xupeng Zhu, Yiqin Chen, Long Chen, Fang Liu, Xiaoxiao Hu, Haijun Tu, Liang Zhang, Zhangkun Liu, Zhuo Chen, Weihong Tan
For cancer diagnosis, technologies must be capable of molecular recognition, and they must possess a built-in pattern recognition component for efficient imaging and discrimination of targeted cancer cells. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags based on plasmonically active nanoparticles hold promise for accurate and efficient cancer cell recognition, owing to ultra-narrow peak and sensitive optical properties. However, a complex fingerprint spectrum increases data analysis difficulty, making it necessary to develop multicolor SERS tags with a simple fingerprint spectrum...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Julie K L Sinclair, Allison S Walker, Amy E Doerner, Alanna Schepartz
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts through its extracellular domain with seven different growth factors. These factors induce different structures within the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane (JM) segment of the dimeric receptor and propagate different growth factor-dependent signals to the cell interior. How this process occurs is unknown. Here we apply diverse experimental and computational tools to show that growth factor identity is encoded by the EGFR transmembrane (TM) helix into discrete helix dimer populations that differ in both cross-location and cross-angle...
April 21, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Fanlu Meng, Yao Xiao, Lihua Guo, Hongmei Zeng, Xiufen Yang, Dewen Qiu
PeaT1 is a proteinaceous elicitor from fungal pathogen Alternaria tenuissima. Our previous research revealed that this elicitor could induce defense response and enhance disease resistance in various plants including Nicotiana plants. However, immune activation mechanisms whereby PeaT1 elicits defense response remain unclear. In this study, the association between elicitor protein PeaT1 and the plasma membrane was assessed using the FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) labeling method. A PeaT1-interacting protein was isolated via 125 I-PeaT1 cross-linking and Far Western blot analyses, and designated PtBP1 (PeaT1 Binding Protein 1)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Ramit Singla, Kunal Prakash, Kunj Bihari Gupta, Shishir Upadhyay, Monisha Dhiman, Vikas Jaitak
In the present study, we have designed and synthesized indole derivatives by coalescing the indole nucleus with chromene carbonitrile and dihydropyridine nucleus. Two compounds 5c and 6d were selected from series I and II after sequential combinatorial library generation, docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) filtering, anti-proliferative activity, cytotoxicity, and ER-α competitor assay kit by utilizing estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) dominant T47D BC cells line and PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells)...
April 24, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi, Khadijeh Ashtari, Ahmad Salimi, Mehdi Farokhi, Jalal Pourahmad
Silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNPs) as a natural polymer have been utilized in biomedical applications such as suture, tissue engineering-based scaffolds, and drug delivery carriers. Since there is little data regarding the toxicity effects on different cells and tissues, we aimed to determine the toxicity mechanisms of SFNPs on human lymphocytes and monocytes based on reliable methods. Our results showed that SFNPs (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL) induced oxidative stress via increasing reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψ) collapse, which was correlated to cytochrome c release and Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) ratio increase as well as lysosomal as another toxicity mechanism, which led to cytosolic release of lysosomal digestive proteases, phosphor lipases, and apoptosis signaling...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Atsushi Kobiyama, Kazuho Ikeo, Md Shaheed Reza, Jonaira Rashid, Yuichiro Yamada, Yuri Ikeda, Daisuke Ikeda, Nanami Mizusawa, Shigeru Sato, Takehiko Ogata, Mitsuru Jimbo, Toshiaki Kudo, Shinnosuke Kaga, Shiho Watanabe, Kimiaki Naiki, Yoshimasa Kaga, Katsuhiko Mineta, Vladimir Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Shugo Watabe
Ofunato Bay, in Japan, is the home of buoy-and-rope-type oyster aquaculture activities. Since the oysters filter suspended materials and excrete organic matter into the seawater, bacterial communities residing in its vicinity may show dynamic changes depending on the oyster culture activities. We employed a shotgun metagenomic technique to study bacterial communities near oyster aquaculture facilities at the center of the bay (KSt. 2) and compared the results with those of two other localities far from the station, one to the northeast (innermost bay, KSt...
April 27, 2018: Gene
Seong U Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Hyoyoung Mun, Yuseon Noh, Min-Gon Kim
We here report an enhanced colorimetric method using enzymatic amplification with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate (BCIP) precipitation for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-selective filtration. We constructed a sensor by conjugating biotinylated anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody and streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (STA-AP) to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The large E. coli O157:H7-conjugates complexes did not penetrate through the pore and remained on the membrane filter surface...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Ahadon, S Abdul Aziz, C L Wong, C F Leong
INTRODUCTION: Microparticles are membrane bound vesicles, measuring less than 1.0 um, which are released during cellular activation or during apoptosis. Studies have shown that these circulating microparticles play a role in coagulation, cell signaling and cellular interactions. Increased levels of circulating microparticles have been observed in a number of conditions where there is vascular dysfunction, thrombosis and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the various plasma-derived microparticles in patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and to compare them with normal control...
April 2018: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Andrea Magrì, Simona Reina, Vito De Pinto
Cancer and neurodegeneration are different classes of diseases that share the involvement of mitochondria in their pathogenesis. Whereas the high glycolytic rate (the so-called Warburg metabolism) and the suppression of apoptosis are key elements for the establishment and maintenance of cancer cells, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased cell death mark neurodegeneration. As a main actor in the regulation of cell metabolism and apoptosis, VDAC may represent the common point between these two broad families of pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Peter L Nesper, Brian T Soetikno, Alison D Treister, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To explore whether quantitative three-dimensional (3D) analysis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography (PR-OCTA) is associated with treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 51 eyes of 49 patients undergoing individualized anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD. Patients were classified as "good" or "poor" responders, requiring injections at less or more frequently than 6-week intervals, respectively...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ashlee M Strubberg, Jinghua Liu, Nancy M Walker, Casey D Stefanski, R John MacLeod, Scott T Magness, Lane L Clarke
Background & Aims: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and CF mouse models have increased risk for gastrointestinal tumors. CF mice show augmented intestinal proliferation of unknown etiology and an altered intestinal environment. We examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, stem cell proliferation, and its functional expression in the active intestinal stem cell (ISC) population. Dysregulation of intracellular pH (pHi ) in CF ISCs was investigated for facilitation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Tania E Velez, Paul J Bryce, Kathryn E Hulse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms...
April 17, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
James K Carrow, Lauren M Cross, Robert W Reese, Manish K Jaiswal, Carl A Gregory, Roland Kaunas, Irtisha Singh, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Two-dimensional nanomaterials, an ultrathin class of materials such as graphene, nanoclays, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and transition metal oxides (TMOs), have emerged as a new generation of materials due to their unique properties relative to macroscale counterparts. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics following exposure to these nanomaterials. Here, we investigate the interactions of 2D nanosilicates, a layered clay, with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) at the whole-transcriptome level by high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq)...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Jay P Glover, Orly Gal-Or, Katie M Litts, Jeffrey D Messinger, Yuhua Zhang, Mariano Cozzi, Marco Pellegrini, K Bailey Freund, Giovanni Staurenghi, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: To survey Friedman lipid globules by high-resolution histologic examination and to compare with multimodal imaging of hyporeflective caverns in eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular (AMD) and other retinal diseases. DESIGN: Histologic survey of donor eyes with and without AMD. Clinical case series with multimodal imaging analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Donor eyes (n = 139; 26 with early AMD, 13 with GA, 40 with nAMD, 52 with a healthy macula, and 8 with other or unknown characteristics) and 41 eyes of 28 participants with GA (n = 16), nAMD (n = 8), Stargardt disease (n = 4), cone dystrophy (n = 2), pachychoroid spectrum (n = 6), choroidal hemangioma (n = 1), and healthy eyes (n = 4)...
April 3, 2018: Ophthalmology
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