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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507517/the-role-of-unfolded-protein-response-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-special-focus-on-prion-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Tariq Hussain, Lifeng Yang
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative pathologies characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein named prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. PrP(Sc) accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in a dysregulated calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and subsequent initiation of unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms for the transition between adaptation to ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507245/conformational-changes-of-inter-domain-linker-mediate-mechanical-signal-transmission-in-sensor-kinase-bvgs
#2
Elodie Lesne, Elian Dupré, Camille Locht, Rudy Antoine, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, controls the expression of its large virulence regulon in a coordinated manner through the two-component system BvgAS. BvgS is a dimeric, multi-domain sensor-kinase. Each monomer comprises in succession tandem periplasmic Venus flytrap (VFT) domains, a transmembrane segment, a cytoplasmic Per-ArnT-Sim (PAS) domain, a kinase module and additional phosphorelay domains. BvgS shifts between kinase and phosphatase modes of activity in response to chemical modulators that modify the clamshell motions of the VFT domains...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502790/crystallographic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-dimeric-architecture-of-site-2-protease
#3
Magdalena Schacherl, Monika Gompert, Els Pardon, Tobias Lamkemeyer, Jan Steyaert, Ulrich Baumann
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis by members of the site-2 protease family (S2P) is an essential signal transduction mechanism conserved from bacteria to humans. There is some evidence that extra-membranous domains, like PDZ and CBS domains, regulate the proteolytic activity of S2Ps and that some members act as dimers. Here we report the crystal structure of the regulatory CBS domain pair of S2P from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, AfS2P, in the apo and nucleotide-bound form in complex with a specific Nanobody from llama...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498728/a-family-affair-a-ral-exocyst-centered-network-links-ras-rac-rho-signaling-to-control-cell-migration
#4
Giulia Zago, Marco Biondini, Jacques Camonis, Maria Carla Parrini
Cell migration is central to many developmental, physiologic and pathological processes, including cancer progression. The Ral GTPases (RalA and RalB) which act down-stream the Ras oncogenes, are key players in the coordination between membrane trafficking and actin polymerization. A major direct effector of Ral, the exocyst complex, works in polarized exocytosis and is at the center of multiple protein-protein interactions that support cell migration by promoting protrusion formation, front-rear polarization, and extra-cellular matrix degradation...
May 12, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484221/a-novel-non-genomic-glucocorticoid-signaling-mediated-by-a-membrane-palmitoylated-glucocorticoid-receptor-cross-talks-with-gnrh-in-gonadotrope-cells
#5
Mohsen Ayrout, Violaine Simon, Valérie Bernard, Nadine Binart, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji, Marc Lombès, Stéphanie Chauvin
Glucocorticoid hormones (GC) are the main stress mediators associated with reproductive disorders. GC exert their effects through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) principally acting as a transcription factor. Beside well-established GR-mediated genomic actions, several lines of evidence suggest a role for rapid membrane-initiated GC signaling in gonadotrope cells triggered by a membrane-associated GR. Herein, we demonstrate the existence of a specific membrane-initiated GC signaling in LβT2 gonadotrope cells involving two related phosphoproteins: Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and synapsin-I...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479401/development-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-igm-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-and-analysis-of-phagocytosis-of-fluorescence-microspheres-by-migm-lymphocytes
#6
Shun Yang, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
In this work, the two positive hybridomas designated as 1B2 and 2G9 secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against half-smooth tongue sole IgM were produced and then cloned by limited dilution. Western blotting showed that MAbs 1B2 and 2G9 could specifically react with the heavy and light chains of IgM, respectively. The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that green fluorescent signals were detected on the membrane of lymphocytes, which indicated that membrane-bound IgM (mIgM) could be recognized by both MAbs 1B2 and 2G9...
May 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469638/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p50-in-astrocyte-mediated-fate-specification-of-adult-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC) and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459396/-mechanical-ventilation-leads-to-remodeling-of-diaphragma-and-soleus-in-rats
#8
Lei Shao, Zhifang Wang, Feifei Wang, Jiaru Huang, Xiaoping Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the structural response of diaphragm and soleus of the rat after mechanical ventilation (MV), and to explore the specific mechanism of the dysfunction of both muscles. METHODS: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group and MV group, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in MV group were treated with controlled ventilation and maintained anesthesia, and those in control group were only anesthetized without MV and maintained anesthesia...
January 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445761/live-cell-super-resolution-reveals-f-actin-and-plasma-membrane-dynamics-at-the-t-cell-synapse
#9
George W Ashdown, Garth L Burn, David J Williamson, Elvis Pandžić, Ruby Peters, Michael Holden, Helge Ewers, Lin Shao, Paul W Wiseman, Dylan M Owen
The cortical actin cytoskeleton has been shown to be critical for the reorganization and heterogeneity of plasma membrane components of many cells, including T cells. Building on previous studies at the T cell immunological synapse, we quantitatively assess the structure and dynamics of this meshwork using live-cell superresolution fluorescence microscopy and spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that not only does the dense actin cortex flow in a retrograde fashion toward the synapse center, but the plasma membrane itself shows similar behavior...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432021/the-er-phagosome-connection-in-the-era-of-membrane-contact-sites
#10
REVIEW
Paula Nunes-Hasler, Nicolas Demaurex
Phagocytosis is an essential mechanism through which innate immune cells ingest foreign material that is either destroyed or used to generate and present antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. While a role for the ER during phagosome biogenesis has been recognized, whether fusion with ER cisternae or vesicular derivatives occurs has been the source of much contention. Membrane contact sites (MCS) are tight appositions between ER membranes and various organelles that coordinate multiple functions including localized signalling, lipid transfer and trafficking...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431242/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-a-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-complex-with-grk5
#11
Konstantin E Komolov, Yang Du, Nguyen Minh Duc, Robin M Betz, João P G L M Rodrigues, Ryan D Leib, Dhabaleswar Patra, Georgios Skiniotis, Christopher M Adams, Ron O Dror, Ka Young Chung, Brian K Kobilka, Jeffrey L Benovic
The phosphorylation of agonist-occupied G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) functions to turn off G-protein signaling and turn on arrestin-mediated signaling. While a structural understanding of GPCR/G-protein and GPCR/arrestin complexes has emerged in recent years, the molecular architecture of a GPCR/GRK complex remains poorly defined. We used a comprehensive integrated approach of cross-linking, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS), electron microscopy, mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and computational docking to analyze GRK5 interaction with the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411060/in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-candida-activity-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-and-their-activity-against-biofilm-forming-isolates
#12
Rose Anny Costa Silva, Cecília Rocha da Silva, João Batista de Andrade Neto, Anderson Ramos da Silva, Rosana Sousa Campos, Letícia Serpa Sampaio, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires do Nascimento, Brenda da Silva Gaspar, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Alexandre Josino, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro, Danielle Macedo Gaspar, David Freitas de Lucena, Manoel Odorico de Moraes, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior
Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409457/detection-and-immunolabeling-of-peroxisomal-proteins
#13
Tina A Schrader, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes are essential organelles in mammals which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. The spectrum of their functions in human health and disease is far from being complete, and unexpected and novel roles of peroxisomes are being discovered. To date, those include novel biological roles in antiviral defence, as intracellular signaling platforms and as protective organelles in sensory cells. Furthermore, peroxisomes are part of a complex network of interacting subcellular compartments which involves metabolic cooperation, cross-talk and membrane contacts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404644/preprotein-mature-domains-contain-translocase-targeting-signals-that-are-essential-for-secretion
#14
Katerina E Chatzi, Marios Frantzeskos Sardis, Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Marina Koukaki, Nikolina Šoštarić, Albert Konijnenberg, Frank Sobott, Charalampos G Kalodimos, Spyridoula Karamanou, Anastassios Economou
Secretory proteins are only temporary cytoplasmic residents. They are typically synthesized as preproteins, carrying signal peptides N-terminally fused to their mature domains. In bacteria secretion largely occurs posttranslationally through the membrane-embedded SecA-SecYEG translocase. Upon crossing the plasma membrane, signal peptides are cleaved off and mature domains reach their destinations and fold. Targeting to the translocase is mediated by signal peptides. The role of mature domains in targeting and secretion is unclear...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402720/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-related-protein-1-inhibit-retinal-neovascularization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#15
Ping Zhang, Hong Wang, Hui Cao, Xun Xu, Tao Sun
PURPOSE: To explore the inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) on retinal angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanisms in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were classified into three groups as control group, OIR nonintervention group, and OIR intervention group. Postnatal day 12 (P12) mice in OIR intervention group were received recombinant mouse IGFBP-rP1 (50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) intravitreal injection...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399645/prohibitin-at-the-crossroads-of-obesity-linked-diabetes-and-cancer
#16
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
The promoter of a gene that is selectively expressed in just a few cell types provides unique opportunities to study: (1) the pleiotropic function of a protein in two different cell types including the cell compartment specific function, and (2) the crosstalk between two cell/tissue types at the systemic level. This is not possible with a ubiquitous or a highly specific gene promoter. The adipocyte protein-2 ( aP2) is one such gene. It is primarily expressed in adipocytes, but also selectively in monocytic macrophages and dendritic cells, among various immune cell types...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397857/reproductive-stage-physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-reciprocal-populations-derived-from-tolerant-horkuch-and-susceptible-ir29-rice
#17
Samsad Razzaque, Taslima Haque, Sabrina M Elias, Md Sazzadur Rahman, Sudip Biswas, Scott Schwartz, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Harkamal Walia, Thomas E Juenger, Zeba I Seraj
Global increase in salinity levels has made it imperative to identify novel sources of genetic variation for tolerance traits, especially in rice. The rice landrace Horkuch, endemic to the saline coastal area of Bangladesh, was used in this study as the source of tolerance in reciprocal crosses with the sensitive but high-yielding IR29 variety for discovering transcriptional variation associated with salt tolerance in the resulting populations. The cytoplasmic effect of the Horkuch background in leaves under stress showed functional enrichment for signal transduction, DNA-dependent regulation and transport activities...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389204/interactions-of-pannexin1-channels-with-purinergic-and-nmda-receptor-channels
#18
REVIEW
Shuo Li, Ivana Bjelobaba, Stanko S Stojilkovic
Pannexins are a three-member family of vertebrate plasma membrane spanning molecules that have homology to the invertebrate gap junction forming proteins, the innexins. However, pannexins do not form gap junctions but operate as plasma membrane channels. The best-characterized member of these proteins, Pannexin1 (Panx1) was suggested to be functionally associated with purinergic P2X and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels. Activation of these receptor channels by their endogenous ligands leads to cross-activation of Panx1 channels...
April 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387499/versatile-bottom-up-synthesis-of-tethered-bilayer-lipid-membranes-on-nanoelectronic-biosensor-devices
#19
Weiwei Zhou, Peter J Burke
Interfacing nanoelectronic devices with cell membranes can enable multiplexed detection of fundamental biological processes (such as signal transduction, electrophysiology, and import/export control) even down to the single ion channel level, which can lead to a variety of applications in pharmacology and clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and control the chemical and electrical interface between the device and the lipid bilayer membrane. Here, we develop a simple bottom-up approach to assemble tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) on silicon wafers and glass slides, using a covalent tether attachment chemistry based on silane functionalization, followed by step-by-step stacking of two other functional molecular building blocks (oligo-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and lipid)...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382204/nitrosopersulfide-ssno-decomposes-in-the-presence-of-sulfide-cyanide-or-glutathione-to-give-hsno-sno-consequences-for-the-assumed-role-in-cell-signalling
#20
Rudolf Wedmann, Ivana Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Milos R Filipovic
The emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a new signalling molecule able to control vasodilation, neurotransmission and immune response, prompted questions about its possible cross-talk with the other gasontransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). It has been shown that H2S reacts with NO and its metabolites and several potentially biologically active species have been identified. Thionitrous acid (HSNO) was proposed to be an intermediate product of the reaction of S-nitrosothiols with H2S capable of crossing the membranes and causing further trans-nitrosation of proteins...
April 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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