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Cross membrane signaling

Carmine Carbone, Elena Di Gennaro, Geny Piro, Maria Rita Milone, Biagio Pucci, Michele Caraglia, Alfredo Budillon
Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca(2+) dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Jin-Jer Chen, Wen-Rui Hao, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Ju-Chi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac fibrosis is the major pathophysiological process, contributing to the development of diastolic heart failure. We examine the role of macrophage-derived galectin-3 (gal-3) in cardiac fibrosis and diastolic function in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). DESIGN AND METHOD: wild-type (WT) and gal-3 knock-out (KO) mice subjected to TAC; immunohistochemistry for myocardial macrophage infiltration,gal-3,and CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) expression; picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis; FACS flow- cytometry for defining the origin of myocardial macrophages...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Chih-Chin Hsu, Shiang-Fu Huang, Jong-Shyan Wang, Wing-Keung Chu, Ju-En Nien, Wei-Shan Chen, Shu-Er Chow
BACKGROUND: N-cadherin is a trans-membrane adhesion molecule associated with advanced carcinoma progression and poor prognosis. The effect of N-cadherin on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) regulation is implicated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell invasion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exposure of NPC cells to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or macrophage conditioned media (CM) upregulated MMP-9 and N-cadherin cleavage, which resulted in NPC cell invasion...
October 13, 2016: BMC Cancer
Zifan Gong, Mackenzie T Walls, Alisha N Karley, Amy J Karlsson
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of small peptides that are able to cross cell membranes via direct translocation or endocytosis. They have been widely used to deliver tethered bioactive molecules to cells, but recombinantly producing CPPs as fusions to protein cargo leads to low yields. We used Escherichia coli cells to recombinantly produce genetic fusions of NPFSD (derived from a yeast endocytosis signal) and pVEC (derived from a murine vascular endothelium cadherin) to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with and without a flexible glycine-serine linker between the CPP and GFP...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Rachel S Welt, Jonathan A Welt, David Kostyal, Yamuna D Gangadharan, Virginia Raymond, Sydney Welt
The concept that the B-cell Receptor (BCR) initiates a driver pathway in lymphoma-leukemia has been clinically validated. Previously described unique BCR Ig-class-specific sequences (proximal domains (PDs)), are not expressed in serum Ig (sIg). As a consequence of sequence and structural differences in the membrane IgM (mIgM) µ-Constant Domain 4, additional epitopes distinguish mIgM from sIgM. mAbs generated to linear and conformational epitopes, restricted to mIgM and not reacting with sIgM, were generated despite the relative hydrophobicity of the PDm sequence...
October 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Sudeep Kumar, Hyun Joo Lee, Hee-Sae Park, Keesook Lee
BACKGROUND: Ras-related proteins in brain (Rab)-family proteins are key members of the membrane trafficking pathway in cells. In addition, these proteins have been identified to have diverse functions such as cross-talking with different kinases and playing a role in cellular signaling. However, only a few Rab proteins have been found to have a role in male germ cell development. The most notable functions of this process are performed by numerous testis-specific and/or germ cell-specific genes...
October 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
P Goossens, C Martineau-Corcos, F Saïdi, J A Martens, F Taulelle
Nafion proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel cell applications are extensively studied and commercially applied, but their unique proton conduction capabilities are still somewhat unexplained. For studying proton dynamics in situ, molecular level spectroscopic techniques have been of limited utility so far. By solid-state (1)H and (19)F double resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using the recently revived multiple contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) pulse sequence along with double-quantum (1)H-(1)H filtering, high resolution proton populations distinct from the dominant water resonance were observed in Nafion for the first time...
October 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sunit K Singh
HIV-Tat protein displays an array of functions, essential for successful HIV replication. The structural flexibility of Tat protein has been regarded as one of the unique features responsible for sustaining diverse functions, ranging from cell membrane-crossing ability to strong affinity for RNA binding. RNA binding ability and presence of multiple interacting domains in the same protein is very important property of HIV-Tat protein. Tat protein has shown great ability to influence cellular and viral gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Current HIV Research
Wei Chen, Xiayu Xia, Nan Song, Ying Wang, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Qi Kong, Xianmin Pan, Chuan Qin
BACKGROUND: Mouse has been extensively used as a tool for investigating the onset and development of human neurological disorders. As a first step to construct a transgenic mouse model of human brain lesions, it is of fundamental importance to clarify the similarity and divergence of genetic background between non-diseased human and mouse brain tissues. METHODS: We systematically compared, based on large scale integrated microarray data, the transcriptomes of three anatomically distinct brain regions; prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP) and striatum (STR), across human and mouse...
2016: PloS One
Zaffar K Haque, Da-Zhi Wang
In the past decades, the cardiovascular community has laid out the fundamental signaling cascades that become awry in the cardiomyocyte during the process of pathologic cardiac remodeling. These pathways are initiated at the cell membrane and work their way to the nucleus to mediate gene expression. Complexity is multiplied as the cardiomyocyte is subjected to cross talk with other cells as well as a barrage of extracellular stimuli and mechanical stresses. In this review, we summarize the signaling cascades that play key roles in cardiac function and then we proceed to describe emerging concepts of how the cardiomyocyte senses the mechanical and environmental stimuli to transition to the deleterious genetic program that defines pathologic cardiac remodeling...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
A Ramanavicius, I Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene, A Kisieliute, J Petroniene, A Ramanaviciene
In this research scanning electrochemical microscopy was applied for the investigation of immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Two redox mediators based system was applied in order to increase the efficiency of charge transfer from yeast cells. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) was applied as a lipophilic redox mediator, which has the ability to cross the cell's membrane; another redox mediator was ferricyanide, which acted as a hydrophylic electron acceptor able to transfer electrons from the PQ to the working electrode of SECM...
September 28, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Anna Bagnato, Laura Rosanò
Metastatization is a complex multistep process requiring fine-tuned regulated cytoskeleton re-modeling, mediated by the cross-talk of actin with interacting partners, such as the Rho GTPases. Our expanding knowledge of invadopodia, small invasive membrane protrusions composed of a core of F-actin, actin regulators and actin-binding proteins, and hotspots for secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteinases, contributes to clarify critical steps of the metastatic program. Growth factor receptors and their intermediate signaling molecules, along with matrix adhesion and rigidity, pH and hypoxia, act as drivers of cytoskeleton changes and invadopodia formation...
October 3, 2016: Small GTPases
Claire Dossier, Agnès Jamin, Georges Deschênes
Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is marked by a massive proteinuria and loss of podocytes foot processes. The mechanism of the disease remains debated but recent publications suggest a primary role of EBV. EBV replication in the peripheral blood is found in 50% of patients during the first flare of the disease. The genetic locus of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome was also identified as influencing antibodies directed against EBNA1. EBV is able to establish, latent benign infection in memory B cells that display phenotypes similar to antigen-selected memory B cells...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
Sarah A Shelby, Sarah L Veatch, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird
The allergic response is initiated on the plasma membrane of mast cells by phosphorylation of the receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE), FcɛRI, by Lyn kinase after IgE-FcɛRI complexes are cross-linked by multivalent antigen. Signal transduction requires reorganization of receptors and membrane signaling proteins, but this spatial regulation is not well-defined. We used fluorescence localization microscopy (FLM) and pair-correlation analysis to measure the codistribution of IgE-FcɛRI and Lyn on the plasma membrane of fixed cells with 20-25 nm resolution...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Nirav Y Shelat, Sidhartha Parhi, Marc Ostermeier
Engineering heterologous nucleoside kinases inside E. coli is a difficult process due to the integral role nucleosides play in cell division and transcription. Nucleoside analogs are used in many kinase screens that depend on cellular metabolization of the analogs. However, metabolic activation of these analogs can be toxic through disruptions of DNA replication and transcription because of the analogs' structural similarities to native nucleosides. Furthermore, the activity of engineered kinases can be masked by endogenous kinases in the cytoplasm, which leads to more difficulties in assessing target activity...
2016: PloS One
Jin-Jer Chen, Wen-Rui Hao, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Ju-Chi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac fibrosis is the major pathophysiological process, contributing to the development of diastolic heart failure. We examine the role of macrophage-derived galectin-3 (gal-3) in cardiac fibrosis and diastolic function in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). DESIGN AND METHOD: wild-type (WT) and gal-3 knock-out (KO) mice subjected to TAC; immunohistochemistry for myocardial macrophage infiltration,gal-3,and CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) expression; picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis; FACS flow- cytometry for defining the origin of myocardial macrophages...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Meijing Lan, Yirong Guo, Ying Zhao, Yihua Liu, Wenjun Gui, Guonian Zhu
This paper describes the development of a new multiplex immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seven pesticides (triazophos, methyl-parathion, fenpropathrin, carbofuran, thiacloprid, chlorothalonil, and carbendazim). Sixteen pairs of pesticide antibodies and antigens were screened for reactivity and cross-reaction. A microarray chip consisting of seven antigens immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane was then constructed. Nanogold was employed for labeling and signal amplification to obtain a sensitive colorimetric immunoassay...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Dilip Mukherjee, Suravi Majumder, Sujata Roy Moulik, Puja Pal, Shreyasi Gupta, Payel Guha, Dhynendra Kumar
Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for survival and reproduction of all animals. The pathways that regulate gonadal steroidogenesis are therefore conserved among animals from the steroidogenic enzymes to the intracellular signaling molecules and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the activity of these enzymes. Regulation of fish ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by gonadotropin (GtH) and GPCRs revealed interaction between adenylate cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) and also MAP kinase pathway...
September 8, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Malik Q Mahmood, David Reid, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Darryl A Knight, Sukhwinder S Sohal, Eugene H Walters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airflow obstruction usually due to cigarette smoking. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, and in particular a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may well be an intermediatory between smoking and both airway fibrosis and lung cancer. The downstream classical or 'canonical' TGF-β1 pathway is via the phosphorylated (p) Smad transcription factor system...
September 11, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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