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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150974/reciprocal-interactions-between-bile-acids-and-gut-microbiota-in-human-liver-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Tadashi Ikegami, Akira Honda
The gut microbiota (GM) play a central role in their hosts' metabolism of bile acids (BAs) by regulating deconjugation, dehydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and epimerization reactions to generate unconjugated free BAs and secondary BAs. These BAs generated by the GM are potent signaling molecules that interact with BA receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). Each BA has a differential affinity to these receptors; therefore, alterations in BA composition by GM could modify the intensity of receptor signaling...
November 18, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138251/mitochondrial-inner-membrane-protease-yme1-degrades-outer-membrane-proteins-tom22-and-om45
#2
Xi Wu, Lanlan Li, Hui Jiang
Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles playing essential metabolic and signaling functions. The mitochondrial proteome is under surveillance by two proteolysis systems: the ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades mitochondrial outer-membrane (MOM) proteins, and the AAA proteases maintain the proteostasis of intramitochondrial compartments. We previously identified a Doa1-Cdc48(-Ufd1-Npl4) complex that retrogradely translocates ubiquitinated MOM proteins to the cytoplasm for degradation. In this study, we report the unexpected identification of MOM proteins whose degradation requires the Yme1(-Mgr1-Mgr3)i-AAA protease complex in mitochondrial inner membrane...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137913/neutrophil-cd16b-crosslinking-induces-lipid-raft-mediated-activation-of-shp-2-and-affects-cytokine-expression-and-retarded-neutrophil-apoptosis
#3
H Yang, H Jiang, Y Song, D J Chen, X J Shen, J H Chen
Two different types of FcRs for IgG are constitutively expressed on the surface of human neutrophils, namely, FcγRIIA (CD32a) and FcγRIIIB (CD16b). Unlike FcγRIIA, FcγRIIIb is GPI anchored to the cell membrane and its signal transduction is still ambiguous. To further understand the signal transduction of CD16b, we compared neutrophil cytokine expression and apoptosis by the cross-linking of CD32a and CD16b respectively. We found that both CD32a and CD16b crosslinking can activate neutrophils, but did not exactly share cytokine expression profiles...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121774/sphingolipids-and-redox-signaling-in-renal-regulation-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#4
Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Guangbi Li, RaMi Lee, Pin Lan Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingolipids play critical roles in the membrane biology and intracellular signaling events that influence cellular behavior and function. Our review focuses on the cellular mechanisms and functional relevance of the cross talk between sphingolipids and redox signaling, which may be critically implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases. Recent Advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids can regulate cellular redox homeostasis through the regulation of NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and antioxidant enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118414/cellular%C3%A2-information-dynamics-through-transmembrane-flow-of-ions
#5
Robert A Gatenby, B Roy Frieden
We propose cells generate large transmembrane ion gradients to form information circuits that detect, process, and respond to environmental perturbations or signals. In this model, the specialized gates of transmembrane ion channels function as information detectors that communicate to the cell through rapid and (usually) local pulses of ions. Information in the ion "puffs" is received and processed by the cell through resulting changes in charge density and/or mobile cation (and/or anion) concentrations alter the localization and function of peripheral membrane proteins...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116752/nonoptical-detection-of-allergic-response-with-a-cell-coupled-gate-field-effect-transistor
#6
Haoyue Yang, Masatoshi Honda, Akiko Saito, Taira Kajisa, Yuhki Yanase, Toshiya Sakata
In this study, we report the label-free and reliable detection of allergic response using a cell-coupled gate field-effect transistor (cell-based FET). Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were cultured as a signal transduction interface to induce allergic reaction on the gate oxide surface of the FET, because IgE antibodies, which bind to Fcε receptors at the RBL-2H3 cell membrane, are specifically cross-linked by allergens, resulting in the allergic response of RBL-2H3 cells. In fact, the surface potential at the FET gate decreased owing to secretions such as histamine from the IgE-bound RBL-2H3 cells, which reacted with the allergen...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109154/hierarchical-protein-targeting-and-secretion-is-controlled-by-an-affinity-switch-in-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Athina G Portaliou, Konstantinos C Tsolis, Maria S Loos, Vassileia Balabanidou, Josep Rayo, Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Valerie F Crepin, Gad Frankel, Charalampos G Kalodimos, Spyridoula Karamanou, Anastassios Economou
Type III secretion (T3S), a protein export pathway common to Gram-negative pathogens, comprises a trans-envelope syringe, the injectisome, with a cytoplasm-facing translocase channel. Exported substrates are chaperone-delivered to the translocase, EscV in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross it in strict hierarchical manner, for example, first "translocators", then "effectors". We dissected T3S substrate targeting and hierarchical switching by reconstituting them in vitro using inverted inner membrane vesicles...
November 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105980/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-adaptive-process-of-prostate-cancer-during-inhibition-of-androgen-receptor-signalling-by-enzalutamide
#8
Carolina Soekmadji, Anja Rockstroh, Grant A Ramm, Colleen C Nelson, Pamela J Russell
Current treatments for advanced prostate cancer focus on inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, complex interactions mediated by tumour suppressors, oncogenes, aberrations of AR expression, or de novo androgen production have been shown to induce the adaptive response of prostate cancer, leading to the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we report the effects of AR antagonist, enzalutamide on the protein contents of extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
November 6, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089385/structural-features-of-the-tatc-membrane-protein-that-determine-docking-and-insertion-of-a-twin-arginine-signal-peptide
#9
Anne-Sophie Blümmel, Friedel Drepper, Bettina Knapp, Ekaterina Eimer, Bettina Warscheid, Matthias Müller, Julia Fröbel
Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems transport folded proteins across cellular membranes with the concerted action of mostly three membrane proteins: TatA, TatB, and TatC. Hetero-oligomers of TatB and TatC form circular substrate-receptor complexes with a central binding cavity for twin arginine-containing signal peptides. After binding of the substrate, energy from an electro-chemical proton gradient is transduced into the recruitment of TatA oligomers and into the actual translocation event. We previously reported, that Tat-dependent protein translocation into membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli is blocked by the compound N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD, DCC)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070148/molecular-mechanisms-driving-cholangiocarcinoma-invasiveness-an-overview
#10
Simone Brivio, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Fabris, Mario Strazzabosco
The acquisition of invasive functions by tumor cells is a first and crucial step towards the development of metastasis,which nowadays represents the main cause of cancer-related death. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a primary liver cancer originating from the biliary epithelium, typically develops intrahepatic or lymph node metastases at early stages, thus preventing the majority of patients from undergoing curative treatments, consistent with their very poor prognosis. As in most carcinomas, CCA cells gradually adopt a motile, mesenchymal-like phenotype, enabling them to cross the basement membrane, detach from the primary tumor, and invade the surrounding stroma...
October 25, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066540/tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-i-ii-trafficking-and-signaling-at-primary-cilia-are-inhibited-by-ceramide-to-attenuate-cell-migration-and-tumor-metastasis
#11
Salih Gencer, Natalia Oleinik, Jisun Kim, Shanmugam Panneer Selvam, Ryan De Palma, Mohammed Dany, Rose Nganga, Raquela J Thomas, Can E Senkal, Philip H Howe, Besim Ogretmen
Signaling by the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors I and II (TβRI/II) and the primary cilia-localized sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway promote cell migration and, consequently, tumor metastasis. In contrast, the sphingolipid ceramide inhibits cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. We investigated whether ceramide metabolism inhibited TβRI/II trafficking to primary cilia to attenuate cross-talk between TβRI/II and the Shh pathway. We found that ceramide synthase 4 (CerS4)-generated ceramide stabilized the association between TβRI and the inhibitory factor Smad7, which limited the trafficking of TβRI/II to primary cilia...
October 24, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045809/postnatal-sonic-hedgehog-shh-responsive-cells-give-rise-to-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-during-myelination-and-in-adulthood-contribute-to-remyelination
#12
Maria A Sanchez, Regina C Armstrong
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates a wave of oligodendrocyte production for extensive myelination during postnatal development. During this postnatal period of oligodendrogenesis, we fate-labeled cells exhibiting active Shh signaling to examine their contribution to the regenerative response during remyelination. Bitransgenic mouse lines were generated for induced genetic fate-labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. Shh(CreERT2) mice and Gli1(CreERT2) mice were crossed to either R26(tdTomato) mice to label cells with red fluorescence, or, R26(IAP) mice to label membranes with alkaline phosphatase...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040286/human-babesiosis-indication-of-a-molecular-mimicry-between-thrombospondin-domains-from-a-novel-babesia-microti-bmp53-protein-and-host-platelets-molecules
#13
Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Daniel Barry Roche, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Kyohko Kameyama, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Patrick Vudriko, Akram Salama, Shinuo Cao, Sahar Orabi, Hanem Khalifa, Mohamed Ahmed, Mabrouk Attia, Ahmed Elkirdasy, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Xuenan Xuan, Emmanuel Cornillot
Human babesiosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Babesia microti, which is of major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in malaise and fatigue, followed by a fever and hemolytic anemia. In this paper we focus on the characterization of a novel B. microti thrombospondin domain (TSP1)-containing protein (BmP53) from the new annotation of the B. microti genome (locus 'BmR1_04g09041'). This novel protein (BmP53) had a single TSP1 and a transmembrane domain, with a short cytoplasmic tail containing a sub-terminal glutamine residue, but no signal peptide and Von Willebrand factor type A domains (VWA), which are found in classical thrombospondin-related adhesive proteins (TRAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030987/nod1-downregulates-intestinal-serotonin-transporter-and-interacts-with-other-pattern-recognition-receptors
#14
Elena Layunta, Eva Latorre, Raquel Forcén, Laura Grasa, Miguel Ángel Plaza, Maykel Arias, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Serotonin (5-HT) is an essential gastrointestinal modulator whose effects regulate the intestinal physiology. 5-HT effects depend on extracellular 5-HT bioavailability, which is controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT) expressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes. SERT is a critical target for regulating 5-HT levels and consequently, modulating the intestinal physiology. The deregulation of innate immune receptors has been extensively studied in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where an exacerbated defense response to commensal microbiota is observed...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970736/comment-on-effect-of-biofilm-formation-by-clinical-isolates-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-the-efflux-mediated-resistance-to-commonly-used-antibiotics
#15
COMMENT
Evangelos I Kazakos, Nick Dorrell, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi, Jannis Kountouras
Attaran et al([1]) have recently shown that decreased susceptibility of established Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) biofilms to specific antibiotics, was associated with the overtly enhanced transcription of two efflux pump genes, hp1165 and hefA, involved in specific resistance to tetracycline and multiple antibiotics, respectively. Apart from antibiotic exposure, secretion of multiple antimicrobial peptides, such as human β-defensins (hβDs), by the gastric epithelium upon Hp challenge, may act as early triggering events that positively impact biofilm formation and thus, antibiotic resistance...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970102/the-proteome-speciation-of-an-immortalized-cystic-fibrosis-cell-line-new-perspectives-on-the-pathophysiology-of-the-disease
#16
Michele Puglia, Claudia Landi, Assunta Gagliardi, Loretta Breslin, Alessandro Armini, Jlenia Brunetti, Alessandro Pini, Laura Bianchi, Luca Bini
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a recessively inherited disease caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR has a pivotal role in the onset of CF, and several proteins are involved in its homeostasis. To study CFTR interactors at protein species level, we used a functional proteomics approach combining 2D-DIGE, mass spectrometry and enrichment analysis. A human bronchial epithelial cell line with cystic fibrosis (CFBE41o-) and the control (16HBE14o-) were used for the comparison...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938696/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-chemoresistance-in-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Hua-Chuan Zheng
Overcoming intrinsic and acquired drug resistance is a major challenge in treating cancer patients because chemoresistance causes recurrence, cancer dissemination and death. This review summarizes numerous molecular aspects of multi-resistance, including transporter pumps, oncogenes (EGFR, PI3K/Akt, Erk and NF-κB), tumor suppressor gene (p53), mitochondrial alteration, DNA repair, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stemness, and exosome. The chemoresistance-related proteins are localized to extracellular ligand, membrane receptor, cytosolic signal messenger, and nuclear transcription factors for various events, including proliferation, apoptosis, EMT, autophagy and exosome...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931897/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-sso7d-scaffold-based-binder-against-notch1
#18
Tenzin Gocha, Balaji M Rao, Ramanuj DasGupta
Notch signaling has important functions in regulating cell growth and development, misregulation of which has been implicated in various cancers. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting Notch protein activity have already moved into clinical trials. However due to the limitations associated with cost and productivity of mAbs, there has been a surge in the development of complementary approaches that are based on non-antibody scaffolds. Non-antibody scaffolds are small proteins that are stable and can be engineered to develop high-affinity binders against specific targets of interest...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931568/a-cross-talk-between-neuronal-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-astrocytic-upa-receptor-upar-promotes-astrocytic-activation-and-synaptic-recovery-in-the-ischemic-brain
#19
Ariel Diaz, Paola Merino, Luis Guillermo Manrique, Juan Pablo Ospina, Lihong Cheng, Fang Wu, Valerie Jeanneret, Manuel Yepes
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that, upon binding to its receptor (uPAR), catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin on the cell surface. Our previous studies indicate that uPA and uPAR expression increase in the ischemic brain during the recovery phase from an acute ischemic injury and that uPA binding to uPAR promotes neurological recovery after an acute ischemic stroke. Here, we used male mice genetically deficient on either uPA (uPA(-/-)) or uPAR (uPAR(-/-)) or with a four-amino acid substitution into the growth factor domain of uPA that abrogates its binding to uPAR (Plat(GFDhu/GFDhu)) to investigate the mechanism whereby uPA promotes neurorepair in the ischemic brain...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931067/in-vivo-imaging-system-for-explants-analysis-a-new-approach-for-assessment-of-cell-transplantation-effects-in-large-animal-models
#20
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Radosław Zagozdzon, Bartosz Dybowski, Marta Butrym, Zdzisław Gajewski, Leszek Paczek
INTRODUCTION: Despite spectacular progress in cellular transplantology, there are still many concerns about the fate of transplanted cells. More preclinical studies are needed, especially on large animal models, to bridge the translational gap between basic research and the clinic. Herein, we propose a novel approach in analysis of cell transplantation effects in large animals explants using in vivo imaging system (IVIS®) or similar equipment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the in vitro experiment cells labeled with fluorescent membrane dyes: DID (far red) or PKH26 (orange) were visualized with IVIS®...
2017: PloS One
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