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Cross membrane signaling

Kornelius Zeth, Ulrich Zachariae
Mitochondria are evolutionarily related to Gram-negative bacteria and both comprise two membrane systems with strongly differing protein composition. The major protein in the outer membrane of mitochondria is the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which mediates signal transmission across the outer membrane but also the exchange of metabolites, most importantly ADP and ATP. More than 30 years after its discovery three identical high-resolution structures were determined in 2008. These structures show a 19-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel with an N-terminal helix located inside...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Mandy Berndt-Paetz, Luise Herbst, Annett Weimann, Andreas Gonsior, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Jochen Neuhaus
PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e...
March 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Iván Pastor-Fernández, Sungwon Kim, Karen Billington, Janene Bumstead, Virginia Marugán-Hernández, Tatiana Küster, David J P Ferguson, Lonneke Vervelde, Damer P Blake, Fiona M Tomley
Recently, the availability of protocols supporting genetic complementation of Eimeria has raised the prospect of generating transgenic parasite lines which can function as vaccine vectors, expressing and delivering heterologous proteins. Complementation with sequences encoding immunoprotective antigens from other Eimeria spp. offers an opportunity to reduce the complexity of species/strains in anticoccidial vaccines. Herein, we characterise and evaluate EtAMA1 and EtAMA2, two members of the apical membrane antigen (AMA) family of parasite surface proteins from Eimeria tenella...
March 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Fan Ye, Andrew R Nager, Maxence V Nachury
A diffusion barrier at the transition zone enables the compartmentalization of signaling molecules by cilia. The BBSome and the small guanosine triphosphatase Arl6, which triggers BBSome coat polymerization, are required for the exit of activated signaling receptors from cilia, but how diffusion barriers are crossed when membrane proteins exit cilia remains to be determined. In this study, we found that activation of the ciliary G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Smoothened and SSTR3 drove the Arl6-dependent assembly of large, highly processive, and cargo-laden retrograde BBSome trains...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Bernard Perbal
The wide array of biological properties attributed to the CCN family of proteins (Perbal in Lancet 363(9402):62-64, 2004) led me to reconsider the possible relationship and roles that these proteins may play as a team, instead of acting on their own as individual regulators in various signaling pathways. The dynamic model which I present in this review stems from the contribution of the biological properties that we established for CCN3, one of the three founding members of the CCN family, which was identified by our group as the first CCN protein showing growth inhibitory properties (1992), expressed mainly in quiescent cells (1996), and showing anti-tumor activities in several cellular models both ex vivo and in vivo...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Csaba Tóth, Farkas Sükösd, Erzsébet Valicsek, Esther Herpel, Peter Schirmacher, László Tiszlavicz
Caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) has been well-established as a diagnostic marker for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, less is known about its regulation, particularly its potential interactions with the DNA repair proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin, in a non-transcriptional manner. In the present study, the protein expression of CDX2 was analyzed, depending on the expression of the DNA repair proteins, mismatch repair (MMR), O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), and its importance in Wnt signaling was also determined...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Tetsuya Akaishi
Saltatory conduction is an essential phenomenon to facilitate the fast conduction in myelinated nerves. The conventional conductive models assumed electric circuits with local current along the axonal membrane to explain the nerve conduction in unmyelinated nerves. However, whether such models with local current can be also applied to the saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves is unknown. In this report, I propose a new model of saltatory conduction by focusing on the behavior of electric charges in the axoplasm, not limited to the membrane...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Andrew M Prantner, Catherine Yin, Kalika Kamat, Khushboo Sharma, Andrew C Lowenthal, Peter Bawden Madrid, Nathalie Scholler
Mesothelin is an epithelial marker highly expressed at the cell surface of cancer cells from diverse origins, including ovarian and pancreatic adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas. Previously, we identified and characterized an anti-mesothelin nanobody (NbG3a) for in vitro diagnostic applications. The main goal of this research was to establish the potential of NbG3a as a molecular imaging agent. Site-specific biotinylated NbG3a (bNbG3a) was bound to streptavidin-conjugated reagents for in vitro and in vivo assays...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
M Lasalvia, R Scrima, G Perna, C Piccoli, N Capitanio, P F Biagi, L Schiavulli, T Ligonzo, M Centra, G Casamassima, A Ermini, V Capozzi
Blood is a fluid connective tissue of human body, where it plays vital functions for the nutrition, defense and well-being of the organism. When circulating in peripheral districts, it is exposed to some physical stresses coming from outside the human body, as electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which can cross the skin. Such fields may interact with biomolecules possibly inducing non thermal-mediated biological effects at the cellular level. In this study, the occurrence of biochemical/biological modifications in human peripheral blood lympho-monocytes exposed in a reverberation chamber for times ranging from 1 to 20 h to EMFs at 1...
2018: PloS One
Wei Feng, Daniel Kita, Alexis Peaucelle, Heather N Cartwright, Vinh Doan, Qiaohong Duan, Ming-Che Liu, Jacob Maman, Leonie Steinhorst, Ina Schmitz-Thom, Robert Yvon, Jörg Kudla, Hen-Ming Wu, Alice Y Cheung, José R Dinneny
Cells maintain integrity despite changes in their mechanical properties elicited during growth and environmental stress. How cells sense their physical state and compensate for cell-wall damage is poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we report that FERONIA (FER), a plasma-membrane-localized receptor kinase from Arabidopsis, is necessary for the recovery of root growth after exposure to high salinity, a widespread soil stress. The extracellular domain of FER displays tandem regions of homology with malectin, an animal protein known to bind di-glucose in vitro and important for protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
S Aurosman Pappus, Monalisa Mishra
In recent era, nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in food, medicine and body implants. Besides it's wide use being a foreign particle it may have some noxious effect on the body. To understand the mechanistic role of NPs toxicity, Drosophila appeared to be a superior model organism. Toxicity of several nanoparticles were accessed using Drosophila. The NPs, after oral route of exposure enter into the gut, crosses the barrier of peritrophic membrane and induces apoptosis. The toxicity of NPs within gut resulted in developmental delay, with decrease in pupa count, fly hatching along with weight loss...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Huan Xu, Ruyi Zhai, Yuan Zong, Xiangmei Kong, Chunhui Jiang, Xinghuai Sun, Yi He, Xiqi Li
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine and compare the changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) or normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: The right eyes of 43 HTG subjects, 33 NTG subjects, and 51 age- and sex-matched normal subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. Signals were projected from the internal limiting membrane to retinal pigment epithelium. The retinal perfused vessel densities in the peripapillary and parafoveal regions were measured automatically with optic coherence tomography angiography and the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm...
February 15, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Qianjin Li, Lishann Ingram, Sungjin Kim, Zanna Beharry, Jonathan A Cooper, Houjian Cai
Cross talk of stromal-epithelial cells plays an essential role in both normal development and tumor initiation and progression. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGF receptor (FGFR)-Src kinase axis is one of the major signal transduction pathways to mediate this cross talk. Numerous genomic studies have demonstrated that expression levels of FGFR/Src are deregulated in a variety of cancers including prostate cancer; however, the role that paracrine FGF (from stromal cells) plays in dysregulated expression of epithelial FGFRs/Src and tumor progression in vivo is not well evaluated...
February 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Michio Nagata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Earlier works of the glomerulogenesis described morphological steps and protein expression during in-vivo and in-vitro kidney development. Recent technologies using cell-specific or conditional knock-out mice for several factors provide important knowledge about cross-talk signaling among resident cells as local events. Based on the recent advancement, this review revisits comprehensive morphological development of the glomerulus. RECENT FINDINGS: Interactions of presumptive podocyte vascular endothelial growth factor with vascular endothelial growth factor-2 on angioblasts initiate glomerular vascularization...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Lucas Taoro-Gonzalez, Yaiza M Arenas, Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Vicente Felipo
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemic rats reproduce the cognitive alterations of patients with hepatic encephalopathy, including altered spatial memory, attributed to altered membrane expression of AMPA receptor subunits in hippocampus. Neuroinflammation mediates these cognitive alterations. We hypothesized that hyperammonemia-induced increase in IL-1β in hippocampus would be responsible for the altered GluA1 and GluA2 membrane expression. The aims of this work were to (1) assess if increased IL-1β levels and activation of its receptor are responsible for the changes in GluA1 and/or GluA2 membrane expression in hyperammonemia and (2) identify the mechanisms by which activation of IL-1 receptor leads to altered membrane expression of GluA1 and GluA2...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
George W Ashdown, Dylan M Owen
Many cellular processes are regulated by the spatio-temporal organisation of signalling complexes, cytoskeletal components and membranes. One such example is at the T cell immunological synapse where the retrograde flow of cortical filamentous (F)-actin from the synapse periphery drives signalling protein microclusters towards the synapse centre. The density of this mesh however, makes visualisation and analysis of individual actin fibres difficult due to the resolution limit of conventional microscopy. Recently, super-resolution methods such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) have surpassed this resolution limit...
February 1, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Ramit Singla, Kunj Bihari Gupta, Shishir Upadhyay, Monisha Dhiman, Vikas Jaitak
In the course of efforts to develop novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), indole-benzimidazole hybrids were designed and synthesised by fusing the indole nucleus with benzimidazole. All the compounds were first inspected for anti-proliferative activity using ER-α responsive T47D breast cancer cell lines and ER-α binding assay. From this study, two representative bromo substituted compounds 5f and 8f were found to be most active and thus were escalated for gene expression studies for targeting ER-α...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Manuela Ferrero, Chiara Pagliarani, Ondrej Novák, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Cardinale, Ivan Visentin, Andrea Schubert
Besides signalling to soil organisms, strigolactones (SL) control above- and below-ground morphology, in particular shoot branching. Furthermore, SL interact with stress responses, possibly thanks to a cross-talk with the abscisic acid (ABA) signal. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), ABA drives the accumulation of anthocyanins over the ripening season. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with a synthetic strigolactone analogue, GR24, on anthocyanin accumulation in grape berries, in presence or absence of exogenous ABA treatment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Donato Chiatante, Thomas Rost, John Bryant, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Background: The production of a new lateral root from parental root primary tissues has been investigated extensively, and the most important regulatory mechanisms are now well known. A first regulatory mechanism is based on the synthesis of small peptides which interact ectopically with membrane receptors to elicit a modulation of transcription factor target genes. A second mechanism involves a complex cross-talk between plant hormones. It is known that lateral roots are formed even in parental root portions characterized by the presence of secondary tissues, but there is not yet agreement about the putative tissue source providing the cells competent to become founder cells of a new root primordium...
January 31, 2018: Annals of Botany
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