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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432021/the-er-phagosome-connection-in-the-era-of-membrane-contact-sites
#1
REVIEW
Paula Nunes-Hasler, Nicolas Demaurex
Phagocytosis is an essential mechanism through which innate immune cells ingest foreign material that is either destroyed or used to generate and present antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. While a role for the ER during phagosome biogenesis has been recognized, whether fusion with ER cisternae or vesicular derivatives occurs has been the source of much contention. Membrane contact sites (MCS) are tight appositions between ER membranes and various organelles that coordinate multiple functions including localized signalling, lipid transfer and trafficking...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431242/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-a-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-complex-with-grk5
#2
Konstantin E Komolov, Yang Du, Nguyen Minh Duc, Robin M Betz, João P G L M Rodrigues, Ryan D Leib, Dhabaleswar Patra, Georgios Skiniotis, Christopher M Adams, Ron O Dror, Ka Young Chung, Brian K Kobilka, Jeffrey L Benovic
The phosphorylation of agonist-occupied G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by GPCR kinases (GRKs) functions to turn off G-protein signaling and turn on arrestin-mediated signaling. While a structural understanding of GPCR/G-protein and GPCR/arrestin complexes has emerged in recent years, the molecular architecture of a GPCR/GRK complex remains poorly defined. We used a comprehensive integrated approach of cross-linking, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS), electron microscopy, mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and computational docking to analyze GRK5 interaction with the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411060/in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-candida-activity-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-and-their-activity-against-biofilm-forming-isolates
#3
Rose Anny Costa Silva, Cecília Rocha da Silva, João Batista de Andrade Neto, Anderson Ramos da Silva, Rosana Sousa Campos, Letícia Serpa Sampaio, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires do Nascimento, Brenda da Silva Gaspar, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Alexandre Josino, Thalles Barbosa Grangeiro, Danielle Macedo Gaspar, David Freitas de Lucena, Manoel Odorico de Moraes, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre Júnior
Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409457/detection-and-immunolabeling-of-peroxisomal-proteins
#4
Tina A Schrader, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes are essential organelles in mammals which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. The spectrum of their functions in human health and disease is far from being complete, and unexpected and novel roles of peroxisomes are being discovered. To date, those include novel biological roles in antiviral defence, as intracellular signaling platforms and as protective organelles in sensory cells. Furthermore, peroxisomes are part of a complex network of interacting subcellular compartments which involves metabolic cooperation, cross-talk and membrane contacts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404644/preprotein-mature-domains-contain-translocase-targeting-signals-that-are-essential-for-secretion
#5
Katerina E Chatzi, Marios Frantzeskos Sardis, Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Marina Koukaki, Nikolina Šoštarić, Albert Konijnenberg, Frank Sobott, Charalampos G Kalodimos, Spyridoula Karamanou, Anastassios Economou
Secretory proteins are only temporary cytoplasmic residents. They are typically synthesized as preproteins, carrying signal peptides N-terminally fused to their mature domains. In bacteria secretion largely occurs posttranslationally through the membrane-embedded SecA-SecYEG translocase. Upon crossing the plasma membrane, signal peptides are cleaved off and mature domains reach their destinations and fold. Targeting to the translocase is mediated by signal peptides. The role of mature domains in targeting and secretion is unclear...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402720/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-related-protein-1-inhibit-retinal-neovascularization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#6
Ping Zhang, Hong Wang, Hui Cao, Xun Xu, Tao Sun
PURPOSE: To explore the inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) on retinal angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanisms in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were classified into three groups as control group, OIR nonintervention group, and OIR intervention group. Postnatal day 12 (P12) mice in OIR intervention group were received recombinant mouse IGFBP-rP1 (50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) intravitreal injection...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399645/prohibitin-at-the-crossroads-of-obesity-linked-diabetes-and-cancer
#7
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
The promoter of a gene that is selectively expressed in just a few cell types provides unique opportunities to study: (1) the pleiotropic function of a protein in two different cell types including the cell compartment specific function, and (2) the crosstalk between two cell/tissue types at the systemic level. This is not possible with a ubiquitous or a highly specific gene promoter. The adipocyte protein-2 ( aP2) is one such gene. It is primarily expressed in adipocytes, but also selectively in monocytic macrophages and dendritic cells, among various immune cell types...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397857/reproductive-stage-physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-reciprocal-populations-derived-from-tolerant-horkuch-and-susceptible-ir29-rice
#8
Samsad Razzaque, Taslima Haque, Sabrina M Elias, Md Sazzadur Rahman, Sudip Biswas, Scott Schwartz, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Harkamal Walia, Thomas E Juenger, Zeba I Seraj
Global increase in salinity levels has made it imperative to identify novel sources of genetic variation for tolerance traits, especially in rice. The rice landrace Horkuch, endemic to the saline coastal area of Bangladesh, was used in this study as the source of tolerance in reciprocal crosses with the sensitive but high-yielding IR29 variety for discovering transcriptional variation associated with salt tolerance in the resulting populations. The cytoplasmic effect of the Horkuch background in leaves under stress showed functional enrichment for signal transduction, DNA-dependent regulation and transport activities...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389204/interactions-of-pannexin1-channels-with-purinergic-and-nmda-receptor-channels
#9
REVIEW
Shuo Li, Ivana Bjelobaba, Stanko S Stojilkovic
Pannexins are a three-member family of vertebrate plasma membrane spanning molecules that have homology to the invertebrate gap junction forming proteins, the innexins. However, pannexins do not form gap junctions but operate as plasma membrane channels. The best-characterized member of these proteins, Pannexin1 (Panx1) was suggested to be functionally associated with purinergic P2X and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels. Activation of these receptor channels by their endogenous ligands leads to cross-activation of Panx1 channels...
April 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387499/versatile-bottom-up-synthesis-of-tethered-bilayer-lipid-membranes-on-nanoelectronic-biosensor-devices
#10
Weiwei Zhou, Peter J Burke
Interfacing nanoelectronic devices with cell membranes can enable multiplexed detection of fundamental biological processes (such as signal transduction, electrophysiology, and import/export control) even down to the single ion channel level, which can lead to a variety of applications in pharmacology and clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and control the chemical and electrical interface between the device and the lipid bilayer membrane. Here, we develop a simple bottom-up approach to assemble tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) on silicon wafers and glass slides, using a covalent tether attachment chemistry based on silane functionalization, followed by step-by-step stacking of two other functional molecular building blocks (oligo-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and lipid)...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382204/nitrosopersulfide-ssno-decomposes-in-the-presence-of-sulfide-cyanide-or-glutathione-to-give-hsno-sno-consequences-for-the-assumed-role-in-cell-signalling
#11
Rudolf Wedmann, Ivana Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Milos R Filipovic
The emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a new signalling molecule able to control vasodilation, neurotransmission and immune response, prompted questions about its possible cross-talk with the other gasontransmitter, nitric oxide (NO). It has been shown that H2S reacts with NO and its metabolites and several potentially biologically active species have been identified. Thionitrous acid (HSNO) was proposed to be an intermediate product of the reaction of S-nitrosothiols with H2S capable of crossing the membranes and causing further trans-nitrosation of proteins...
April 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381792/pathophysiological-roles-of-ezrin-radixin-moesin-proteins
#12
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Saori Yoshida, Ryo Hatano, Shinji Asano
Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins function as general cross-linkers between plasma membrane proteins and the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in the functional expression of membrane proteins on the cell surface. They also integrate Rho guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) signaling to regulate cytoskeletal organization by sequestering Rho-related proteins. They act as protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring proteins and sequester PKA close to its target proteins for their effective phosphorylation and functional regulation...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379541/resistance-to-apoptosis-and-autophagy-leads-to-enhanced-survival-in-sertoli-cells
#13
Ferial Aslani, Tim Sebastian, Miguel Keidel, Suada Fröhlich, Hans-Peter Elsässer, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Jörg Klug, Poornima Mahavadi, Monika Fijak, Martin Bergmann, Andreas Meinhardt, Sudhanshu Bhushan
STUDY QUESTION: What is the underlying mechanism of Sertoli cell (SC) resistance to cell death? SUMMARY ANSWER: High expression of pro-survival B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) proteins and inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy prolongs SC survival upon exposure to stress stimuli. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In human and in experimental models of orchitis, tolerogenic SC survive stress conditions, while germ cells undergo massive apoptosis. In general, non-dividing highly differentiated cells tend to resist stress conditions for a longer time by favoring activation of pro-survival mechanisms and inhibition of cell death pathways...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377502/glua1-ubiquitination-mediates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-loss-of-surface-ampa-receptors
#14
Sumasri Guntupalli, Se Eun Jang, Tianyi Zhu, Richard L Huganir, Jocelyn Widagdo, Victor Anggono
The accumulation of soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides produces profound neuronal changes in the brain during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Excessive levels of Aβ disrupt excitatory synaptic transmission by promoting the removal of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), dendritic spine loss and synaptic depression. Recently, activity-dependent ubiquitination of the GluA1 subunit has been shown to regulate the intracellular sorting of AMPARs toward late endosomes for degradation. However, whether this ubiquitin signalling pathway mediates Aβ-induced loss of surface AMPARs is unknown...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375843/a-new-immunochemistry-platform-for-a-guideline-compliant-cardiac-troponin-t-assay-at-the-point-of-care-proof-of-principle
#15
Eloisa Lopez-Calle, Pamela Espindola, Juergen Spinke, Sascha Lutz, Alfons Nichtl, Armin Tgetgel, Nicolas Herbert, Moritz Marcinowski, Juergen Klepp, Thomas Fischer, Thorsten Brueckner, Christoph Boehm, Thomas Keller
BACKGROUND: A multitude of troponin assays for the point-of-care (POC) have been developed showing a lack of analytical sensitivity and precision. We present a new platform solution for the high-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in a 30 μL whole blood sample with a turnaround time of 11 min. METHODS: The immunoassay was completely run in a ready-to-use plastic disposable, a centrifugal microfluidic disc with fully integrated reagents. After the sample application, the assay was automatically processed by separating the cellular blood components via centrifugation, followed by incubation of a defined volume from the generated plasma with the immunoreagents...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374151/an-update-on-the-potential-role-of-c-peptide-in-diabetes-and-osteoporosis
#16
Arturo Pujia, Carmine Gazzaruso, Tiziana Montalcini
PURPOSE: C-peptide secretion is deficient or absent in type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is well accepted that insulin replacement therapy cannot prevent the development of long-term diabetes-related complications, which can often be disabling or even life-threatening. Several cross-sectional investigations have suggested that residual C-peptide production in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus would help prevent a number of complications. In animal models of diabetes and in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, C-peptide replacement improves renal function, skin and skeletal muscle blood flow, nerve conduction, glucose utilization, and other diabetes-related complications...
April 3, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367863/ginsenoside-rb1-improves-cardiac-function-and-remodeling-in-heart-failure
#17
Xian Zheng, Shuai Wang, Xiaoming Zou, Yating Jing, Ronglai Yang, Siqi Li, Fengrong Wang
We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cardiac function and remodeling in heart failure (HF). Four weeks after HF induction, the rats were administrated with ginsenoside Rb1 (35 and 70 mg/kg) and losartan (4.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Losartan was used as a positive control. Cardiac function was assessed by measuring hemodynamic parameters. Histological changes were analyzed by HE and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) levels were evaluated...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348113/nongenomic-effects-via-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#18
Stefanie Ruhs, Alexander Nolze, Ralf Hübschmann, Claudia Grossmann
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) belongs to the steroid hormone receptor family and classically functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It is involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation but independently from these effects also furthers inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy and remodeling in cardiovascular tissues. Next to genomic effects, aldosterone elicits very rapid actions within minutes that do not require transcription or translation and that occur both in classical MR epithelial target organs like kidney and colon but also in nonepithelial tissues with special pathophysiological relevance like heart and vasculature and adipose tissue...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328746/cross-talk-between-insulin-signaling-and-gpcrs
#19
Qin Fu, Qian Shi, Toni M West, Yang K Xiang
Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. One of the hallmarks of diabetes is insulin resistance associated with hyperinsulinemia. The literature shows that insulin and adrenergic signaling is intimately linked to each other; however, whether and how insulin may modulate cardiac adrenergic signaling and cardiac function remains unknown. Notably, recent studies have revealed that insulin receptor and β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) forms a membrane complex in animal hearts, bringing together the direct contact between two receptor signaling systems, and forming an integrated and dynamic network...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320825/structure-of-the-rzz-complex-and-molecular-basis-of-its-interaction-with-spindly
#20
Shyamal Mosalaganti, Jenny Keller, Anika Altenfeld, Michael Winzker, Pascaline Rombaut, Michael Saur, Arsen Petrovic, Annemarie Wehenkel, Sabine Wohlgemuth, Franziska Müller, Stefano Maffini, Tanja Bange, Franz Herzog, Herbert Waldmann, Stefan Raunser, Andrea Musacchio
Kinetochores are macromolecular assemblies that connect chromosomes to spindle microtubules (MTs) during mitosis. The metazoan-specific ≈800-kD ROD-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex builds a fibrous corona that assembles on mitotic kinetochores before MT attachment to promote chromosome alignment and robust spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. In this study, we combine biochemical reconstitutions, single-particle electron cryomicroscopy, cross-linking mass spectrometry, and structural modeling to build a complete model of human RZZ...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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