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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649271/effect-of-electrochemotherapy-on-human-herpesvirus-8-kinetics-in-classic-kaposi-sarcoma
#1
Noemy Starita, Gianluca Di Monta, Andrea Cerasuolo, Ugo Marone, Anna Maria Anniciello, Gerardo Botti, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) has shown to be an effective treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. However, no study has investigated the impact of ECT treatment on the kinetics of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8), which is considered the necessary causal agent of KS. We aimed to evaluate HHV8 viral load and expression levels in patients affected by classic KS who received one or more ECT treatments and have been followed semi annually for up to four years...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622291/predicting-lung-cancer-recurrence-from-circulating-tumour-dna-commentary-on-phylogenetic-ctdna-analysis-depicts-early-stage-lung-cancer-evolution
#2
Daniel J Murphy, Kevin G Blyth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614831/liquid-biopsies-for-monitoring-temporal-genomic-heterogeneity-in-breast-and-colon-cancers
#3
Tiziana Venesio, Giulia Siravegna, Alberto Bardelli, Anna Sapino
Cancer is a spatial and temporal dynamic disease where differently evolving genetic clones are responsible for progression. In this landscape, the genomic heterogeneity of the primary tumours can be captured by deep-sequencing representative spatial samples. However, the recognition of genetic alterations responsible for tumour evolution remains a challenging task. Recently, the "liquid biopsy" was recognized as a powerful real-time approach for the molecular monitoring of this dynamic disease. The term "liquid biopsy" generally refers to the use of circulating (cell-free) tumour DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) as non-invasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of clinical progression, and response to treatment in different types of tumours, including the highly genomic heterogeneous breast cancer...
June 15, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609695/what-do-we-need-to-make-circulating-tumour-dna-ctdna-a-routine-diagnostic-test-in-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Reyes Bernabé, Nicholas Hickson, Andrew Wallace, Fiona Helen Blackhall
The gold standard test for detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is to genotype somatic DNA extracted from a tissue biopsy or cytology specimen. Yet, in at least 20% of patients this is not possible for various reasons including insufficient availability of neoplastic tissue, lack of fitness of the available tissue for a biopsy or that a biopsy is not technically feasible. Consequently, there has been intense investigation of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), released into the plasma fraction of blood from cancer cells during apoptosis/necrosis, as a minimally invasive 'liquid biopsy' and surrogate for cancer tissue...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601826/study-protocol-of-a-phase-ib-ii-clinical-trial-of-metformin-and-chloroquine-in-patients-with-idh1-mutated-or-idh2-mutated-solid-tumours
#5
Remco J Molenaar, Robert Js Coelen, Mohammed Khurshed, Eva Roos, Matthan Wa Caan, Myra E van Linde, Mathilde Kouwenhoven, Jos Am Bramer, Judith Vmg Bovée, Ron A Mathôt, Heinz-Josef Klümpen, Hanneke Wm van Laarhoven, Cornelis Jf van Noorden, W Peter Vandertop, Hans Gelderblom, Thomas M van Gulik, Johanna W Wilmink
INTRODUCTION: High-grade chondrosarcoma, high-grade glioma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are aggressive types of cancer with a dismal outcome. This is due to the lack of effective treatment options, emphasising the need for novel therapies. Mutations in the genes IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2) occur in 60% of chondrosarcoma, 80% of WHO grade II-IV glioma and 20% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. IDH1/2-mutated cancer cells produce the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) and are metabolically vulnerable to treatment with the oral antidiabetic metformin and the oral antimalarial drug chloroquine...
June 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595192/cancer-precision-medicine-why-more-is-more-and-dna-is-not-enough
#6
Moritz Schütte, Lesley A Ogilvie, Damian T Rieke, Bodo M H Lange, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Hans Lehrach
Every tumour is different. They arise in patients with different genomes, from cells with different epigenetic modifications, and by random processes affecting the genome and/or epigenome of a somatic cell, allowing it to escape the usual controls on its growth. Tumours and patients therefore often respond very differently to the drugs they receive. Cancer precision medicine aims to characterise the tumour (and often also the patient) to be able to predict, with high accuracy, its response to different treatments, with options ranging from the selective characterisation of a few genomic variants considered particularly important to predict the response of the tumour to specific drugs, to deep genome analysis of both tumour and patient, combined with deep transcriptome analysis of the tumour...
June 9, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590268/ar-v7-liquid-biopsy-for-treatment-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-how-close-are-we
#7
Claire Fletcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent clinical introduction of the novel antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enza), CYP17 inhibitor, Abiraterone (Abi), and the second-generation chemotherapeutic, Cabazitaxel, has increased survival of patients with advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, de novo and acquired resistance rates are high. A liquid biopsy that can rapidly, sensitively and robustly identify which patients will respond to treatment in a minimally invasive manner is urgently required to permit switch to a potentially more efficacious drug regimen, thus increasing survival whilst avoiding debilitating side effects associated with unnecessary treatment...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540249/liquid-biopsies-for-bladder-cancer
#8
EDITORIAL
Douglas G Ward, Richard T Bryan
The development of accurate urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) could transform patient pathways by reducing reliance on cystoscopy, and the identification of highly prognostic (or even predictive) biomarkers could better guide patient management. A number of approaches are being utilised to address these challenges in both urinary- and plasma-borne tumour DNA (tDNA), so-called "liquid biopsies". Next generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allow detection of very low levels of such tDNA amongst a large excess of non-tumour DNA, the former permitting large mutation panels to be assessed and the latter potentially identifying ultrarare mutant alleles yet restricted for multiplexing...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497741/-cancer-screening-fantasies
#9
Bertrand Jordan
The use of circulating tumour DNA to screen for cancer in asymptomatic individuals is the goal of Grail, initially set up by Illumina. This company is now raising a large amount of capital to develop this project on a much longer time scale than initially announced. Although it has access to cutting edge technology and is led by excellent scientists, the prospect for success in this application is rather bleak, mainly because of the extreme requirements for specificity in order to avoid overdiagnosis.
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492226/circulating-tumour-dna-sequence-analysis-as-an-alternative-to-multiple-myeloma-bone-marrow-aspirates
#10
Olena Kis, Rayan Kaedbey, Signy Chow, Arnavaz Danesh, Mark Dowar, Tiantian Li, Zhihua Li, Jessica Liu, Mark Mansour, Esther Masih-Khan, Tong Zhang, Scott V Bratman, Amit M Oza, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Suzanne Trudel, Trevor J Pugh
The requirement for bone-marrow aspirates for genomic profiling of multiple myeloma poses an obstacle to enrolment and retention of patients in clinical trials. We evaluated whether circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis is comparable to molecular profiling of myeloma using bone-marrow tumour cells. We report here a hybrid-capture-based Liquid Biopsy Sequencing (LB-Seq) method used to sequence all protein-coding exons of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA in 64 cfDNA specimens from 53 myeloma patients to >20,000 × median coverage...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475662/twoddpcr-an-r-bioconductor-package-and-shiny-app-for-droplet-digital-pcr-analysis
#11
Anthony Chiu, Mahmood Ayub, Caroline Dive, Ged Brady, Crispin J Miller
Summary: Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) is a sensitive platform used to quantify specific nucleic acid molecules amplified by polymerase chain reactions. Its sensitivity makes it particularly useful for the detection of rare mutant molecules, such as those present in a sample of circulating free tumour DNA obtained from cancer patients. ddPCR works by partitioning a sample into individual droplets for which the majority contain only zero or one target molecule. Each droplet then becomes a reaction chamber for PCR, which through the use of fluorochrome labelled probes allows the target molecules to be detected by measuring the fluorescence intensity of each droplet...
May 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442757/comparison-of-circulating-tumour-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-epstein-barr-virus-dna-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-undergoing-radiotherapy
#12
Jess Honganh Vo, Wen Long Nei, Min Hu, Wai Min Phyo, Fuqiang Wang, Kam Weng Fong, Terence Tan, Yoke Lim Soong, Shie Lee Cheah, Kiattisa Sommat, Huiyu Low, Belinda Ling, Johnson Ng, Wan Loo Tan, Kian Sing Chan, Lynette Oon, Jackie Y Ying, Min-Han Tan
Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is commonly used in clinical settings as a circulating biomarker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but there has been no comparison with circulating tumour cells (CTCs). Our study aims to compare the performance of CTC enumeration against EBV cfDNA quantitation through digital PCR (dPCR) and quantitative PCR. 74 plasma samples from 46 NPC patients at baseline and one month after radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy were analysed...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420618/research-progress-on-liquid-biopsy-in-oncology-and-its-clinical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Wang Chen, Li Yanming, Fang Xiangdong
Liquid biopsy is an emerging and promising detection tool for cancer, with the benefit of being non-invasive and convenient. It analyzes tumor-derived information in the blood or other body fluids including circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes. Nowadays, with the expansion of liquid biopsy research contents and the development of capture and detection technologies, liquid biopsy is increasingly utilized in clinical applications, promoting the development of tumor precision medicine...
March 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416815/in-situ-programming-of-leukaemia-specific-t-cells-using-synthetic-dna-nanocarriers
#14
Tyrel T Smith, Sirkka B Stephan, Howell F Moffett, Laura E McKnight, Weihang Ji, Diana Reiman, Emmy Bonagofski, Martin E Wohlfahrt, Smitha P S Pillai, Matthias T Stephan
An emerging approach for treating cancer involves programming patient-derived T cells with genes encoding disease-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), so that they can combat tumour cells once they are reinfused. Although trials of this therapy have produced impressive results, the in vitro methods they require to generate large numbers of tumour-specific T cells are too elaborate for widespread application to treat cancer patients. Here, we describe a method to quickly program circulating T cells with tumour-recognizing capabilities, thus avoiding these complications...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340615/glucocorticoids-induce-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-reactive-nitrogen-species-and-dna-damage-through-an-inos-mediated-pathway-in-breast-cancer
#15
Renée L Flaherty, Matthew Owen, Aidan Fagan-Murphy, Haya Intabli, David Healy, Anika Patel, Marcus C Allen, Bhavik A Patel, Melanie S Flint
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress increases the circulating levels of the stress hormones cortisol and norepinephrine (NE). Chronic exposure to elevated stress hormones has been linked to a reduced response to chemotherapy through induction of DNA damage. We hypothesize that stress hormone signalling may induce DNA damage through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and interference in DNA repair processes, promoting tumourigenesis. METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines were incubated with physiological levels of cortisol and NE in the presence and absence of receptor antagonists and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitors and DNA damage measured using phosphorylated γ-H2AX...
March 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327969/circulating-tumour-dna-predicts-response-to-anti-pd1-antibodies-in-metastatic-melanoma
#16
J H Lee, G V Long, S Boyd, S Lo, A M Menzies, V Tembe, A Guminski, V Jakrot, R A Scolyer, G J Mann, R F Kefford, M S Carlino, H Rizos
Background: Programmed death 1 (PD1) inhibitors are now a foundation of medical management of metastatic melanoma. This study sought to determine whether circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) provides useful early response and prognostic information. Patients and methods: We evaluated the relationship between pre-treatment and early on treatment ctDNA and outcome in melanoma patients treated with PD1 inhibitors alone or in combination with ipilimumab. Results: ctDNA was detected in 40/76 patients (53%) at baseline, and correlated with stage, LDH levels, disease volume and ECOG performance...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327938/targeting-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-gastric-cancer-promise-or-pitfall
#17
C Hierro, M Alsina, M Sánchez, V Serra, J Rodon, J Tabernero
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapeutic option for this poor prognosis cancer. Trastuzumab, the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 or HER2)-antibody, is the only biological agent approved for the molecularly selected population of HER2-positive gastric cancer patients. Over the last decade, several groups have been working for deepening into the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, shedding some light into the heterogeneity of this tumour...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327598/global-dna-methylation-analysis-identifies-two-discrete-clusters-of-pheochromocytoma-with-distinct-genomic-and-genetic-alterations
#18
Samuel Backman, Rajani Maharjan, Alberto Falk-Delgado, Joakim Crona, Kenko Cupisti, Peter Stålberg, Per Hellman, Peyman Björklund
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare and frequently heritable neural-crest derived tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells respectively. The majority of PPGL tumours are benign and do not recur with distant metastases. However, a sizeable fraction of these tumours secrete vasoactive catecholamines into the circulation causing a variety of symptoms including hypertension, palpitations and diaphoresis. The genetic landscape of PPGL has been well characterized and more than a dozen genes have been described as recurrently mutated...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306358/the-genetics-of-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-the-use-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-for-disease-detection-and-monitoring
#19
REVIEW
Mark R Openshaw, Catherine J Richards, David S Guttery, Jacqueline A Shaw, Anne L Thomas
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GOA) is a frequently occurring cancer worldwide with a poor clinical outcome. Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have shown a recent increase in frequency, therefore there is need to increase our understanding of GOA in order to improve our ability to detect, monitor and treat the disease. Areas covered: The authors discuss the current classification of GOA in the context of recent changes in incidence. The authors also discuss developments in the understanding of disease biology and recent discoveries from whole genome and whole exome sequencing, and studies in immunotherapy...
May 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303898/circulating-tumour-dna-reflects-treatment-response-and-clonal-evolution-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#20
Paul Yeh, Tane Hunter, Devbarna Sinha, Sarah Ftouni, Elise Wallach, Damian Jiang, Yih-Chih Chan, Stephen Q Wong, Maria Joao Silva, Ravikiran Vedururu, Kenneth Doig, Enid Lam, Gisela Mir Arnau, Timothy Semple, Meaghan Wall, Andjelija Zivanovic, Rishu Agarwal, Pasquale Petrone, Kate Jones, David Westerman, Piers Blombery, John F Seymour, Anthony T Papenfuss, Mark A Dawson, Constantine S Tam, Sarah-Jane Dawson
Several novel therapeutics are poised to change the natural history of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and the increasing use of these therapies has highlighted limitations of traditional disease monitoring methods. Here we demonstrate that circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is readily detectable in patients with CLL. Importantly, ctDNA does not simply mirror the genomic information contained within circulating malignant lymphocytes but instead parallels changes across different disease compartments following treatment with novel therapies...
March 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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