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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108771/-injuries-of-major-tendons-review-of-current-diagnostic-and-surgical-standards
#1
P Behrendt, T Klüter, A Seekamp
Chronic degenerative tendon injuries as well as injuries due to acute high-energy trauma and incisional injuries are a significant aspect in the emergency surgery department. As a result of anatomical characteristics and exposure certain tendons are particularly vulnerable to injury. These include the biceps brachialis, quadriceps femoris, patella, achilles and tibialis anterior tendons. Besides the broad spectrum of non-surgical treatment, surgeons should have knowledge of the various surgical techniques including suturing, anchor refixation and reconstruction techniques...
January 20, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101944/biomechanical-implications-of-walking-with-indigenous-footwear
#2
Catherine Willems, Gaetane Stassijns, Wim Cornelis, Kristiaan D'Août
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101181/microrna-351-inhibits-denervation-induced-muscle-atrophy-by-targeting-traf6
#3
Qianru He, Jiaying Qiu, Ming Dai, Qingqing Fang, Xiaoqing Sun, Yanpei Gong, Fei Ding, Hualin Sun
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been observed to be involved in the modulation of various physiopathological processes. However, the impacts of miRNAs on muscle atrophy have not been fully investigated. In the present study, the results demonstrated that miR-351 was differentially expressed in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle at various times following sciatic nerve transection, and the time-dependent expression profile of miR-351 was inversely correlated with that of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) at the mRNA and protein levels...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096335/myofibril-breakdown-during-atrophy-is-a-delayed-response-requiring-the-transcription-factor-pax4-and-desmin-depolymerization
#4
Alexandra Volodin, Idit Kosti, Alfred Lewis Goldberg, Shenhav Cohen
A hallmark of muscle atrophy is the excessive degradation of myofibrillar proteins primarily by the ubiquitin proteasome system. In mice, during the rapid muscle atrophy induced by fasting, the desmin cytoskeleton and the attached Z-band-bound thin filaments are degraded after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (Trim32). To study the order of events leading to myofibril destruction, we investigated the slower atrophy induced by denervation (disuse). We show that myofibril breakdown is a two-phase process involving the initial disassembly of desmin filaments by Trim32, which leads to the later myofibril breakdown by enzymes, whose expression is increased by the paired box 4 (PAX4) transcription factor...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088014/reduced-complexity-of-force-and-muscle-activity-during-low-level-isometric-contractions-of-the-ankle-in-diabetic-individuals
#5
E Y Suda, P Madeleine, R P Hirata, A Samani, T T Kawamura, I C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the structure and amount of variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) patterns and ankle force data during low-level isometric contractions in diabetic subjects with different degrees of neuropathy. METHODS: We assessed 10 control subjects and 38 diabetic patients, classified as absent, mild, moderate, or severe neuropathy, by a fuzzy system based on clinical variables. Multichannel sEMG (64-electrode matrix) of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were acquired during isometric contractions at 10%, 20%, and 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction, and force levels during dorsi- and plantarflexion were recorded...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#6
J Ribeiro, A R Caseiro, T Pereira, Pas Armada-da-Silva, I Pires, J Prada, I Amorim, I Leal Reis, S Amado, J D Santos, S Bompasso, S Raimondo, Asp Varejão, S Geuna, A L Luís, A C Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5±0.5x10(-6) S/m, 579±0.6x10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5±0.7 x10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078418/absolute-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-by-selected-reaction-monitoring-can-underscore-skeletal-muscle-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Giancarlo Biancotto, Roberto Angeletti, Carlo Reggiani, Maria Catia Sorgato, Alessandro Bertoli, Roberto Stella
Skeletal muscle fibers contain different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) that define distinctive contractile properties. In light of the muscle capacity to adapt MyHC expression to pathophysiological conditions, a rapid and quantitative assessment of MyHC isoforms in small muscle tissue quantities would represent a valuable diagnostic tool for (neuro)muscular diseases. As past protocols did not meet these requirements, in the present study we applied a targeted proteomic approach based on selected reaction monitoring that allowed the absolute quantification of slow and fast MyHC isoforms in different mouse skeletal muscles with high reproducibility...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077666/motor-plan-differs-for-young-and-older-adults-during-similar-movements
#8
Agostina Casamento Moran, Yen-Ting Chen, Neha Lodha, Basma Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou
Older adults exhibit altered activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles during goal-directed movements compared with young adults. However, it remains unclear whether the differential activation of the antagonistic muscles in older adults results from an impaired motor plan or an altered ability of the muscle to contract. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether the motor plan differs for young and older adults. Ten young (26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, 4 females) and sixteen older (71.9 ± 6...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077660/muscle-spindles-in-human-tibialis-anterior-encode-muscle-fascicle-length-changes
#9
James Thomas Day, Leah R Bent, Ingvars Birznieks, Vaughan G Macefield, Andrew G Cresswell
Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and therefore the spindles, from the MTU...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076414/a-mri-compatible-combined-mechanical-loading-and-mr-elastography-setup-to-study-deformation-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-in-rats
#10
Jules L Nelissen, Larry de Graaf, Willeke A Traa, Tom J L Schreurs, Kevin M Moerman, Aart J Nederveen, Ralph Sinkus, Cees W J Oomens, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J Strijkers
Deformation of skeletal muscle in the proximity of bony structures may lead to deep tissue injury category of pressure ulcers. Changes in mechanical properties have been proposed as a risk factor in the development of deep tissue injury and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for early detection. MRE allows for the estimation of mechanical properties of soft tissue through analysis of shear wave data. The shear waves originate from vibrations induced by an external actuator placed on the tissue surface. In this study a combined Magnetic Resonance (MR) compatible indentation and MR Elastography (MRE) setup is presented to study mechanical properties associated with deep tissue injury in rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069562/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-the-expression-of-agrin-and-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-rats-with-tibialis-anterior-muscular-atrophy-induced-by-sciatic-nerve-injection-injury
#11
Jianqi Yu, Meng Wang, Junying Liu, Xiaoming Zhang, Shengbo Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on mRNA and protein expression of agrin, acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-ε and AChR-γ in a rat model of tibialis anterior muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury, and to examine the underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: Fifty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: healthy control group (CON, n=6); sciatic nerve injury group (SNI, n=24), comprising rats euthanased at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after penicillin injection-induced SNI (n=6 each); CON+EA group (n=12), comprising healthy rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA at GB30 and ST36); and SNI+EA group, comprising rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA)...
January 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068842/tibialis-anterior-tendon-reconstruction-using-augmented-half-thickness-tendon-segment-transposition
#12
Christopher W Reb, James F Stenson, Joseph N Daniel
: Tibialis anterior tendon rupture causes substantial morbidity. The present study describes the outcomes of augmented, half-thickness tibialis anterior tendon segment transposition, a novel reconstruction technique. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 3 patients with surgically treated attritional distal rupture with 1-year follow-up. The postdebridement tendon defect prohibited primary repair and was managed by distal transposition of a half-thickness healthy segment...
January 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060911/resting-energy-expenditure-in-adults-with-becker-s-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Matthew F Jacques, Paul Orme, Jonathon Smith, Christopher I Morse
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was: 1) To compare Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adult males with Becker's Muscular Dystrophy (BeMD, n = 21, 39 ±12 years) and healthy controls (CTRL, n = 12, 37 ±12 years) 2) Determine whether other physiological parameters correlate with REE in BeMD, and 3) Compare current prediction methods of REE with measured REE. METHODS: REE was calculated via indirect calorimetry using continuous, expired gas analysis following an overnight fast...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060894/the-effect-of-cadence-on-shank-muscle-oxygen-consumption-and-deoxygenation-in-relation-to-joint-specific-power-and-cycling-kinematics
#14
Knut Skovereng, Gertjan Ettema, Mireille van Beekvelt
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of cadence on joint specific power and cycling kinematics in the ankle joint in addition to muscle oxygenation and muscle VO2 in the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior. Thirteen cyclists cycled at a cadence of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm at a constant external work rate of 160.1 ± 21.3 W. Increasing cadence led to a decrease in ankle power in the dorsal flexion phase and to an increase in ankle joint angular velocity above 80 rpm. In addition, increasing cadence increased deoxygenation and desaturation for both the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057517/myoelectric-activation-pattern-changes-in-the-involved-limb-of-individuals-with-transtibial-amputation-during-locomotor-state-transitions
#15
Bryson H Nakamura, Michael E Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lower extremity muscle activation patterns differ in the strides leading to locomotive state transitions in the involved limb of individuals with transtibial amputation. It was hypothesized that all transitions would elicit activation differences between strides as the subjects moved toward the transition event. DESIGN: A single sample, observational study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the hallways, ramps and stairs of a university building...
January 2, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056872/a-limb-girdle-myopathy-phenotype-of-runx2-mutation-in-a-patient-with-cleidocranial-dysplasia-a-case-study-and-literature-review
#16
Sung-Ju Hsueh, Ni-Chung Lee, Shu-Hua Yang, Han-I Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin
BACKGROUND: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare hereditary disorder that arises from heterozygous loss of function mutations in the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. As RUNX2 is mainly expressed in osteoblasts, CCD typically affects the skeletal and dental systems. Few studies have investigated RUNX2 mutation effects on non-skeletal systems. Here, we describe limb-girdle myopathy, an uncommon phenotype of CCD, in a patient with a heterozygous missense mutation (p.R225Q) in the RUNX2 gene...
January 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050918/unstable-footwear-affects-magnitude-and-structure-of-variability-in-postural-control
#17
Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl, Erich Müller
This study evaluated the amount, and particularly the structure of variability in postural control accompanying an unstable shoe (US) application. Medio-lateral and anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) signals, plus electromyographic (EMG) profiles of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis were recorded in 29 asymptomatic men while wearing both US and flat shoes (FS). Statistical analysis included common measures of dispersion, as well as sample entropy (SEn) and largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) estimates...
January 4, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043769/motor-unit-number-index-munix-detects-motor-neuron-loss-in-pre-symptomatic-muscles-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Christoph Neuwirth, Paul E Barkhaus, Christian Burkhardt, José Castro, David Czell, Mamede de Carvalho, Sanjeev Nandedkar, Erik Stålberg, Markus Weber
OBJECTIVE: Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) is a quantitative neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons supplying a muscle. It reflects the loss of motor neurons in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). However, it is unclear whether MUNIX also detects motor unit loss in strong, non-wasted muscles. METHODS: Three centres measured MUNIX in 49 ALS patients every three months in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, biceps brachii, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis) on the less affected side...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042996/individual-difference-in-%C3%AE-band-corticomuscular-coherence-and-its-relation-to-force-steadiness-during-isometric-voluntary-ankle-dorsiflexion-in-healthy-humans
#19
Junichi Ushiyama, Junya Yamada, Meigen Liu, Junichi Ushiba
OBJECTIVE: Magnitude of β-band coherent neural activities between the sensorimotor cortex and contracting muscle is known to vary across healthy individuals. To clarify how this variance affects actual motor function, this study examined associations between the corticomuscular coherence (CMC) and force steadiness. METHODS: CMC was calculated between scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) over the sensorimotor cortex and surface electromyograms (EMGs) from the tibialis anterior muscle during tonic isometric voluntary ankle dorsiflexion at 30% of maximal effort in 22 healthy individuals...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042553/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-enhances-the-expression-of-genes-encoding-antioxidant-enzymes-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-proteins-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#20
Ui Jun Park, Hyoung Tae Kim, Won Hyun Cho, Jae Hyoung Park, Hye Ra Jung, Min Young Kim
PURPOSE: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), including remote IPC (rIPC) and direct IPC (dIPC), is a promising method to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study tested the effect of both rIPC and dIPC on the genes for antioxidant enzymes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty rats were randomly divided into the control and study groups. In the control group (n=10), the right hind limb was sham-operated. The left hind limb (IscR) of the control group underwent IR injury without IPC...
December 2016: Vascular Specialist International
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