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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793158/botulinum-toxin-type-a-affects-mechanics-of-non-injected-antagonistic-rat-muscles
#1
Filiz Ateş, Can A Yucesoy
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) effects on the mechanics of non-injected antagonistic muscles are unknown. The aim was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model: BTX-A injected into gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) (1) decreases forces of the antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), (2) reduces length range of force exertion and (3) increases passive forces of the TA, and (4) changes inter-antagonistic and inter-synergistic epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793089/gold-and-gold-silver-alloy-nanoparticles-enhance-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-myoblasts-through-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-promote-in-vivo-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#2
Juan Ge, Kai Liu, Wen Niu, Mi Chen, Min Wang, Yumeng Xue, Chuanbo Gao, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Under the severe trauma condition, the skeletal muscles regeneration process is inhibited by forming fibrous scar tissues. Understanding the interaction between bioactive nanomaterials and myoblasts perhaps has important effect on the enhanced skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Herein, we investigate the effect of monodispersed gold and gold-silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and Au-AgNPs) on the proliferation, myogenic differentiation and associated molecular mechanism of myoblasts (C2C12), as well as the in vivo skeletal muscle tissue regeneration...
May 18, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790833/alterations-in-the-cortical-control-of-standing-posture-during-varying-levels-of-postural-threat-and-task-difficulty
#3
Craig D Tokuno, Martin Keller, Mark Gregory Carpenter, Gonzalo Márquez, Wolfgang Taube
Cortical excitability increases during the performance of more difficult postural tasks. However, it is possible that changes in postural threat associated with more difficult tasks may in itself lead to alterations in the neural strategies underlying postural control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in postural threat are responsible for the alterations in corticospinal excitability and short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) that occur with increasing postural task difficulty...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790300/aspiration-pneumonia-induces-muscle-atrophy-in-the-respiratory-skeletal-and-swallowing-systems
#4
Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#5
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780328/contractile-activity-is-necessary-to-trigger-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-induced-fiber-size-and-vascular-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle
#6
David Rizo-Roca, Jèssica B Bonet, Büsra Ínal, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan R Torrella
Altitude training has become increasingly popular in recent decades. Its central and peripheral effects are well-described; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) alone on skeletal muscle morphofunctionality. Here, we studied the effects of IHH on different myofiber morphofunctional parameters, investigating whether contractile activity is required to elicit hypoxia-induced adaptations in trained rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained 1 month and then divided into three groups: (1) rats in normobaria (trained normobaric inactive, TNI); (2) rats subjected daily to a 4-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia equivalent to 4,000 m (trained hypobaric inactive, THI); and (3) rats subjected daily to a 4-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia just before performing light exercise (trained hypobaric active, THA)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778826/intra-and-inter-rater-reliabilities-for-novel-muscle-thickness-assessment-during-co-contraction-with-dual-rehabilitative-ultrasound-imaging
#7
Hwang-Jae Lee, Hyun-Geun Ha, Joohee Hahn, Seungyeop Lim, Wan-Hee Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of dual-rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (D-RUSI) for the simultaneous measurement of the thickness of the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GCM) muscles in healthy young adults. DESIGN: A single-group repeated-measures reliability study. SETTING: Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six healthy participants (23 males; age = 26...
May 17, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776999/stumbling-corrective-reaction-elicited-by-mechanical-and-electrical-stimulation-of-the-saphenous-nerve-in-walking-mice
#8
William Paganini Mayer, Turgay Akay
The ability to walk around in a natural environment requires the capacity to cope with unexpected obstacles that may disrupt locomotion. One such mechanism is called the stumbling corrective reaction (SCR) that enables animals to step over obstacles that would otherwise disturb the progression of swing movement. Here we use in vivo motion analysis and physiological recording techniques to describe the SCR in mice. We show that SCR can be elicited consistently in mice during locomotion by inserting an obstacle along the path of leg movement during swing phase...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775941/effects-of-arm-weight-on-gait-performance-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Hyung Suk Yang, C Roger James, Lee T Atkins, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer, Neeraj A Kumar, Jongyeol Kim
Previous studies have investigated how additional arm weights affect gait. Although light weights (0.45 kg) seemed to elicit performance improvements in Parkinsonian patients, it was not studied how light weights affect gait parameters in healthy individuals. It is important to understand normal responses in a healthy population so that clinical effects might be better understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weights on arm swing amplitude, gait performance, and muscle activity in healthy people...
May 15, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774305/multi-slice-mri-reveals-heterogeneity-in-disease-distribution-along-the-length-of-muscle-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Stephen M Chrzanowski, Celine Baligand, Rebecca J Willcocks, Jasjit Deol, Ilona Schmalfuss, Donovan J Lott, Michael J Daniels, Claudia Senesac, Glenn A Walter, Krista Vandenborne
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive pathologic changes to muscle secondary to a cascade of inflammation, lipid deposition, and fibrosis. Clinically, this manifests as progressive weakness, functional loss, and premature mortality. Though insult to whole muscle groups is well established, less is known about the relationship between intramuscular pathology and function. Objective: Differences of intramuscular heterogeneity across muscle length were assessed using an ordinal MRI grading scale in lower leg muscles of boys with DMD and correlated to patient's functional status...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768929/current-concepts-in-revision-hip-arthroscopy
#11
Renato Locks, Ioanna Bolia, Hajime Utsunomiya, Karen Briggs, Marc J Philippon
Hip arthroscopy is an evolving procedure and its indications have expanded. The number of patients undergoing this procedure has increased significantly as well as the number of surgeons being trained. This has resulted in a notable increase in post-operative complication rates creating the need to develop advanced hip arthroscopic techniques. Revision hip arthroscopy is often complex and many factors should be considered to achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Careful pre-operative planning and agreement of expectations between the physician and patient regarding the procedure are important...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765493/long-term-exercise-protects-against-cellular-stresses-in-aged-mice
#12
Irina Belaya, Masataka Suwa, Tao Chen, Rashid Giniatullin, Katja M Kanninen, Mustafa Atalay, Shuzo Kumagai
The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765181/assessment-of-leg-muscle-activity-using-toe-tapping-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-comparison-of-two-types-of-toe-tapping
#13
Seira Taniguchi, Ferdinand Peper, Tetsuya Shimokawa
[Purpose] This study investigates two types of toe tapping, i.e., "closed," with both feet on the floor, and "open," in which the foot does not touch the ground, and evaluates their usefulness in combination with monitoring of muscle activity during toe tapping. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 9 controls (Controls). The tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscle activity during toe tapping was measured using surface electromyography...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755168/amount-and-content-of-sensorimotor-therapy-delivered-in-three-stroke-rehabilitation-units-in-quebec-canada
#14
Carol L Richards, Francine Malouin, Sylvie Nadeau, Joyce Fung, Line D'Amours, Claire Perez, Anne Durand
Purpose: This study creates a baseline clinical portrait of sensorimotor rehabilitation in three stroke rehabilitation units (SRUs) as a first step in implementing a multi-centre clinical research platform. Method: Participants in this cross-sectional, descriptive study were the patients and rehabilitation teams in these SRUs. Prospective (recording of therapy time and content and a Web-based questionnaire) and retrospective (chart audit) methods were combined to characterize the practice of the rehabilitation professionals...
2018: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752246/a-novel-stimulation-paradigm-to-limit-the-habituation-of-the-nociceptive-withdrawal-reflex
#15
Sabata Gervasio, Christian B Laursen, Ole K Andersen, Kristian Hennings, Erika G Spaich
In gait rehabilitation, combining gait therapy with functional electrical stimulation based on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) improves walking velocity and gait symmetry of hemiparetic patients. However, habituation of the NWR can affect the efficacy of training. The current study aimed at identifying the stimulation parameters that would limit, in healthy participants, the habituation of the NWR. The NWR was elicited at every heel-off while the participants walked on a treadmill. Three stimulation paradigms were tested: deterministic paradigm (fixed parameters), stochastic pulse duration paradigm (varying the pulse duration of the stimuli), and stochastic frequency paradigm (varying the frequency of the stimuli)...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751090/sex-dependent-and-sex-independent-muscle-activation-patterns-in-adult-gait-as-a-function-of-age
#16
Christopher A Bailey, Federica Corona, Giuseppina Pilloni, Micaela Porta, Maria Chiara Fastame, Paul Kenneth Hitchcott, Maria Pietronilla Penna, Massimiliano Pau, Julie N Côté
INTRODUCTION: Aging leads to poorer neuromuscular control that may impact mobility. However, the specific decades when these changes occur, and whether these time-based changes are sex-specific, are unclear. METHODS: Adults aged 20-82 years (N = 93, 51 females) walked six gait trials at their preferred speed over a 10-m platform. Electromyography (EMG) of the rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) were measured using wireless surface sensors...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746498/modulation-of-plantar-pressure-and-gastrocnemius-activity-during-gait-using-electrical-stimulation-of-the-tibialis-anterior-in-healthy-adults
#17
Maiki Moriguchi, Noriaki Maeshige, Mizuki Ueno, Yoshiyuki Yoshikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Hidemi Fujino
High plantar flexor moment during the stance phase is known to cause high plantar pressure under the forefoot; however, the effects on plantar pressure due to a change of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) activity during gait, have not been investigated to date. Reciprocal inhibition is one of the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), and is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neuron inhibition which is evoked by excitation of the agonist muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of ES of the tibialis anterior (TA) on plantar pressure and the GM activity during gait in healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745890/pattern-of-muscle-involvement-in-inclusion-body-myositis-a-sonographic-study
#18
Jemima Albayda, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Clifton O Bingham Iii, Julie J Paik, Eleni Tiniakou, Seth Billings, O Manny Uy, Philippe Burlina
OBJECTIVES: Imaging plays a role in myositis assessment by detecting muscle changes indicative of pathology. This study was conducted to determine the ultrasonographic pattern of muscle involvement in patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) through an assessment of muscle echointensity. METHODS: Sixty-two individuals were consecutively studied, 18 with IBM, 16 with polymyositis or dermatomyositis and 28 normal controls. Standardised scans were completed bilaterally for the deltoids, biceps, flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), flexor carpi ulnaris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius assessing for muscle echointensity changes...
May 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743034/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-attenuates-the-peripheral-neuromuscular-dysfunction-without-inhibiting-the-activation-of-spinal-microglia-monocyte
#19
Fei Xie, Fan Zhang, Su Min, Jingyuan Chen, Jun Yang, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuromuscular dysfunctions were found in elderly individuals, and spinal microglia/monocyte plays an important role on this process. This study aims to test whether the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could attenuate age-related neuromuscular dysfunction by inhibiting the activation of spinal microglia/monocyte. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an adult group and an aged group. The aged rats were intrathecally injected with normal saline (NS) and GDNF...
May 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742800/reductions-in-muscle-quality-and-quantity-in-cidp-patients-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Kevin J Gilmore, Timothy J Doherty, Kurt Kimpinski, Charles L Rice
INTRODUCTION: Weakness in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) may be caused by decreases in muscle quantity and quality, but these have not been explored. METHODS: Twelve patients with CIDP (mean 61 years) and ten age- matched (mean 59 years) control subjects were assessed for ankle dorsiflexion strength, and two different MRI scans (T1 and T2) of leg musculature. RESULTS: Isometric strength was lower in CIDP patients by 36% compared with controls...
May 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
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