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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231634/from-endogenous-to-exogenous-pattern-formation-invasive-plant-species-changes-the-spatial-distribution-of-a-native-ant
#1
Kevin Li, Yifan He, Susanna K Campbell, A Shawn Colborn, Eliot L Jackson, Austin Martin, Ivan V Monagan, Theresa Wei Ying Ong, Ivette Perfecto
Invasive species are a significant threat to global biodiversity, but our understanding of how invasive species impact native communities across space and time remains limited. Based on observations in an old field in Southeast Michigan spanning 35 years, our study documents significant impacts of habitat change, likely driven by the invasion of the shrub, Elaeagnus umbellata, on the nest distribution patterns and population demographics of a native ant species, Formica obscuripes. Landcover change in aerial photos indicates that E...
February 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230734/deep%C3%A2-transcriptome%C3%A2-sequencing%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-two%C3%A2-green%C3%A2-algae-chara%C3%A2-vulgaris%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-chlamydomonas%C3%A2-reinhardtii-%C3%A2-provides%C3%A2-no%C3%A2-evidence%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-organellar%C3%A2-rna%C3%A2-editing
#2
A Bruce Cahoon, John A Nauss, Conner D Stanley, Ali Qureshi
Nearly all land plants post-transcriptionally modify specific nucleotides within RNAs, a process known as RNA editing. This adaptation allows the correction of deleterious mutations within the asexually reproducing and presumably non-recombinant chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. There are no reports of RNA editing in any of the green algae so this phenomenon is presumed to have originated in embryophytes either after the invasion of land or in the now extinct algal ancestor of all land plants. This was challenged when a recent in silico screen for RNA edit sites based on genomic sequence homology predicted edit sites in the green alga Chara vulgaris, a multicellular alga found within the Streptophyta clade and one of the closest extant algal relatives of land plants...
February 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228439/loss-of-pollen-specific-phospholipase-not-like-dad-triggers-gynogenesis-in-maize
#3
Laurine M Gilles, Abdelsabour Khaled, Jean-Baptiste Laffaire, Sandrine Chaignon, Ghislaine Gendrot, Jérôme Laplaige, Hélène Bergès, Genséric Beydon, Vincent Bayle, Pierre Barret, Jordi Comadran, Jean-Pierre Martinant, Peter M Rogowsky, Thomas Widiez
Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein...
February 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224055/is-biomass-a-reliable-estimate-of-plant-fitness
#4
Brett S Younginger, Dagmara Sirová, Mitchell B Cruzan, Daniel J Ballhorn
The measurement of fitness is critical to biological research. Although the determination of fitness for some organisms may be relatively straightforward under controlled conditions, it is often a difficult or nearly impossible task in nature. Plants are no exception. The potential for long-distance pollen dispersal, likelihood of multiple reproductive events per inflorescence, varying degrees of reproductive growth in perennials, and asexual reproduction all confound accurate fitness measurements. For these reasons, biomass is frequently used as a proxy for plant fitness...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220131/plant-stress-responses-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-epigenomics-era-perspectives-on-the-grapevine-scenario-a-model-for-perennial-crop-plants
#5
Ana M Fortes, Philippe Gallusci
Epigenetic marks include Histone Post-Translational Modifications and DNA methylation which are known to participate in the programming of gene expression in plants and animals. These epigenetic marks may be subjected to dynamic changes in response to endogenous and/or external stimuli and can have an impact on phenotypic plasticity. Studying how plant genomes can be epigenetically shaped under stressed conditions has become an essential issue in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant stress responses and enabling epigenetic in addition to genetic factors to be considered when breeding crop plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215355/differential-dna-methylation-may-contribute-to-temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-the-development-of-mycelia-and-conidia-in-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#6
Wanzhen Li, Yulong Wang, Jianyu Zhu, Zhangxun Wang, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215350/species-delimitation-and-phylogeography-of-the-pectenia-species-complex-a-misunderstood-case-of-species-pairs-in-lichenized-fungi-where-reproduction-mode-does-not-delimit-lineages
#7
Mónica A G Otálora, Isabel Martínez, Gregorio Aragón, Mats Wedin
The main goal of this work was to study species boundaries in the genus Pectenia and elucidate the biogeographic history of the four currently accepted species. To accomplish this, we included 92 specimens across the range of Pectenia in Europe and northern Africa. We used three nuclear loci and assessed species circumscription using two Bayesian coalescent-based methods and the Bayes Factor approach. We reviewed the value of reproductive mode and other morphological features as predictors of monophyletic groups...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214628/differences-in-biological-traits-composition-of-benthic-assemblages-between-unimpacted-habitats
#8
S G Bolam, C Garcia, J Eggleton, A J Kenny, L Buhl-Mortensen, G Gonzalez-Mirelis, T van Kooten, G Dinesen, J Hansen, J G Hiddink, M Sciberras, C Smith, N Papadopoulou, A Gumus, G Van Hoey, O R Eigaard, F Bastardie, A D Rijnsdorp
There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats...
January 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212314/a-gin4-like-protein-kinase-gil1-involvement-in-hyphal-growth-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#9
Dan Yu, Shijie Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jin-Rong Xu, Zachary Schultzhaus, Qiaojun Jin
Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#10
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196786/assessing-the-chronic-toxicity-of-copper-and-aluminium-to-the-tropical-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida
#11
Melanie A Trenfield, Joost W van Dam, Andrew J Harford, David Parry, Claire Streten, Karen Gibb, Rick A van Dam
The world's most productive bauxite mines and alumina refineries are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions. The discharge water from alumina refineries can contain elevated aluminium (Al, <0.45µm fraction), from 30 to 1000μg/L. There is a need for additional information on the toxicity of Al to aquatic organisms to improve the environmental regulation and management of alumina refinery operations in tropical coastal regions. A 14-d chronic toxicity test was developed for the tropical sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida...
February 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196534/comparative-genomics-reveals-high-biological-diversity-and-specific-adaptations-in-the-industrially-and-medically-important-fungal-genus-aspergillus
#12
Ronald P de Vries, Robert Riley, Ad Wiebenga, Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio, Sotiris Amillis, Cristiane Akemi Uchima, Gregor Anderluh, Mojtaba Asadollahi, Marion Askin, Kerrie Barry, Evy Battaglia, Özgür Bayram, Tiziano Benocci, Susanna A Braus-Stromeyer, Camila Caldana, David Cánovas, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Fusheng Chen, Wanping Chen, Cindy Choi, Alicia Clum, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, André Ricardo de Lima Damásio, George Diallinas, Tamás Emri, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Susanne Freyberg, Antonia Gallo, Christos Gournas, Rob Habgood, Matthieu Hainaut, María Laura Harispe, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina S Hildén, Ryan Hope, Abeer Hossain, Eugenia Karabika, Levente Karaffa, Zsolt Karányi, Nada Kraševec, Alan Kuo, Harald Kusch, Kurt LaButti, Ellen L Lagendijk, Alla Lapidus, Anthony Levasseur, Erika Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Antonio F Logrieco, Andrew MacCabe, Miia R Mäkelä, Iran Malavazi, Petter Melin, Vera Meyer, Natalia Mielnichuk, Márton Miskei, Ákos P Molnár, Giuseppina Mulé, Chew Yee Ngan, Margarita Orejas, Erzsébet Orosz, Jean Paul Ouedraogo, Karin M Overkamp, Hee-Soo Park, Giancarlo Perrone, Francois Piumi, Peter J Punt, Arthur F J Ram, Ana Ramón, Stefan Rauscher, Eric Record, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Vincent Robert, Julian Röhrig, Roberto Ruller, Asaf Salamov, Nadhira S Salih, Rob A Samson, Erzsébet Sándor, Manuel Sanguinetti, Tabea Schütze, Kristina Sepčić, Ekaterina Shelest, Gavin Sherlock, Vicky Sophianopoulou, Fabio M Squina, Hui Sun, Antonia Susca, Richard B Todd, Adrian Tsang, Shiela E Unkles, Nathalie van de Wiele, Diana van Rossen-Uffink, Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira, Tammi C Vesth, Jaap Visser, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Miaomiao Zhou, Mikael R Andersen, David B Archer, Scott E Baker, Isabelle Benoit, Axel A Brakhage, Gerhard H Braus, Reinhard Fischer, Jens C Frisvad, Gustavo H Goldman, Jos Houbraken, Berl Oakley, István Pócsi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Bernhard Seiboth, Patricia A vanKuyk, Jennifer Wortman, Paul S Dyer, Igor V Grigoriev
BACKGROUND: The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus. RESULTS: We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera...
February 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195530/structural-basis-for-inhibition-of-erythrocyte-invasion-by-antibodies-to-plasmodium-falciparum-protein-cyrpa
#13
Lin Chen, Yibin Xu, Wilson Wong, Jennifer K Thompson, Julie Healer, Ethan Goddard-Borger, Michael C Lawrence, Alan F Cowman
Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria in humans with over 450,000 deaths annually. The asexual blood stage involves invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites, in which they grow and divide to release daughter merozoites, which in turn invade new erythrocytes perpetuating the cycle responsible for malaria. A key step in merozoite invasion is the essential binding of PfRh5/CyRPA/PfRipr complex to basigin, a step linked to formation of a pore between merozoites and erythrocytes. We show CyRPA interacts directly with PfRh5...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195309/ploidy-tug-of-war-evolutionary-and-genetic-environments-influence-the-rate-of-ploidy-drive-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#14
Aleeza C Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman, Meleah A Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term 'ploidy drive'. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation environments to test whether these conditions, hypothesized to select for low ploidy levels, could counteract ploidy drive...
February 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192727/ecotoxicological-assessments-show-sucralose-and-fluoxetine-affect-the-aquatic-plant-lemna-minor
#15
Cherisse Amy-Sagers, Keith Reinhardt, Danelle M Larson
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are prevalent in aquatic systems, yet the fate and impacts on aquatic plants needs quantification for many compounds. We measured and detected sucralose (an artificial sweetener), fluoxetine (an antidepressant), and other PPCP in the Portneuf River in Idaho, USA, where Lemna minor (an aquatic plant in the environment and used in ecotoxicology studies) naturally occurs. Sucralose was hypothesized to negatively affect photosynthesis and growth of L. minor because sucralose is a chlorinated molecule that may be toxic or unusable for plant metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192221/taxonomic-revision-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-rubber-powdery-mildew-fungi
#16
K K Liyanage, Sehroon Khan, Siraprapa Brooks, Peter E Mortimer, Samantha C Karunarathna, Jianchu Xu, Kevin D Hyde
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191011/oxidative-stress-promotes-asexual-reproduction-and-apogamy-in-the-red-seaweed-pyropia-yezoensis
#17
Megumu Takahashi, Koji Mikami
The marine red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis has a haploid-diploid life cycle wherein two heteromorphic generations, a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte, are reciprocally generated from conchospores and carpospores, respectively. When we treated gametophytic blades of P. yezoensis with H2O2, discharge of asexual monospores was accelerated, resulting in increased numbers of gametophytic clones. Production of sporophytes without fertilization of male and female gametes was also observed. These findings indicate that oxidative stress can induce vegetative cells to develop into monospores that produce gametophytes asexually and can sometimes prompt carpospores to develop into sporophytes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188662/population-genetics-of-reef-coral-endosymbionts-symbiodinium-dinophyceae
#18
D J Thornhill, E J Howells, D C Wham, T D Steury, S R Santos
Symbiodinium is a diverse genus of unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts associating with various marine protists and invertebrates. Although the broad-scale diversity and phylogenetics of the Symbiodinium complex is well established, there have been surprisingly few data on fine-scale population structure and biogeography of these dinoflagellates. Yet population level processes contribute strongly to the biology of Symbiodinium, including how anthropogenic-driven global climate change impacts these symbionts and their host associations...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186227/oncosimulr-genetic-simulation-with-arbitrary-epistasis-and-mutator-genes-in-asexual-populations
#19
Ramon Diaz-Uriarte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184181/reassessment-of-allantonectria-phylogenetic-position-of-thyronectroidea-and-thyronectria-caraganae-sp-nov
#20
Hermann Voglmayr, Olexander Yu Akulov, Walter M Jaklitsch
The genus Allantonectria is synonymised with Thyronectria, based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic considerations. Investigations of types and fresh collections revealed that Tubercularia concentrica is an earlier name for Sphaeria (syn. Allantonectria) miltina and is thus combined in Thyronectria. Allantonectria yuccae is recognised as a distinct species and transferred to Thyronectria, as well as the recently described A. zangii. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for T. concentrica and T...
September 2016: Mycological Progress
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