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Nina Simon, Oliver Friedrich, Barbara Kappes
The human complement system is the most effective defense mechanism of the human innate immune system. One major negative regulator of the alternative pathway in human blood is complement factor H (FH). It binds to autologous cells and thus, prevents complement attack against body-cells or tissues. Various pathogens are known to escape complement recognition by recruiting FH to provide protection against the host's immune system. This immune evasion mechanism was recently qualitatively reported for asexual malaria blood stages...
February 12, 2018: Vaccine
Marika Bocchini, Giulio Galla, Fulvio Pupilli, Michele Bellucci, Gianni Barcaccia, Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Silvina C Pessino, Emidio Albertini
Apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) is considered a deviation of the sexual reproductive pathway leading to the development of clonal progenies genetically identical to the mother plant. Here we used the Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) technique to characterize cytosine methylation patterns occurring in florets of sexual and aposporous Paspalum notatum genotypes, in order to identify epigenetically-controlled genes putatively involved in apomixis development. From twelve polymorphic MSAP-derived sequences, one (PN_6...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shilpy Aggarwal, Deepika Paliwal, Dhirender Kaushik, Girish Kumar Gupta, Ajay Kumar
BACKGROUND: Malaria, one of the most vital infectious diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Plasmodium genus. As P. falciparum, the cause of most of the severe cases of malaria, is increasingly resistant to available drugs such as amodioquine, chloroquine, artemisinin, and antifolates, there is an urgent need of identify new targets for chemotherapy Objective: This study screened novel pyrazole derivatives carrying iminium & benzothiazole group for antimalarial potential against P...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Pedram Samani, Max Reuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Wesley C Warren, Raquel García-Pérez, Sen Xu, Kathrin P Lampert, Domitille Chalopin, Matthias Stöck, Laurence Loewe, Yuan Lu, Lukas Kuderna, Patrick Minx, Michael J Montague, Chad Tomlinson, LaDeana W Hillier, Daniel N Murphy, John Wang, Zhongwei Wang, Constantino Macias Garcia, Gregg C W Thomas, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Fabiana Farias, Bronwen Aken, Ronald B Walter, Kim D Pruitt, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Matthew W Hahn, Susanne Kneitz, Michael Lynch, Manfred Schartl
The extreme rarity of asexual vertebrates in nature is generally explained by genomic decay due to absence of meiotic recombination, thus leading to extinction of such lineages. We explore features of a vertebrate asexual genome, the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, and find few signs of genetic degeneration but unique genetic variability and ongoing evolution. We uncovered a substantial clonal polymorphism and, as a conserved feature from its interspecific hybrid origin, a 10-fold higher heterozygosity than in the sexual parental species...
February 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Mariëtte E van der Watt, Janette Reader, Alisje Churchyard, Sindisiwe H Nondaba, Sonja B Lauterbach, Jandeli Niemand, Sijuade Abayomi, Riëtte A van Biljon, Jessica I Connacher, Roelof D J van Wyk, Claire Le Manach, Tanya Paquet, Diego González Cabrera, Christel Brunschwig, Anjo Theron, Sonia Lozano-Arias, Janneth F I Rodrigues, Esperanza Herreros, Didier Leroy, James Duffy, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale, Dalu Mancama, Theresa L Coetzer, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz
Objectives: Novel chemical tools to eliminate malaria should ideally target both the asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. Several imidazopyridazines (IMPs) and 2-aminopyridines (2-APs) have been described as potent antimalarial candidates targeting lipid kinases. However, these have not been extensively explored for stage-specific inhibition of gametocytes in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Here we provide an in-depth evaluation of the gametocytocidal activity of compounds from these chemotypes and identify novel starting points for dual-acting antimalarials...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Qing Cai, Juan-Juan Wang, Bo Fu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Gcn5 is a core histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3 acetylation on N-terminal lysine residues in yeasts and was reported to catalyze H3K9/K14 acetylation required for activating asexual development in Aspergillus. Here, we report a localization of Gcn5 ortholog in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of gcn5 led to hypoacetylated H3 at K9/14/18/27 and 97% reduction in conidiation capacity as well as severe defects in colony growth and conidial thermotolerance...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Li Wang, Chen Zhu, Lin Jin, Aihua Xiao, Jie Duan, Luyi Ma
Kalanchoe (K.) daigremontiana is important for studying asexual reproduction under different environmental conditions. Here, we describe a novel KdNOVEL41 (KdN41) gene that may confer drought resistance and could thereby affect K. daigremontiana development. The detected subcellular localization of a KdN41/Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) fusion protein was in the nucleus and cell membrane. Drought, salt, and heat stress treatment in tobacco plants containing the KdN41 gene promoter driving β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene transcription revealed that only drought stress triggered strong GUS staining in the vascular tissues...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bing Li, Xin Dong, Xinrui Li, Huaigu Chen, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
The signals by which eukaryotic cells communicate with the environment are usually mediated by vesicle trafficking to be attenuated or terminated. However, vesicle trafficking-mediated signal transmission during interactions between pathogens and host plants is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized the vacuole sorting protein FgVps41, which is the yeast HOPS tethering complex subunit Vps41 homolog in Fusarium graminearum. Targeted gene deletion demonstrated that FgVps41 is important for vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, conidial morphology, plant infection, and deoxynivalenol production...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Chris T McAllister, Vasyl V Tkach, David Bruce Conn
Free pre-tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp. are described, for the first time, from samples obtained from the coelomic cavity of a ground skink, Scincella lateralis from Oklahoma, USA. Closer examination of these early stage tapeworms revealed they were transitional metamorphosis stages between a post-hexacanth procercoid form to the full metacestode of Mesocestoides. A series of transitional stages from before the suckers and apical organ are developed, through full development of both structures were found...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Ke Pang, Qing Tang, Lei Chen, Bin Wan, Changtai Niu, Xunlai Yuan, Shuhai Xiao
Cyanobacteria were the ultimate ancestor of all plastids and, for much of Earth's history, the only source of biogenic oxygen and a major source of fixed carbon and nitrogen. One cyanobacterial clade, subsections IV+V, is characterized by multicellularity and cell differentiation, with many members bearing specialized nitrogen-fixing (or diazotrophic) heterocysts and encysting akinetes [1-3]. Molecular clock estimates of the divergence time of this clade are highly variable, ranging from ∼2,000 Ma (mega-annum) [4-9] to ∼500 Ma [10]...
January 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Amena Khatun, Tarin Farhana, Abdullah As Sabir, Shah Mohammad Naimul Islam, Helen M West, Mahfuzur Rahman, Tofazzal Islam
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize antagonistic rhizobacteria from chili against a notorious phytopathogen Phytophthora capsici. Among the 48 bacteria isolated, BTLbbc-02, BTLbbc-03, and BTLbbc-05 were selected based on their inhibitory activity against P. capsici. They were tentatively identified as Burkholderia metallica BTLbbc-02, Burkholderia cepacia BTLbbc-03, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa BTLbbc-05, respectively, based on their 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All inhibited the growth of P...
February 3, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Katharine A Collins, Claire Yt Wang, Matthew Adams, Hayley Mitchell, Melanie Rampton, Suzanne Elliott, Isaie J Reuling, Teun Bousema, Robert Sauerwein, Stephan Chalon, Jörg J Möhrle, James S McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Drugs and vaccines that can interrupt the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum will be important for malaria control and elimination. However, models for early clinical evaluation of candidate transmission-blocking interventions are currently unavailable. Here we describe a new model for evaluating malaria transmission from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes using controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: Seventeen healthy malaria-naïve volunteers underwent CHMI by intravenous inoculation of P...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Masashi Tanaka, Takaaki Daimon
Parthenogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction that plays an important role in the evolution of sex, sociality, and reproduction strategies in insects. Some species of cockroach exhibit thelytoky, a type of parthenogenesis in which female offspring are produced without fertilization. However, the cytological and genetic mechanisms of parthenogenesis in cockroaches are not well understood. Here we provide the first molecular genetic evidence that cockroaches can reproduce through automixis. Using the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, we performed microsatellite analysis to investigate the genetic relationship between parthenogenetically produced nymphs and the parent virgin females, and found that all parthenogenetic offspring were homozygous for autosomal microsatellite markers, whereas the female parents were heterozygous...
February 1, 2018: Insect Science
Heidi Käch, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Alice B Dennis, Christoph Vorburger
There is growing interest in biological control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly way to control pest insects. Aphids are among the most detrimental agricultural pests worldwide, and parasitoid wasps are frequently employed for their control. The use of asexual parasitoids may improve the effectiveness of biological control because only females kill hosts and because asexual populations have a higher growth rate than sexuals. However, asexuals may have a reduced capacity to track evolutionary change in their host populations...
February 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Rohan Maddamsetti, Richard E Lenski
Few experimental studies have examined the role that sexual recombination plays in bacterial evolution, including the effects of horizontal gene transfer on genome structure. To address this limitation, we analyzed genomes from an experiment in which Escherichia coli K-12 Hfr (high frequency recombination) donors were periodically introduced into 12 evolving populations of E. coli B and allowed to conjugate repeatedly over the course of 1000 generations. Previous analyses of the evolved strains from this experiment showed that recombination did not accelerate adaptation, despite increasing genetic variation relative to asexual controls...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Lijun Zheng, Yanchen Su
This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Carolyn Young, Clive Bock, Nikki Charlton, Chakradhar Mattupalli, Nick D Krom, Joanna K Bowen, Matt David Templeton, Kim Plummer, Bruce W Wood
Venturia effusa (syn. Fusicladium effusum), causal agent of pecan scab, is the most prevalent pathogen of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) causing severe yield losses in the southeastern U.S.A. Venturia effusa is currently known only by its asexual (conidial) stage. However, the degree and distribution of genetic diversity observed within and among populations of V. effusa are typical of a sexually reproducing fungal pathogen, and comparable to other Dothideomycetes with a known sexual stage, including the closely related apple scab pathogen, V...
January 30, 2018: Phytopathology
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