keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

asexuality

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722583/a-direct-from-blood-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-monitoring-falciparum-malaria-parasite-transmission-in-elimination-settings
#1
Brian J Taylor, Kjerstin Lanke, Shanna L Banman, Isabelle Morlais, Merribeth J Morin, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma, Stephanie K Yanow
We describe a novel one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (direct RT-PCR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites that amplifies RNA targets directly from blood. We developed the assay to identify gametocyte-specific transcripts in parasites from patient blood samples, as a means of monitoring malaria parasite transmission in field settings. To perform the test, blood is added directly to a master mix in PCR tubes and analyzed by real-time PCR. The limit of detection of the assay on both conventional and portable real-time PCR instruments was 100 parasites/mL for 18S rRNA, and 1,000 parasites/mL for asexual (PFE0065W) and gametocyte (PF14_0367, PFGEXP5) mRNA targets...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720700/hitchhiking-and-epistasis-give-rise-to-cohort-dynamics-in-adapting-populations
#2
Sean W Buskirk, Ryan Emily Peace, Gregory I Lang
Beneficial mutations are the driving force of adaptive evolution. In asexual populations, the identification of beneficial alleles is confounded by the presence of genetically linked hitchhiker mutations. Parallel evolution experiments enable the recognition of common targets of selection; yet these targets are inherently enriched for genes of large target size and mutations of large effect. A comprehensive study of individual mutations is necessary to create a realistic picture of the evolutionarily significant spectrum of beneficial mutations...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719294/molecular-markers-for-sensitive-detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-stage-parasites-and-their-application-in-a-malaria-clinical-trial
#3
Fitsum G Tadesse, Kjerstin Lanke, Issa Nebie, Jodie A Schildkraut, Bronner P Gonçalves, Alfred B Tiono, Robert Sauerwein, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma
Plasmodium falciparum parasite life stages respond differently to antimalarial drugs. Sensitive stage-specific molecular assays may help to examine parasite dynamics at microscopically detectable and submicroscopic parasite densities in epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we compared the performance of skeleton-binding protein 1 (SBP1), ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen, Hyp8, ring-exported protein 1 (REX1), and PHISTb mRNA for detecting ring-stage trophozoite-specific transcripts using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719292/malaria-infection-and-gametocyte-carriage-rates-in-preparation-for-transmission-blocking-vaccine-trials-in-bancoumana-mali
#4
Mahamadoun Hamady Assadou, Issaka Sagara, Sara A Healy, Merepen Agnes Guindo, Mamady Kone, Sintry Sanogo, M'Bouye Doucoure, Sekouba Keita, Ruth D Ellis, Yimin Wu, Freda Omaswa, Patrick E Duffy, Ogobara K Doumbo
The epidemiological characterization of transmission reservoirs is a critical step in preparation for interventional trials for malaria elimination/eradication. Using cluster sampling and households/compounds as units of sampling, we recruited and followed monthly, from June 2011 to June 2012, 250 volunteers 3 months to 50 years of age in Bancoumana, Mali. In July 2012, only participants 5-35 years of age (N = 121) were reenrolled and followed for an additional year. Malaria infection prevalence was highest in October in both 2011 (21...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717174/over-expression-of-kdsoc1-gene-affected-plantlet-morphogenesis-in-kalanchoe-daigremontiana
#5
Chen Zhu, Li Wang, Jinhua Chen, Chenglan Liu, Huiming Zeng, Huafang Wang
Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713408/transcriptome-analyses-shed-new-insights-into-primary-metabolism-and-regulation-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici-during-conidiation
#6
Fan-Song Zeng, Fabrizio Menardo, Min-Feng Xue, Xue-Jiang Zhang, Shuang-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Yang, Wen-Qi Shi, Da-Zhao Yu
Conidia of the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) play a vital role in its survival and rapid dispersal. However, little is known about the genetic basis for its asexual reproduction. To uncover the primary metabolic and regulatory events during conidiation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Bgt epiphytic structures at 3 (vegetative hyphae growth), 4 (foot cells initiation), and 5 (conidiophore erection) days post-inoculation (dpi). RNA-seq analyses identified 556 and 404 (combined 685) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 5 dpi compared with their expression levels at 3 dpi, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713406/ultrastructural-and-cytological-studies-on-mycosphaerella-pinodes-infection-of-the-model-legume-medicago-truncatula
#7
Tomoko Suzuki, Aya Maeda, Masaya Hirose, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, Kazuhiro Toyoda
Ascochyta (Mycosphaerella) blight on cultivated peas is primarily caused by infection through asexual spores (pycnospores) of Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et Blox.) Vestergren [recently renamed Peyronellaea pinodes (Berk. & A. Bloxam) Aveskamp, Gruyter & Verkley]. Using a model pathosystem involving Medicago truncatula and Mycosphaerella pinodes strain OMP-1, we examined the histology and ultrastructure of early infection events and fungal development including penetration by appressoria, vegetative growth of infection hyphae, and host responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713398/a-hops-protein-movps41-is-crucially-important-for-vacuolar-morphogenesis-vegetative-growth-reproduction-and-virulence-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#8
Xiaojie Zhang, Guanghui Wang, Chengdong Yang, Jun Huang, Xiaofeng Chen, Jie Zhou, Guangpu Li, Justice Norvienyeku, Zonghua Wang
The homotypic fusion and protein sorting protein complex (HOPS) is the first known tether complex identified in the endocytic system that plays a key role in promoting homotypic vacuolar fusion, vacuolar biogenesis and trafficking in a wide range of organisms, including plant and fungi. However, the exact influence of the HOPS complex on growth, reproduction and pathogenicity of the economically destructive rice blast fungus has not been investigated. In this study, we identified M. oryzae vacuolar protein sorting 41 (MoVps41) an accessory subunit of HOPS complex and used targeted gene deletion approach to evaluate its contribution to growth, reproduction and infectious life cycle of the rice blast fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710879/the-transcription-factor-pstste12-is-required-for-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#9
Xiaoguo Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiuling Chu, Qixiong Sun, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Min Jiao, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus that causes extensive damage in wheat. The pathogen is now known to be a heteroecious fungus with an intricate life cycle containing sexual and asexual stages. Orthologs of the STE12 transcription factor that regulate mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as virulence in other fungi has been extensively described. Because reliable transformation and gene disruption methods are lacking for Pst, knowledge about the function of its STE12 ortholog is limited...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705398/very-long-chain-aldehydes-induce-appressorium-formation-in-ascospores-of-the-wheat-powdery-mildew-fungus-blumeria-graminis
#10
Mo Zhu, Markus Riederer, Ulrich Hildebrandt
Asexually produced conidia of the wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) are known to perceive cuticular very-long-chain aldehydes as signal substances strongly stimulating germination and differentiation of infection structures in a concentration- and chain-length-dependent manner. Conidial germination and appressorium formation are widely prevented by the presence of free water on the host surface. However, sexually produced ascospores can differentiate immersed in water. Applying a Formvar(®)-based in vitro-system showed that ascospore appressorium formation was strongly induced by the presence of wheat leaf cuticular wax...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705245/abscisic-acid-induces-a-transient-shift-in-signaling-that-enhances-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-parasite-killing-in-the-midgut-of-anopheles-stephensi-without-reducing-lifespan-or-fecundity
#11
Elizabeth K K Glennon, Brandi K Torrevillas, Shannon F Morrissey, Jadrian M Ejercito, Shirley Luckhart
BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally present in mammalian blood and circulating levels can be increased by oral supplementation. We showed previously that oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL infection reduced parasitemia and gametocytemia, spleen and liver pathology, and parasite transmission to the mosquito Anopheles stephensi fed on these mice. Treatment of cultured Plasmodium falciparum with ABA at levels detected in our model had no effects on asexual growth or gametocyte formation in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701714/structural-and-biochemical-characterization-of-apicomplexan-inorganic-pyrophosphatases
#12
Abhishek Jamwal, Manickam Yogavel, Malik Z Abdin, Swatantra K Jain, Amit Sharma
Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase) participate in energy cycling and they are essential for growth and survival of organisms. Here we report extensive structural and functional characterization of soluble PPases from the human parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfPPase) and Toxoplasma gondii (TgPPase). Our results show that PfPPase is a cytosolic enzyme whose gene expression is upregulated during parasite asexual stages. Cambialistic PfPPase actively hydrolyzes linear short chain polyphosphates like PPi, polyP3 and ATP in the presence of Zn(2+)...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699823/the-gmz2-malaria-vaccine-from-concept-to-efficacy-in-humans
#13
Michael Theisen, Bright Adu, Benjamin Mordmüller, Subhash Singh
GMZ2 is a recombinant protein consisting of conserved domains of GLURP and MSP3, two asexual blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, and is designed with the aim of mimicking naturally acquired anti-malarial immunity. The rationale for combining these two antigens is based on a series of immune epidemiological studies from geographically diverse malaria endemic regions; functional in vitro studies; and pre-clinical studies in rodents and New World monkeys. GMZ2 adjuvanted with alhydrogel® (alum) was well tolerated and immunogenic in three phase 1 studies...
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696922/functional-profiling-of-transcription-factor-genes-in-neurospora-crassa
#14
Alexander J Carrillo, Patrick Schacht, Ilva E Cabrera, Johnathon Blahut, Loren Prudhomme, Sarah Dietrich, Thomas Bekman, Jennifer Mei, Cristian Carrera, Vivian Chen, Isaiah Clark, Gerardo Fierro, Logan Ganzen, Jose Orellana, Shelby Wise, Kevin Yang, Hui Zhong, Katherine A Borkovich
Regulation of gene expression by DNA-binding transcription factors is essential for proper control of growth and development in all organisms. In this study, we annotate and characterize growth and developmental phenotypes for transcription factor genes in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa We identified 312 transcription factor genes, corresponding to 3.2% of the protein coding genes in the genome. The largest class was the fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 (C6) binuclear cluster, with 135 members, followed by the highly conserved C2H2 zinc finger group, with 61 genes...
July 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696697/development-of-a-potent-inhibitor-of-the-plasmodium-proteasome-with-reduced-mammalian-toxicity
#15
Gregory M LaMonte, Jehad Almaliti, Betsaida Bibo-Verdugo, Lena Keller, Bing Yu Zou, Jennifer Yang, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Colleen A Boyle, Edgar Vigil, Lawrence Wang, Gregory M Goldgof, Lena Gerwick, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Elizabeth A Winzeler, William H Gerwick, Sabine Ottilie
Naturally derived chemical compounds are the foundation of much of our pharmacopeia, especially in anti-proliferative and anti-infective drug classes. Here, we report that a naturally-derived molecule called carmaphycin B, is a potent inhibitor against both the asexual and sexual blood stages of malaria infection. Using a combination of in silico molecular docking and in vitro directed evolution in a well-characterized drug-sensitive yeast model, we determined that these compounds target the β5 subunit of the proteasome...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693550/evidence-of-indirect-symbiont-conferred-protection-against-the-predatory-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-in-the-pea-aphid
#16
Jennifer L Kovacs, Candice Wolf, Dené Voisin, Seth Wolf
BACKGROUND: Defensive symbionts can provide significant fitness advantages to their hosts. Facultative symbionts can protect several species of aphid from fungal pathogens, heat shock, and parasitism by parasitoid wasps. Previous work found that two of these facultative symbionts can also indirectly protect pea aphids from predation by the lady beetle Hippocampus convergens. When aphids reproduce asexually, there is extremely high relatedness among aphid clone-mates and often very limited dispersal...
July 11, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#17
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688334/-behind-closed-doors-with-open-minds-a-qualitative-study-exploring-nursing-home-staff-s-narratives-towards-their-roles-and-duties-within-the-context-of-sexuality-in-dementia
#18
T Vandrevala, T Chrysanthaki, E Ogundipe
BACKGROUND: Despite sexual expression being recognised as a fundamental human need, sexuality in old age is often ignored and frequently misunderstood, with residents with dementia in a nursing home often viewed as asexual or incapable of being sexually active. OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to understand the views held by nursing care home staff towards dementia and sexuality and explore the roles they may adopt whilst responding and managing sexual needs and expression for residents with dementia...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686696/morphological-and-transcriptomic-evidence-for-ammonium-induction-of-sexual-reproduction-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-and-other-centric-diatoms
#19
Eric R Moore, Briana S Bullington, Alexandra J Weisberg, Yuan Jiang, Jeff Chang, Kimberly H Halsey
The reproductive strategy of diatoms includes asexual and sexual phases, but in many species, including the model centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, sexual reproduction has never been observed. Furthermore, the environmental factors that trigger sexual reproduction in diatoms are not understood. Although genome sequences of a few diatoms are available, little is known about the molecular basis for sexual reproduction. Here we show that ammonium reliably induces the key sexual morphologies, including oogonia, auxospores, and spermatogonia, in two strains of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684294/survival-phenotype-selfish-individual-versus-darwinian-phenotype
#20
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri
Consider and infinitely large asexual population without mutations and direct interactions. The activities of an individual determine the fecundity and the survival probability of individuals, moreover each activity takes time. We view this population model as a simple combination of life history and optimal foraging models. The phenotypes are given by probability distributions on these activities. We concentrate on the following phenotypes defined by optimization of different objective functions: selfish individual (maximizes the average offspring number during life span), survival phenotype (maximizes the probability of non-extinction of descendants) and Darwinian phenotype (maximizes the phenotypic growth rate)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
keyword
keyword
54525
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"