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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242777/a-new-family-and-genus-in-dothideales-for-aureobasidium-like-species-isolated-from-house-dust
#1
Zoë Humphries, Keith A Seifert, Yuuri Hirooka, Cobus M Visagie
An international survey of house dust collected from eleven countries using a modified dilution-to-extinction method yielded 7904 isolates. Of these, six strains morphologically resembled the asexual morphs of Aureobasidium and Hormonema (sexual morphs ?Sydowia), but were phylogenetically distinct. A 28S rDNA phylogeny resolved strains as a distinct clade in Dothideales with families Aureobasidiaceae and Dothideaceae their closest relatives. Further analyses based on the ITS rDNA region, β-tubulin, 28S rDNA, and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit confirmed the distinct status of this clade and divided strains among two consistent subclades...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239290/re-evaluation-of-the-life-cycle-of-eimeria-maxima-tyzzer-1929-in-chickens-gallus-domesticus
#2
J P Dubey, M C Jenkins
A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238958/parasites-driving-host-diversity-incidence-of-disease-correlated-with-daphnia-clonal-turnover
#3
Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak, Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia - Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with high temporal resolution from 1998 until 2013, using first allozyme and later microsatellite markers...
December 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236745/facultative-parthenogenesis-validated-by-dna-analyses-in-the-green-anaconda-eunectes-murinus
#4
Hiroki Shibata, Shuichi Sakata, Yuzo Hirano, Eiji Nitasaka, Ai Sakabe
In reptiles, the mode of reproduction is typically sexual. However, facultative parthenogenesis occurs in some Squamata, such as Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus). Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus). We found two fully developed female neonates and 17 undeveloped eggs in the oviduct of a female anaconda isolated from other individuals for eight years and two months at Ueno Zoo, Japan. To clarify the zygosity of the neonates, we analyzed 18 microsatellite markers of which 16 were informative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235478/sexual-recombination-and-increased-mutation-rate-expedite-evolution-of-escherichia-coli-in-varied-fitness-landscapes
#5
George L Peabody V, Hao Li, Katy C Kao
Sexual recombination and mutation rate are theorized to play different roles in adaptive evolution depending on the fitness landscape; however, direct experimental support is limited. Here we examine how these factors affect the rate of adaptation utilizing a "genderless" strain of Escherichia coli capable of continuous in situ sexual recombination. The results show that the populations with increased mutation rate, and capable of sexual recombination, outperform all the other populations. We further characterize two sexual and two asexual populations with increased mutation rate and observe maintenance of beneficial mutations in the sexual populations through mutational sweeps...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227022/the-gata-type-ivb-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-ssnsd1-regulates-asexual-sexual-development-and-appressoria-formation-in-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#6
Jingtao Li, Wenhui Mu, Selvakumar Veluchamy, Yanzhi Liu, Yanhua Zhang, Hongyu Pan, Jeffrey A Rollins
The sclerotium, a multicellular structure made from the compact aggregation of vegetative hyphae, is critical for the long-term survival and sexual reproduction of the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The development and carpogenic germination of sclerotia are regulated by integrating signals from both environmental and endogenous processes. Here we report on the regulatory functions of the S. sclerotiorum GATA-type IVb zinc-finger transcription factor SsNsd1 in these processes. SsNsd1 is orthologous to the Aspergillus nidulans NsdD (never in sexual development) and the Neurospora crassa SUB-1 (submerged protoperithecia-1) proteins...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224342/lycosides-unusual-carotenoid-derived-terpenoid-glycosides-from-a-vegetable-juice-inhibit-asexual-reproduction-of-the-plant-pathogen-phytophthora
#7
Rika Iwai, Chunguang Han, Sudhakar V S Govindam, Makoto Ojika
Vegetable juices, typical culture media for the plant pathogen Phytophthora, effectively induce its asexual reproduction (zoosporangia formation). However, some chromatographic fractions from a vegetable juice were found to inhibit the asexual reproduction. Bioassay-guided chromatographic steps led to the isolation of four novel compounds named lycosides A-D, 1-4, that could be metabolic products from a carotenoid. They showed 50% inhibitory activity against the asexual reproduction of P. capsici at 2.1 - 7...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219249/activities-of-11-azaartemisinin-and-n-sulfonyl-derivatives-against-asexual-and-transmissible-malaria-parasites
#8
Rozanne Harmse, Dina Coertzen, Ho Ning Wong, Frans J Smit, Mariette E van der Watt, Janette Reader, Sindiswe H Nondaba, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Richard K Haynes, David D N'Da
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), either used in its own right or as the active drug generated in vivo from the other artemisinins in current clinical use-artemether and artesunate-induces quiescence in ring-stage parasites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). This induction of quiescence is linked to artemisinin resistance. Thus, we have turned to structurally disparate artemisinins that are incapable of providing DHA on metabolism. Accordingly, 11-azaartemisinin 5 and selected N-sulfonyl derivatives were screened against intraerythrocytic asexual stages of drug-sensitive Pf NF54 and drug-resistant K1 and W2 parasites...
December 8, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218784/intraspecific-genetic-structure-divergence-and-high-rates-of-clonality-in-an-amphi-atlantic-starfish
#9
Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Creu Palacín, Carlos Renato Rezende Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo Cesar Paiva, Rocío Pérez-Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218597/role-of-tulipa-gesneriana-teosinte-branched1-tgtb1-in-the-control-of-axillary-bud-outgrowth-in-bulbs
#10
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217416/identification-of-target-proteins-of-clinical-immunity-to-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-region-of-low-malaria-transmission
#11
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Satoru Takeo, Eizo Takashima, Kazutoyo Miura, Bernard N Kanoi, Takamasa Kaneko, Eun-Taek Han, Mayumi Tachibana, Kazuhiro Matsuoka, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
The target molecules of antibodies against falciparum malaria remain largely unknown. Recently we have identified multiple proteins as targets of immunity against Plasmodium falciparum using African serum samples. To investigate whether potential targets of clinical immunity differ with transmission intensity, we assessed immune responses in residents of low malaria transmission region in Thailand. Malaria asymptomatic volunteers (Asy: n=19) and symptomatic patients (Sym: n=21) were enrolled into the study...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212720/co-occurrence-of-related-asexual-but-not-sexual-lineages-suggests-that-reproductive-interference-limits-coexistence
#12
Jeannette Whitton, Christopher J Sears, Wayne P Maddison
We used randomizations to analyse patterns of co-occurrence of sexual and apomictic (asexual) members of the North American Crepis agamic complex (Asteraceae). We expect strong asymmetry in reproductive interactions in Crepis: apomicts produce clonal seeds with no need for pollination and are not subject to reproductive interference from co-occurring relatives. However, because they still produce some viable pollen, apomicts can reduce reproductive success of nearby sexual relatives, potentially leading to eventual local exclusion of sexuals...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212441/evolution-of-cytokinesis-related-protein-localization-during-the-emergence-of-multicellularity-in-volvocine-green-algae
#13
Yoko Arakaki, Takayuki Fujiwara, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Kaoru Kawafune, Jonathan Featherston, Pierre M Durand, Shin-Ya Miyagishima, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: The volvocine lineage, containing unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and differentiated multicellular Volvox carteri, is a powerful model for comparative studies aiming at understanding emergence of multicellularity. Tetrabaena socialis is the simplest multicellular volvocine alga and belongs to the family Tetrabaenaceae that is sister to more complex multicellular volvocine families, Goniaceae and Volvocaceae. Thus, T. socialis is a key species to elucidate the initial steps in the evolution of multicellularity...
December 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206572/non-monosex-research-publication-in-u-s-based-social-work-journals-between-2008-2016
#14
Aidan Ferguson, Matt Gilmour
An estimated 4% of men and 9% of women identify as non-monosex, a term for sexual identities outside of the heterosexual/homosexual binary, such as bisexual, pansexual, polysexual, and asexual. In addition to experiences of oppression shared with all sexual minorities, non-monosex-identifying persons face additional issues of monosex bias in their personal lives, in mass media, and in research. Despite social work's commitment to issues of social justice and inclusion, prior reviews of the literature have indicated a gap in research on non-monosex-identifying persons, which can lead to inappropriate clinical practices and continued stigmatization...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205317/fitness-consequences-of-occasional-outcrossing-in-a-functionally-asexual-plant-oenothera-biennis
#15
John L Maron, Marc T J Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Anurag A Agrawal
Many clonal organisms occasionally outcross, but the long-term consequences of such infrequent events are often unknown. During five years, representing three to five plant generations, we followed 16 experimental field populations of the forb, Oenothera biennis, originally planted with the same 18 original genotypes. Oenothera biennis usually self-fertilizes, which due to its genetic system (Permanent Translocation Heterozygosity), results in seeds that are clones of the maternal plant. However, rare outcrossing produces genetically novel offspring (but without recombination or increased heterozygosity)...
December 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194910/monilophthora-roreri-causal-agent-of-cacao-frosty-pod-rot
#16
Bryan A Bailey, Harry C Evans, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Shahin S Ali, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. (1978); Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194347/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-activities-and-adme-tox-profile-of-a-quinolizidine-modified-4-aminoquinoline-a-potent-anti-p-falciparum-and-anti-p-vivax-blood-stage-antimalarial
#17
Nicoletta Basilico, Silvia Parapini, Anna Sparatore, Sergio Romeo, Paola Misiano, Livia Vivas, Vanessa Yardley, Simon L Croft, Annette Habluetzel, Leonardo Lucantoni, Laurent Renia, Bruce Russell, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Francois Nosten, Giulio Dondio, Chiara Bigogno, Daniela Jabes, Donatella Taramelli
Natural products are a prolific source for the identification of new biologically active compounds. In the present work, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacy and ADME-Tox profile of a molecular hybrid (AM1) between 4-aminoquinoline and a quinolizidine moiety derived from lupinine (Lupinus luteus). The aim was to find a compound endowed with the target product profile-1 (TCP-1: molecules that clear asexual blood-stage parasitaemia), proposed by the Medicine for Malaria Venture to accomplish the goal of malaria elimination/eradication...
December 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192336/identification-of-opossums-didelphis-aurita-wied-neuweid-1826-as-a-definitive-host-of-sarcocystis-falcatula-like-sporocysts
#18
Samira Salim Mello Gallo, David Scott Lindsay, Nicole Brand Ederli, Filipe Pereira Matteoli, Thiago Motta Venancio, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira
This study was conducted to identify the Sarcocystis species that infect the opossum Didelphis aurita in order to determine which sporocysts they are excreating in to the environment and help determine the role of D. aurita in the epidemiology of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were obtained from intestinal tracts of 8 of 13 D. aurita trapped in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and were orally inoculated into Melopsittacus undulatus and Balb/c nude Mus musculus. Portions of organs and muscles were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and PCR using primers JNB 33/54, and ITS...
December 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190277/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-basic-science-and-enabling-technologies-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#19
(no author information available yet)
Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188381/the-effect-of-wolbachia-on-diapause-fecundity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#20
Somayeh Rahimi-Kaldeh, Ahmad Ashouri, Alireza Bandani, Kenji Tomioka
The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains...
November 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
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