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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045840/clonal-heterogeneity-influences-the-fate-of-new-adaptive-mutations
#1
Ignacio Vázquez-García, Francisco Salinas, Jing Li, Andrej Fischer, Benjamin Barré, Johan Hallin, Anders Bergström, Elisa Alonso-Perez, Jonas Warringer, Ville Mustonen, Gianni Liti
The joint contribution of pre-existing and de novo genetic variation to clonal adaptation is poorly understood but essential to designing successful antimicrobial or cancer therapies. To address this, we evolve genetically diverse populations of budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, consisting of diploid cells with unique haplotype combinations. We study the asexual evolution of these populations under selective inhibition with chemotherapeutic drugs by time-resolved whole-genome sequencing and phenotyping. All populations undergo clonal expansions driven by de novo mutations but remain genetically and phenotypically diverse...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042501/plasmodium-falciparum-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-2-is-critical-for-male-gametocyte-exflagellation-but-not-essential-for-asexual-proliferation
#2
Abhisheka Bansal, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Joseph Brzostowski, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller
Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs) play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029477/coexpression-analysis-identifies-nuclear-reprogramming-barriers-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#3
Yongchun Zuo, Guanghua Su, Lei Cheng, Kun Liu, Yu Feng, Zhuying Wei, Chunling Bai, Guifang Cao, Guangpeng Li
The success of cloned animal "Dolly Sheep" demonstrated the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique holds huge potentials for mammalian asexual reproduction. However, the extremely poor development of SCNT embryos indicates their molecular mechanism remain largely unexplored. Deciphering the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression in SCNT embryos is a crucial step toward understanding the mechanisms associated with nuclear reprogramming. In this study, a valuable transcriptome recourse of SCNT embryos was firstly established, which derived from different inter-/intra donor cells...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026136/effective-purifying-selection-in-ancient-asexual-oribatid-mites
#4
Alexander Brandt, Ina Schaefer, Julien Glanz, Tanja Schwander, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Jens Bast
Sex is beneficial in the long term because it can prevent mutational meltdown through increased effectiveness of selection. This idea is supported by empirical evidence of deleterious mutation accumulation in species with a recent transition to asexuality. Here, we study the effectiveness of purifying selection in oribatid mites which have lost sex millions of years ago and diversified into different families and species while reproducing asexually. We compare the accumulation of deleterious nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations between three asexual and three sexual lineages using transcriptome data...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024590/efficient-synthesis-of-1-9-substituted-benzo-h-1-6-naphthyridin-2-1h-ones-and-evaluation-of-their-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytocidal-activities
#5
Hao Li, Wei Sun, Xiuli Huang, Xiao Lu, Paresma Patel, Myunghoon Kim, Meghan Orr, Richard Fisher, Takeshi Tanaka, John McKew, Anton Simeonov, Philip Sanderson, Wei Zheng, Kimberly Willamson, Wenwei Huang
A novel three-component, two-step, one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr)-intramolecular cyclization-Suzuki coupling reaction was developed for the synthesis of benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones (Torins). Based on the new efficiently convergent synthetic route, a library of Torin analogs was synthesized. The antimalarial activities of these compounds were evaluated against asexual parasites using a growth inhibition assay and gametocytes using a viability assay.
October 12, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023558/correction-glycoside-hydrolase-mogls2-controls-asexual-sexual-development-cell-wall-integrity-and-infectious-growth-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#6
Mengying Li, Xinyu Liu, Zhixi Liu, Yi Sun, Muxing Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162243.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018611/clone-wars-asexual-reproduction-dominates-in-the-invasive-range-of-tubastraea-spp-anthozoa-scleractinia-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#7
Katia Cristina Cruz Capel, Robert J Toonen, Caio T C C Rachid, Joel C Creed, Marcelo V Kitahara, Zac Forsman, Carla Zilberberg
Although the invasive azooxanthellate corals Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis are spreading quickly and outcompeting native species in the Atlantic Ocean, there is little information regarding the genetic structure and path of introduction for these species. Here we present the first data on genetic diversity and clonal structure from these two species using a new set of microsatellite markers. High proportions of clones were observed, indicating that asexual reproduction has a major role in the local population dynamics and, therefore, represents one of the main reasons for the invasion success...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017041/evolution-a-parthenogenetic-nematode-shows-how-animals-become-sexless
#8
Erich M Schwarz
Most animals have male and female sexes, implying that sex is ancient and beneficial; yet some have survived for millions of years without sex. The genome of the parthenogenetic nematode Diploscapter pachys gives clues as to how 'ancient asexual' animals can exist.
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987005/hybrid-asexuality-as-a-primary-postzygotic-barrier-between-nascent-species-on-the-interconnection-between-asexuality-hybridization-and-speciation
#9
Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová, Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population genetic and phylogenomic approaches to reveal the history of speciation and asexuality evolution in European spined loaches (Cobitis)...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985216/the-babesia-bovis-hap2-gene-is-not-required-for-blood-stage-replication-but-expressed-upon-in-vitro-sexual-stage-induction
#10
Hala E Hussein, Reginaldo G Bastos, David A Schneider, Wendell C Johnson, Fatma K Adham, William C Davis, Jacob M Laughery, David R Herndon, Heba F Alzan, Massaro W Ueti, Carlos E Suarez
Babesia bovis, is a tick borne apicomplexan parasite responsible for important cattle losses globally. Babesia parasites have a complex life cycle including asexual replication in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the tick vector. Novel control strategies aimed at limiting transmission of the parasite are needed, but transmission blocking vaccine candidates remain undefined. Expression of HAP2 has been recognized as critical for the fertilization of parasites in the Babesia-related Plasmodium, and is a leading candidate for a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983298/regulated-forms-of-cell-death-in-fungi
#11
REVIEW
A Pedro Gonçalves, Jens Heller, Asen Daskalov, Arnaldo Videira, N Louise Glass
Cell death occurs in all domains of life. While some cells die in an uncontrolled way due to exposure to external cues, other cells die in a regulated manner as part of a genetically encoded developmental program. Like other eukaryotic species, fungi undergo programmed cell death (PCD) in response to various triggers. For example, exposure to external stress conditions can activate PCD pathways in fungi. Calcium redistribution between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and intracellular storage organelles appears to be pivotal for this kind of cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983284/morphological-and-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-the-osmoadaptive-response-of-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-montevidensis-zyd4-to-high-salt-stress
#12
Kai-Hui Liu, Xiao-Wei Ding, Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Bo Zhang, Yong-Gui Zhang, Fei-Hu Liu, Bing-Bing Liu, Min Xiao, Wen-Jun Li
Halophilic fungi have evolved unique osmoadaptive strategies, enabling them to thrive in hypersaline habitats. Here, we conduct morphological and transcriptomic response of endophytic fungus (Aspergillus montevidensis ZYD4) in both the presence and absence of salt stress. Under salt stress, the colony morphology of the A. montevidensis ZYD4 changed drastically and exhibited decreased colony pigmentation. Extensive conidiophores development was observed under salt stress; conidiophores rarely developed in the absence of salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983103/characterization-of-a-putative-plasmodium-falciparum-sac1-phosphoinositide-phosphatase-homologue-potentially-required-for-survival-during-the-asexual-erythrocytic-stages
#13
Catherine Thériault, Dave Richard
Despite marked reductions in morbidity and mortality in the last ten years, malaria still takes a tremendous toll on human populations throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The absence of an effective vaccine and resistance to most antimalarial drugs available demonstrate the urgent need for new intervention strategies. Phosphoinositides are a class of lipids with critical roles in numerous processes and their specific subcellular distribution, generated through the action of kinases and phosphatases, define organelle identity in a wide range of eukaryotic cells...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974215/species-and-genotype-diversity-of-plasmodium-in-malaria-patients-from-gabon-analysed-by-next-generation-sequencing
#14
Albert Lalremruata, Sankarganesh Jeyaraj, Thomas Engleitner, Fanny Joanny, Annika Lang, Sabine Bélard, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Michael Ramharter, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: Six Plasmodium species are known to naturally infect humans. Mixed species infections occur regularly but morphological discrimination by microscopy is difficult and multiplicity of infection (MOI) can only be evaluated by molecular methods. This study investigated the complexity of Plasmodium infections in patients treated for microscopically detected non-falciparum or mixed species malaria in Gabon. METHODS: Ultra-deep sequencing of nucleus (18S rRNA), mitochondrion, and apicoplast encoded genes was used to evaluate Plasmodium species diversity and MOI in 46 symptomatic Gabonese patients with microscopically diagnosed non-falciparum or mixed species malaria...
October 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973880/mechanics-dictate-where-and-how-freshwater-planarians-fission
#15
Paul T Malinowski, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Kelson J Kaj, Edward Ronan, Alexander Groisman, Patrick H Diamond, Eva-Maria S Collins
Asexual freshwater planarians reproduce by tearing themselves into two pieces by a process called binary fission. The resulting head and tail pieces regenerate within about a week, forming two new worms. Understanding this process of ripping oneself into two parts poses a challenging biomechanical problem. Because planarians stop "doing it" at the slightest disturbance, this remained a centuries-old puzzle. We focus on Dugesia japonica fission and show that it proceeds in three stages: a local constriction ("waist formation"), pulsation-which increases waist longitudinal stresses-and transverse rupture...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971958/mutation-rate-evolution-in-partially-selfing-and-partially-asexual-organisms
#16
Camille Gervais, Denis Roze
Different factors may influence the evolution of the mutation rate of a species: costs associated with DNA replication fidelity, indirect selection caused by the mutations produced (that should generally favor lower mutation rates, given that most mutations affecting fitness are deleterious) and genetic drift, that may render selection acting on weak mutators inefficient. In this paper, we use a two-locus model to compute the strength of indirect selection acting on a modifier locus that affects the mutation rate towards a deleterious allele at a second, linked locus, in a population undergoing partial selfing or partial clonality...
October 2, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970081/women-s-sex-life-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Tatana Sramkova, Katerina Skrivanova, Igor Dolan, Libor Zamecnik, Katerina Sramkova, Jiri Kriz, Vladimir Muzik, Radmila Fajtova
INTRODUCTION: After spinal cord injury (SCI), individuals are typically considered by the general public to be asexual. Handicapped women have more problems with socio-sexual adaptation, stemming from low self-confidence, low self-esteem, and the absence of spontaneity. AIMS: To determine changes in the sexual lives of women after SCI. METHODS: A self-constructed questionnaire was used to map sexual function after SCI. We retrospectively compared sexual function in 30 women with SCI with that in 30 without SCI who led an active sexual life...
September 29, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969632/the-effect-of-holes-in-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-on-malaria-in-malawi-results-from-a-case-control-study
#18
Anna A Minta, Keren Z Landman, Dyson A Mwandama, Monica P Shah, Jodi L Vanden Eng, James F Sutcliffe, Joseph Chisaka, Kim A Lindblade, Don P Mathanga, Laura C Steinhardt
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a cornerstone of malaria prevention. Holes develop in LLINs over time and compromise their physical integrity, but how holes affect malaria transmission risk is not well known. METHODS: After a nationwide mass LLIN distribution in July 2012, a study was conducted to assess the relationship between LLIN damage and malaria. From March to September 2013, febrile children ages 6-59 months who consistently slept under LLINs (every night for 2 weeks before illness onset) were enrolled in a case-control study at Machinga District Hospital outpatient department...
October 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968020/-molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-hiv-patients-guayaquil-ecuador
#19
Sunny Sánchez, Dolores Zambrano, Maylen García, César Bedoya, Carlos Fernández, María Teresa Illnait-Zaragozí
INTRODUCTION: Neurocryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that represents a high cost in human lives and for the economy of countries. Its causative agent, the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex, has a sexual and an asexual phase, four major serotypes and seven molecular varieties with phenotypic, clinical-epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility differences. OBJECTIVE: To characterize by molecular methods clinical isolates of C...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965153/the-flba-regulated-predicted-transcription-factor-fum21-of-aspergillus-niger-is-involved-in-fumonisin-production
#20
David Aerts, Esther E Hauer, Robin A Ohm, Mark Arentshorst, Wieke R Teertstra, Christopher Phippen, Arthur F J Ram, Jens C Frisvad, Han A B Wösten
Aspergillus niger secretes proteins throughout the colony except for the zone that forms asexual spores called conidia. Inactivation of flbA that encodes a regulator of G-protein signaling results in colonies that are unable to reproduce asexually and that secrete proteins throughout the mycelium. In addition, the ΔflbA strain shows cell lysis and has thinner cell walls. Expression analysis showed that 38 predicted transcription factor genes are differentially expressed in strain ΔflbA. Here, the most down-regulated predicted transcription factor gene, called fum21, was inactivated...
September 30, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
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