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Jiabao Hu, Chongyuan Lin, Mengdi Liu, Qiaoqiong Tong, Shanliang Xu, Danli Wang, Yunlong Zhao
Daphnia pulex is an important food organism that exhibits a particular mode of reproduction known as cyclical parthenogenesis (asexual) and sexual reproduction. Regulation of the aging process by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a research hotspot in miRNA studies. To investigate a possible role of miRNAs in regulating aging and senescence, we used Illumina HiSeq to sequence two miRNA libraries from 1-day-old (1d) and 25-day-old (25d) D. pulex specimens. In total, we obtained 11,218,097 clean reads and 28,569 unique miRNAs from 1d specimens and 11,819,106 clean reads and 44,709 unique miRNAs from 25d specimens...
April 20, 2018: Gene
Pengge Qian, Xu Wang, Zhenke Yang, Zhenkui Li, Han Gao, Xin-Zhuan Su, Huiting Cui, Jing Yuan
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has applied as an efficient gene-editing method in malaria parasite Plasmodium. However, the size (4.2 kb) of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for genome editing in the parasites only introduced with cas9 plasmid. To establish the endogenous and constitutive expression of Cas9 protein in the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii, we replaced the coding region of an endogenous gene sera1 with the intact SpCas9 coding sequence using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing method, generating the cas9-knockin parasite (PyCas9ki) of the rodent malaria parasite P...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Eduardo P C Rocha
Kimura's outstanding contributions to population genetics included many elegant theoretical results on the vagaries of alleles in populations. Once polymorphism data showed extensive variation in natural populations, these results led naturally to the Neutral Theory. In this article, I'll depart from some of these results to focus on four major open problems in microbial population genetics with direct implications to the study of molecular evolution: the lack of neutral polymorphism, the modeling of genetic exchanges, the population genetics of ill-defined populations, and the difficulty of untangling selection and demography in the light of the previous issues...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Kai-Fang Liu, Xue-Hui Li, Feng-Li Hui
Two strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from traditional Chinese sauerkraut samples collected in Nanyang, Henan Province, central China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions showed that these strains belong to the Yarrowia clade, with seven clones of uncultured Yarrowia as their closest phylogenetic neighbours. They differed from their closest known species, Yarrowia divulgata CBS 11013T , by 3...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Poppy C S Sephton-Clark, Kerstin Voelz
Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Their resistance to high levels of UV, desiccation, pressure, heat, and cold enables the survival of spores in the harshest conditions (Setlow, 2016)...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Raúl G Saraiva, Callie R Huitt-Roehl, Abhai Tripathi, Yi-Qiang Cheng, Jürgen Bosch, Craig A Townsend, George Dimopoulos
The Chromobacterium sp. Panama bacterium has in vivo and in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties. To assess the nature of the Chromobacterium-produced anti-Plasmodium factors, chemical partition was conducted by bioassay-guided fractionation where different fractions were assayed for activity against asexual stages of P. falciparum. The isolated compounds were further partitioned by reversed-phase FPLC followed by size-exclusion chromatography; high resolution UPLC and ESI/MS data were then collected and revealed that the most active fraction contained a cyclic depsipeptide, which was identified as romidepsin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heather D Blunt-Vinti, Erika L Thompson, Stacey B Griner
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. METHODS: Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation...
April 14, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Aloysius T Nchinda, Claire Le Manach, Tanya Paquet, Diego Gonzalez Cabrera, Kathryn J Wicht, Christel Brunschwig, Mathew Njoroge, Efrem Abay, Dale Taylor, Nina Lawrence, Sergio Wittlin, Maria-Belen Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Santos Martínez-Martínez, Santiago Ferrer, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, James Duffy, Jeremy N Burrows, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale
Optimization of a chemical series originating from whole-cell phenotypic screening against the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, led to the identification of two promising 2,6-disubstituted imidazopyridine compounds, 43 and 74. These compounds exhibited potent activity against asexual blood stage parasites that, together with their in vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) properties, translated to in vivo efficacy with clearance of parasites in the PfSCID mouse model for malaria within 48 h of treatment...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ning Jiang, Shengchao Yu, Na Yang, Ying Feng, Xiaoyu Sang, Yao Wang, Mats Wahlgren, Qijun Chen
The eukaryotic ribonucleic acid (RNA) exosome is a versatile multi-ribonuclease complex that mediates the processing, surveillance and degradation of virtually all classes of RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The complex, composed of ten to eleven subunits, has been widely described in many organisms. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that there may be also an exosome-like complex in Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite of great importance in public health, with eight predicted subunits having high sequence similarity to their counterparts in yeast and human...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Klaus Jaffe
Computer experiments that mirror the evolutionary dynamics of sexual and asexual organisms as they occur in nature were used to test features proposed to explain the evolution of sexual recombination. Results show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor between the sexes, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenesis to sexual recombination. Diploidy was shown to be fundamental for the evolution of sex; bisexual reproduction emerged only among anisogamic diploids with a synergistic division of reproductive labor; and facultative sex was more likely to evolve among haploids practicing assortative mating...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
James Watson, Cindy S Chu, Joel Tarning, Nicholas J White
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is an essential quantitative measure of the asexual blood stage effect of an antimalarial drug. In areas of high malaria transmission, and thus frequent individual infection, patients who are treated with slowly eliminated antimalarials become reinfected as drug concentrations decline. In the frequent relapse forms of P. vivax and in P. ovale malaria, recurrent infection occurs from relapses which begin to emerge from the liver approximately two weeks after the primary illness...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alexandre Alié, Laurel Sky Hiebert, Paul Simion, Marta Scelzo, Maria Mandela Prünster, Sonia Lotito, Frédéric Delsuc, Emmanuel J P Douzery, Christelle Dantec, Patrick Lemaire, Sébastien Darras, Kazuo Kawamura, Federico D Brown, Stefano Tiozzo
Asexual propagation and whole body regeneration are forms of non-embryonic development (NED) widespread across animal phyla and central in life history and evolutionary diversification of metazoans. Whereas it is challenging to reconstruct the gains or losses of NED at large phylogenetic scale, comparative studies could benefit from being conducted at more restricted taxonomic scale, in groups for which phylogenetic relationships are well established. The ascidian family of Styelidae encompasses strictly sexually reproducing solitary forms as well as colonial species that combine sexual reproduction with different forms of NED...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Jens Bast, Darren J Parker, Zoé Dumas, Kirsten M Jalvingh, Patrick Tran Van, Kamil S Jaron, Emeric Figuet, Alexander Brandt, Nicolas Galtier, Tanja Schwander
Recombination is a fundamental process with significant impacts on genome evolution. Predicted consequences of the loss of recombination include a reduced effectiveness of selection, changes in the amount of neutral polymorphisms segregating in populations, and an arrest of GC-biased gene conversion. Although these consequences are empirically well documented for non-recombining genome portions, it remains largely unknown if they extend to the whole genome scale in asexual organisms. We identify the consequences of asexuality using de novo transcriptomes of five independently derived, obligately asexual lineages of stick insects and their sexual sister-species...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Izabela Kot, Katarzyna Rubinowska
Gall-inducing Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) manipulate the leaves of their host plants and induce local resistance, resulting in a diversity of physiological changes. In this study, three gall morphotypes caused by the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L., Neuroterus numismalis (Fourc.) and Neuroterus quercusbaccarum L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur L. (Fagales: Fagaceae)), were used as a model to examine physiological alterations in galls and foliar tissues, compared to non-galled tissues...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Peter J Sadler, Prinessa Chellan, Vicky Avery, Sandra Duffy, James Triccas, Gayathri Nagalingam, Christina Tam, Luisa Cheng, Jenny Liu, Kirkwood Land, Guy Clarkson, Isolda Romero
Fourteen novel arene RuII, and cyclopentadienyl (Cpx) RhIII and IrIII complexes containing an N,N'-chelated pyridylimino- or quinolylimino ligand functionalized with the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine have been synthesized and characterized, including three by x-ray crystallography. Rhodium and iridium complexes exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 0.10 - 2.0 µM in either all, or one of the three Plasmodium falciparum assays (3D7 chloroquine sensitive, Dd2 chloroquine resistant and NF54 sexual late stage gametocytes), but were only moderately active towards Trichomonas vaginalis...
April 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Igor Yu Dolmatov, Sergey V Afanasyev, Alexey V Boyko
Echinoderms are capable of asexual reproduction by fission. An individual divides into parts due to changes in the strength of connective tissue of the body wall. The structure of connective tissue and the mechanisms of variations in its strength in echinoderms remain poorly studied. An analysis of transcriptomes of individuals during the process of fission provides a new opportunity to understand the mechanisms of connective tissue mutability. In the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii, we have found a rather complex organization of connective tissue...
2018: PloS One
Chris Mundt
Durable disease resistance is a key component of global food security, and combining resistance genes into "pyramids" is an important way to increase durability of resistance. The mechanisms by which pyramids impact durability are not well known. The traditional view of resistance pyramids considers the use of major resistance gene (R-gene) combinations deployed against pathogens that are primarily asexual. Interestingly, published examples of the successful use of pyramids in the traditional sense are rare...
April 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Jackson Peter, Matteo De Chiara, Anne Friedrich, Jia-Xing Yue, David Pflieger, Anders Bergström, Anastasie Sigwalt, Benjamin Barre, Kelle Freel, Agnès Llored, Corinne Cruaud, Karine Labadie, Jean-Marc Aury, Benjamin Istace, Kevin Lebrigand, Pascal Barbry, Stefan Engelen, Arnaud Lemainque, Patrick Wincker, Gianni Liti, Joseph Schacherer
Large-scale population genomic surveys are essential to explore the phenotypic diversity of natural populations. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and phenotyping of 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, which together provide an accurate evolutionary picture of the genomic variants that shape the species-wide phenotypic landscape of this yeast. Genomic analyses support a single 'out-of-China' origin for this species, followed by several independent domestication events. Although domesticated isolates exhibit high variation in ploidy, aneuploidy and genome content, genome evolution in wild isolates is mainly driven by the accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms...
April 11, 2018: Nature
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Carlos A Nieto, Lina M Sánchez, Diana M Sánchez, Gonzalo J Díaz, María H Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential molecule in the energy metabolism of living beings, and it has various cellular functions. The main enzyme in the biosynthesis of this nucleotide is nicotinamide/nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC because it is the convergence point for all known biosynthetic pathways. NMNATs have divergences in both the number of isoforms detected and their distribution, depending on the organism. METHODS: In the laboratory of basic research in biochemistry (LIBBIQ: acronym in Spanish) the NMNATs of protozoan parasites (Leishmania braziliensis, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Giardia duodenalis) have been studied, analysing their catalytic properties through the use of proteins...
April 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
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