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Inherited retinal diseases

Iris Barny, Isabelle Perrault, Christel Michel, Mickael Soussan, Nicolas Goudin, Marlène Rio, Sophie Thomas, Tania Attié-Bitach, Christian Hamel, Hélène Dollfus, Josseline Kaplan, Jean-Michel Rozet, Xavier Gerard
CEP290 mutations cause a spectrum of ciliopathies from Leber congenital amaurosis type 10 (LCA10) to embryo-lethal Meckel syndrome (MKS). Using panel-based molecular diagnosis testing for inherited retinal diseases, we identified two individuals with some preserved vision despite biallelism for presumably truncating CEP290 mutations. The first one carried a homozygous 1 base-pair deletion in exon 17, introducing a premature termination codon (PTC) in exon 18 (c.1666del; p.Ile556Phefs*17). mRNA analysis revealed a basal exon skipping (BES) of exon 18, providing mutant cells with the ability to escape protein truncation, while disrupting the reading frame in controls...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Anna Wawrocka, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Katarzyna Wicher, Zuzanna Niedziela, Rafal Ploski, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Maciej Sykulski, Jaroslaw Kociecki, Nicole Weisschuh, Susanne Kohl, Saskia Biskup, Bernd Wissinger, Maciej R Krawczynski
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic basis of cone-rod dystrophy in 18 unrelated families of Polish origin. Cone-rod dystrophy is one of the inherited retinal dystrophies, which constitute a highly heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: The study group was composed of four groups of patients representing different Mendelian inheritance of the disease: autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XL), and autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive (AR/XL)...
2018: Molecular Vision
Yuichi Kawamura, Akiko Suga, Takuro Fujimaki, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Kazushige Tsunoda, Akira Murakami, Takeshi Iwata
The macula is a unique structure in higher primates, where cone and rod photoreceptors show highest density in the fovea and the surrounding area, respectively. The hereditary macular dystrophies represent a heterozygous group of rare disorders characterized by central visual loss and atrophy of the macula and surrounding retina. Here we report an atypical absence of ON-type bipolar cell response in a Japanese patient with autosomal dominant macular dystrophy (adMD). To identify a causal genetic mutation for the adMD, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on four affected and four-non affected members of the family for three generations, and identified a novel p...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Farhad Nejat, Hossein Aghamollaei, Shiva Pirhadi, Khosrow Jadidi, Mohammad Amin Nejat
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease. In most cases, various mutations in carbohydrate sulfotransferase 6 (CHST6) gene are the main cause of MCD. These mutations lead to a defect in keratan sulfate synthesis. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is another eye disorder with nyctalopia as its common symptom. It has been shown that more than 65 genes have been implicated in different forms of RP. Herein, we report on a 9-member family with 2 girls and 5 boys. Both parents, one of the girls and one of the boys had normal eye vision and another boy had keratoconus...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hwa Sun Kim, Andrew Vargas, Yun Sung Eom, Justin Li, Kyra L Yamamoto, Cheryl Mae Craft, Eun-Jin Lee
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degenerative disease, is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptors followed by loss of cone photoreceptors. Previously, when tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), a key extracellular matrix (ECM) regulator that binds to and inhibits activation of Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) was intravitreal injected into eyes of a transgenic rhodopsin rat model of RP, S334ter-line3, we discovered cone outer segments are partially protected. In parallel, we reported that a specific MMP9 and MMP2 inhibitor, SB-3CT, interferes with mechanisms leading to rod photoreceptor cell death in an MMP9 dependent manner...
2018: PloS One
Maryam Alavi, Petr Baranov
Traumatic, inherited, and age-related degenerative diseases of the retina, such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration, are characterized by the irreversible loss of retinal neurons. Several growth factors, including glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor, have been shown to rescue retinal neurons in animal models of retinal disease. Here we describe a scalable and robust system to study the growth factor induction in the retina: retinal organoids derived from the induced pluripotent stem cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Raghavi Sudharsan, Michael H Elliott, Natalia Dolgova, Gustavo D Aguirre, William A Beltran
Protocols for photoreceptor outer segment (POS) isolation that can be used in phagocytosis assays of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells have routinely used a large number of cow or pig eyes. However, when working with large animal models (e.g., dog, cats, transgenic pigs) of inherited retinal degenerative diseases, access to retinal tissues may be limited. An optimized protocol is presented in this paper to isolate sufficient POS from a single canine retina for use in RPE phagocytosis assays.
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
José-Alain Sahel, Thierry Léveillard
Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of untreatable blindness due to a loss of photoreceptors. Recent advances in genetics and gene therapy for inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) showed that therapeutic gene transfer holds a great promise for vision restoration in people with currently incurable blinding diseases. Due to the huge genetic heterogeneity of IRDs that represents a major obstacle for gene therapy development, alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. This review focuses on the rescue of cone function as a therapeutic option for maintaining central vision in rod-cone dystrophies...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiu-Feng Huang
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders characterized by progressive photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) degenerations with a prevalence approximately 1 in 4000 in the general population. Over 70 causative genes have been defined in RP families, and a number of animal models have been identified so far. However there have been no widely recognized treatments able to recover or reverse the degenerating retina, to prevent the disease deterioration, ultimately to restore the remaining vision...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
J A Thompson, J N De Roach, T L McLaren, T M Lamey
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) encompasses a group of severe inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) responsible for early childhood blindness. There are currently 25 genes implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and identification of disease-causing variants will be required for personalised therapies. Whole exome and whole genome sequencing is informative for detecting novel disease-causing genes, whilst next-generation sequencing has excelled at detecting novel variants in known disease-causing genes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Keiko Miyadera
The gene/mutation discovery approaches for inherited retinal diseases (RDs) in the dog model have seen considerable development over the past 25 years. Initial attempts were focused on candidate genes, followed by genome-wide approaches including linkage analysis and DNA-chip-based genome-wide association study. Combined, there are as many as 32 mutations in 27 genes that have been associated with canine retinal diseases to date. More recently, next-generation sequencing has become one of the key methods of choice...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Stephen P Daiger, Sara J Bowne, Lori S Sullivan, Kari Branham, Dianna K Wheaton, Kaylie D Jones, Cheryl E Avery, Elizabeth D Cadena, John R Heckenlively, David G Birch
Genetic testing of probands in families with an initial diagnosis of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) usually confirms the diagnosis, but there are exceptions. We report results of genetic testing in a large cohort of adRP families with an emphasis on exceptional cases including X-linked RP with affected females; homozygous affected individuals in families with heterozygous, dominant disease; and independently segregating mutations in the same family. Genetic testing was conducted in more than 700 families with a provisional or probable diagnosis of adRP...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kari Branham, Aditya A Guru, Igor Kozak, Pooja Biswas, Mohammad Othman, Kameron Kishaba, Hassan Mansoor, Sheikh Riazuddin, John R Heckenlively, S Amer Riazuddin, J Fielding Hejtmancik, Paul A Sieving, Radha Ayyagari
Retinal dystrophies are a phenotypically and genetically complex group of conditions. Because of this complexity, it can be challenging in many families to determine the inheritance based on pedigree analysis alone. Clinical examinations were performed and blood samples were collected from a North American (M1186) and a consanguineous Pakistani (PKRD168) pedigree affected with two different retinal dystrophies (RD). Based on the structure of the pedigrees, inheritance patterns in the families were difficult to determine...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Pooja Biswas, Muhammad Asif Naeem, Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Muhammad Zaman Assir, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin, J Fielding Hejtmancik, S Amer Riazuddin, Radha Ayyagari
PURPOSE: To identify the molecular basis of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) in a familial case of Pakistani origin using whole-exome sequencing. METHODS: A thorough ophthalmic examination was completed, and genomic DNA was extracted using standard protocols. Whole exome(s) were captured with Agilent V5 + UTRs probes and sequenced on Illumina HiSeq genome analyzer. The exomeSuite software was used to filter variants, and the candidate causal variants were prioritized, examining their allele frequency and PolyPhen2, SIFT, and MutationTaster predictions...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cécile Fortuny, John G Flannery
The clinical success of gene replacement therapies in recent years has served as a proof of concept for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerations using adeno-associated virus (AAV) as viral vector. However, inherited retinal degenerative diseases showcase a broad genetic and mechanistic heterogeneity, challenging the development of mutation-specific therapies for each specific mutation. Mutation-independent approaches must be developed to slow down retinal degeneration regardless of the underlying genetic mutation and onset of the disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ekaterina S Lobanova, Stella Finkelstein, Jing Li, Amanda M Travis, Ying Hao, Mikael Klingeborn, Nikolai P Skiba, Raymond J Deshaies, Vadim Y Arshavsky
Inherited retinal degenerations, affecting more than 2 million people worldwide, are caused by mutations in over 200 genes. This suggests that the most efficient therapeutic strategies would be mutation independent, i.e., targeting common pathological conditions arising from many disease-causing mutations. Previous studies revealed that one such condition is an insufficiency of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to process misfolded or mistargeted proteins in affected photoreceptor cells. We now report that retinal degeneration in mice can be significantly delayed by increasing photoreceptor proteasomal activity...
April 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Mor Hanany, Gilad Allon, Adva Kimchi, Anat Blumenfeld, Hadas Newman, Eran Pras, Ohad Wormser, Ohad S Birk, Libe Gradstein, Eyal Banin, Tamar Ben-Yosef, Dror Sharon
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are heterogeneous phenotypes caused by variants in a large number of genes. Disease prevalence and the frequency of carriers in the general population have been estimated in only a few studies, but are largely unknown. To this end, we developed two parallel methods to calculate carrier frequency for mutations causing autosomal-recessive (AR) IRDs in the Israeli population. We created an SQL database containing information on 178 genes from gnomAD (including genotyping of 5706 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals) and our cohort of >2000 families with IRDs...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
G D'Amours, F Lopes, J Gauthier, V Saillour, C Nassif, R Wynn, N Alos, T Leblanc, Y Capri, S Nizard, E Lemyre, J L Michaud, V-A Pelletier, Y D Pastore, J-F Soucy
Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) are caused by mutations in genes involved in genomic stability. Although they may be recognized by the association of typical clinical features, variable penetrance and expressivity are common, and clinical diagnosis is often challenging. DNAJC21, which is involved in ribosome biogenesis, was recently linked to bone marrow failure. However, the specific phenotype and natural history remain to be defined. We correlate molecular data, phenotype, and clinical history of five unreported affected children and all individuals reported in the literature...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Rebecca Ward, Husvinee Sundaramurthi, Valeria Di Giacomo, Breandán N Kennedy
During the vertebrate visual cycle, all- trans -retinal is exported from photoreceptors to the adjacent RPE or Müller glia wherein 11- cis -retinal is regenerated. The 11- cis chromophore is returned to photoreceptors, forming light-sensitive visual pigments with opsin GPCRs. Dysfunction of this process perturbs phototransduction because functional visual pigment cannot be generated. Mutations in visual cycle genes can result in monogenic inherited forms of blindness. Though key enzymatic processes are well characterized, questions remain as to the physiological role of visual cycle proteins in different retinal cell types, functional domains of these proteins in retinoid biochemistry and in vivo pathogenesis of disease mutations...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Shanshan Zhang, Jie Li, Shujin Li, Yeming Yang, Mu Yang, Zhenglin Yang, Xianjun Zhu, Lin Zhang
PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with over 70 causative genes identified to date. However, approximately 40% of RP cases remain genetically unsolved, suggesting that many novel disease-causing mutations are yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to identify the causative mutations of a Chinese RP family. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a total of 163 genes which involved in inherited retinal disorders were used to screen the possible causative mutations...
April 25, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
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