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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893865/the-decrease-in-traumatic-brain-injury-epidemics-deriving-from-road-traffic-collision-following-strengthened-legislative-measures-in-france
#1
Thomas Lieutaud, Blandine Gadegbeku, Amina Ndiaye, Mireille Chiron, Vivian Viallon
BACKGROUND: Since 2002, France has been strengthening legislation on road traffic. This study is intended to evaluate the changes in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) incidence and mortality resulting from Road Traffic Collision (RTC) in the two 6-year periods before and after 2002. METHODS: We used a Registry of all RTC casualties in the Rhône Department of France. Each casualty was coded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The study describes changes in demographic variables, TBI (AIS ≥ 2) incidence and mortality, other body lesions (AIS ≥ 3) associated with TBI, road user types, seatbelt and helmet wearing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875297/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-mediated-phosphorylation-of-uracil-n-glycosylase-2-ung2-facilitates-repair-of-floxuridine-induced-dna-lesions-and-promotes-cell-survival
#2
Carly A Baehr, Catherine J Huntoon, Song-My Hoang, Calvin R Jerde, Larry M Karnitz
Uracil N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2), the nuclear isoform of UNG, catalyzes the removal of uracil or 5-fluorouracil lesions that accumulate in DNA following treatment with the anti-cancer agents 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (floxuridine), a 5-fluorouracil metabolite. By repairing these DNA lesions before they can cause cell death, UNG2 promotes cancer cell survival and is therefore critically involved in tumor resistance to these agents. However, the mechanisms by which UNG2 is regulated remain unclear...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868194/randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Khaled Saad, Ahmed A Abdel-Rahman, Yasser M Elserogy, Abdulrahman A Al-Atram, Amira A El-Houfey, Hisham A K Othman, Geir Bjørklund, Feiyong Jia, Mauricio A Urbina, Mohamed Gamil M Abo-Elela, Faisal-Alkhateeb Ahmad, Khaled A Abd El-Baseer, Ahmed E Ahmed, Ahmad M Abdel-Salam
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. It has been previously reported that there is vitamin D deficiency in autistic children; however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in ASD children. METHODS: This study is a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that was conducted on 109 children with ASD (85 boys and 24 girls; aged 3-10 years)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866501/promoting-children-s-learning-and-development-in-conflict-affected-countries-testing-change-process-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#4
J Lawrence Aber, Carly Tubbs, Catalina Torrente, Peter F Halpin, Brian Johnston, Leighann Starkey, Anjuli Shivshanker, Jeannie Annan, Edward Seidman, Sharon Wolf
Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856550/a-case-study-documenting-the-process-by-which-biology-instructors-transition-from-teacher-centered-to-learner-centered-teaching
#5
Gili Marbach-Ad, Carly Hunt Rietschel
In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855281/car-t-therapy-for-leukemia-progress-and-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Xin Wang, Qing Xiao, Zhe Wang, Wen-Li Feng
Despite the rapid development of therapeutic strategies, leukemia remains a type of difficult-to-treat hematopoietic malignancy that necessitates introduction of more effective treatment options to improve life expectancy and quality of patients. Genetic engineering in adoptively transferred T cells to express antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has proved highly powerful and efficacious in inducing sustained responses in patients with refractory malignancies, as exemplified by the success of CD19-targeting CAR-T treatment in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
October 27, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#7
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818994/regulation-of-drug-disposition-gene-expression-in-pregnant-mice-with-car-receptor-activation
#8
Amanda S Bright, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Jamie E Moscovitz, Dahea You, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
More than half of pregnant women use prescription medications in order to maintain both maternal and fetal health. The constitutive androstane receptor (Car) critically affects the disposition of chemicals by regulating the transcription of genes encoding metabolic enzymes and transporters. However, the effects of Car activation on chemical disposition during pregnancy are unclear. This study aims to determine the degree to which pregnancy alters the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to the pharmacological activation of Car...
2016: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801822/driver-distraction-using-visual-based-sensors-and-algorithms
#9
REVIEW
Alberto Fernández, Rubén Usamentiaga, Juan Luis Carús, Rubén Casado
Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers...
October 28, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789792/the-too-much-precision-effect-when-and-why-precise-anchors-backfire-with-experts
#10
David D Loschelder, Malte Friese, Michael Schaerer, Adam D Galinsky
Past research has suggested a fundamental principle of price precision: The more precise an opening price, the more it anchors counteroffers. The present research challenges this principle by demonstrating a too-much-precision effect. Five experiments (involving 1,320 experts and amateurs in real-estate, jewelry, car, and human-resources negotiations) showed that increasing the precision of an opening offer had positive linear effects for amateurs but inverted-U-shaped effects for experts. Anchor precision backfired because experts saw too much precision as reflecting a lack of competence...
October 27, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789538/at-the-bench-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cell-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-b-cell-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Anthony F O Daniyan, Renier J Brentjens
The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) represents the epitome of cellular engineering and is one of the best examples of rational biologic design of a synthetic molecule. The CAR is a single polypeptide with modular domains, consisting of an antibody-derived targeting moiety, fused in line with T cell-derived signaling domains, allowing for T cell activation upon ligand binding. T cells expressing a CAR are able to eradicate selectively antigen-expressing tumor cells in a MHC-independent fashion. CD19, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) present on normal B cells, as well as most B cell-derived malignancies, was an early target of this technology...
December 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753099/crac-channel-gating-and-its-modulation-by-stim1-and-2-aminoethoxydiphenyl-borate
#12
Sher Ali, Tao Xu, Xiaolan Xu
Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels play an essential role in the immune system. The pore-forming subunit, Orai1, is an important pharmacological target. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries on the structure-function relationship of Orai1, as well as its interaction with the native channel opener STIM1 and chemical modulator 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). We first introduce the critical structural elements of Orai1, which include a Ca(2+) accumulating region, ion selectivity filter, hydrophobic centre, basic region, extended transmembrane Orai1 N-terminal (ETON) region, transmembrane (TM) regions 2 and 3, P245 bend, (263) SHK(265) hinge linker and L273-L276 hydrophobic patch...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747458/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#13
Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ashok Choudhury
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726996/end-of-life-in-the-railway-sector-analysis-of-recyclability-and-recoverability-for-different-vehicle-case-studies
#14
Massimo Delogu, Francesco Del Pero, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Davide Bonaffini
The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711111/the-electrophysiology-of-basic-phrase-building
#15
Chris Neufeld, Stephanie E Kramer, Natalia Lapinskaya, Christopher C Heffner, Anton Malko, Ellen F Lau
A defining trait of linguistic competence is the ability to combine elements into increasingly complex structures to denote, and to comprehend, a potentially infinite number of meanings. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) work has investigated these processes by comparing the response to nouns in combinatorial (blue car) and non-combinatorial (rnsh car) contexts. In the current study we extended this paradigm using electroencephalography (EEG) to dissociate the role of semantic content from phonological well-formedness (yerl car)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709904/endotoxins-the-critical-risk-factor-in-reclaimed-water-via-inhalation-exposure
#16
Jinling Xue, Jinshan Zhang, Bi Xu, Jiani Xie, Wenzhao Wu, Yun Lu
Use of reclaimed water for non potable uses requires consideration of potential adverse health effects. Considering that inhalation can be a significant transmission route of microorganisms and inflammatory agents, this study used a mouse model to test the possible adverse effects of reclaimed water use during car washing where aerosols are generated. Intensive innate immune responses were found in the lungs after acute exposure, and lavage polymorphonuclear cell proportion was the most sensitive endpoint. Four types of evidence are presented to demonstrate that the main risk factor initiating innate inflammation is the free endotoxin: 1) Small molecules (<10KD) cannot induce inflammation; 2) The endotoxin levels of 11 water samples from 5 different plants showed positive correlations with inflammatory responses; 3) Actual water samples showed similar activities with free endotoxins other than bacteria-bound endotoxins; and 4) Specific removal of endotoxins with polymyxin B affinity chromatography further confirmed the role of free endotoxins...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694975/projection-type-see-through-holographic-three-dimensional-display
#17
Koki Wakunami, Po-Yuan Hsieh, Ryutaro Oi, Takanori Senoh, Hisayuki Sasaki, Yasuyuki Ichihashi, Makoto Okui, Yi-Pai Huang, Kenji Yamamoto
Owing to the limited spatio-temporal resolution of display devices, dynamic holographic three-dimensional displays suffer from a critical trade-off between the display size and the visual angle. Here we show a projection-type holographic three-dimensional display, in which a digitally designed holographic optical element and a digital holographic projection technique are combined to increase both factors at the same time. In the experiment, the enlarged holographic image, which is twice as large as the original display device, projected on the screen of the digitally designed holographic optical element was concentrated at the target observation area so as to increase the visual angle, which is six times as large as that for a general holographic display...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639250/sirtuin-1-activation-alleviates-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-a-cholic-acid-fed-mouse-model-of-cholestasis
#18
Supriya R Kulkarni, Carol J Soroka, Lee R Hagey, James L Boyer
: Sirtuin1 (Sirt1; mammalian homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme Sir2) is a transcriptional and transactivational regulator of murine farnesoid X receptor (Fxr), which is the primary bile acid (BA) sensor, and critical regulator of BA metabolism in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Previous studies have suggested compromised Sirt1 expression in rodent models of cholestatic liver injury. We hypothesized that Sirt1 could be potentially targeted to alleviate cholestatic liver injury...
December 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632058/ultrasound-guidance-and-other-determinants-of-successful-peripheral-artery-catheterization-in-critically-ill-children
#19
David B Kantor, Erik Su, Carly E Milliren, Thomas W Conlon
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial catheterization is a common invasive procedure performed in critically ill children. However, the benefits of using ultrasound guidance for this procedure in critically ill children, especially when used by inexperienced trainees, are unclear. Our aims were to evaluate whether the use of ultrasound guidance for the placement of radial arterial catheters reduced time and improved success when compared with the palpation method and also to determine patient and trainee variables that influence procedure outcomes...
September 14, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626062/toxicity-and-management-in-car-t-cell-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Challice L Bonifant, Hollie J Jackson, Renier J Brentjens, Kevin J Curran
T cells can be genetically modified to target tumors through the expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Most notably, CAR T cells have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies with more modest responses when targeting solid tumors. However, CAR T cells also have the capacity to elicit expected and unexpected toxicities including: cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity, "on target/off tumor" recognition, and anaphylaxis. Theoretical toxicities including clonal expansion secondary to insertional oncogenesis, graft versus host disease, and off-target antigen recognition have not been clinically evident...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
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