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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934184/rural-and-urban-differences-in-passenger-vehicle-occupant-deaths-and-seat-belt-use-among-adults-united-states-2014
#1
Laurie F Beck, Jonathan Downs, Mark R Stevens, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. REPORTING PERIOD: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932243/sensitive-wavelengths-selection-in-identification-of-ophiopogon-japonicus-based-on-near-infrared-hyperspectral-imaging-technology
#2
Zhengyan Xia, Chu Zhang, Haiyong Weng, Pengcheng Nie, Yong He
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has increasingly been applied as an analytical tool in fields of agricultural, food, and Traditional Chinese Medicine over the past few years. The HSI spectrum of a sample is typically achieved by a spectroradiometer at hundreds of wavelengths. In recent years, considerable effort has been made towards identifying wavelengths (variables) that contribute useful information. Wavelengths selection is a critical step in data analysis for Raman, NIRS, or HSI spectroscopy. In this study, the performances of 10 different wavelength selection methods for the discrimination of Ophiopogon japonicus of different origin were compared...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927721/agonistic-effects-of-diverse-xenobiotics-on-the-constitutive-androstane-receptor-as-detected-in-a-recombinant-yeast-cell-assay
#3
Ryo Kamata, Daisuke Nakajima, Fujio Shiraishi
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor regulating proteins involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Agonist activation of the CAR can trigger metabolic activation and toxification as well as detoxification and clearance; accordingly, xenobiotic substances acting as CAR ligands may pose a threat to human and animal health. We used yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and the response pathway to measure the CAR-agonistic activities of 549 synthetic or natural compounds: 216 of the tested compounds exhibited CAR-agonistic effects...
September 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888074/early-recovery-of-circulating-immature-b-cells-in-b-lymphoblastic-leukemia-patients-after-cd19-targeted-car-t-cell-therapy-a-pitfall-for-minimal-residual-disease-detection
#4
Wenbin Xiao, Dalia Salem, Catherine McCoy, Daniel Lee, Nirali N Shah, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Constance M Yuan
BACKGROUND: CD19-targeted chimeric-antigen receptor-modified T-cells (CAR-T) are promising in the treatment of refractory B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) is critical to distinguish B-ALL MRD from regenerating, non-neoplastic B-cell populations. METHODS: FCM was performed on samples from 9 patients with B-ALL treated with CAR-T. RESULTS: All 9 patients showed response to CAR-T...
September 9, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882280/estimating-the-value-of-life-and-injury-for-pedestrians-using-a-stated-preference-framework
#5
Naghmeh Niroomand, Glenn P Jenkins
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of pedestrian death over the period 2010 to 2014 per 1000,000 in North Cyprus is about 2.5 times that of the EU, with 10.5 times more pedestrian road injuries than deaths. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. METHOD: We conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of pedestrians in North Cyprus for improved walking times, pedestrian costs, and safety...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877629/application-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-t-cells-in-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#6
Minghui Zhang, Dr Bin Zhang, Huirong Shi
Due to the critical role of T cells in the immune surveillance of ovarian cancer, adoptive T-cell therapies are receiving increased attention as an immunotherapeutic approach for ovarian cancer. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), constructed by incorporating the single-chain Fv fragment to a T-cell signaling domain such as CD3 ζ or Fc receptor γ chain, endow T cell with nonmajor histocompatibility complex-restricted specificity. Dual specificity, trans-signaling CARs and affinity-tuned single-chain Fv fragment have broadened the applicability of CAR-engineered T-cell therapy and may be considered preferential to T cell receptor T-cell therapy in clinical care...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873328/how-to-map-theory-reliable-methods-are-fruitless-without-rigorous-theory
#7
Kurt Gray
Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871054/compositional-relaxed-concurrency
#8
Mark Batty
There is a broad design space for concurrent computer processors: they can be optimized for low power, low latency or high throughput. This freedom to tune each processor design to its niche has led to an increasing diversity of machines, from powerful pocketable devices to those responsible for complex and critical tasks, such as car guidance systems. Given this context, academic concurrency research sounds notes of both caution and optimism. Caution because recent work has uncovered flaws in the way we explain the subtle memory behaviour of concurrent systems: specifications have been shown to be incorrect, leading to bugs throughout the many layers of the system...
October 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870694/embryonic-fate-mapping-uncovers-the-critical-role-of-micrornas-in-the-development-of-epidermal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#9
Yi Yao, Queping Liu, Carly Martin, Congcong Yin, Zheng Dong, Qing-Sheng Mi, Li Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862319/breakthroughs-in-modern-cancer-therapy-and-elusive-cardiotoxicity-critical-research-practice-gaps-challenges-and-insights
#10
REVIEW
Ping-Pin Zheng, Jin Li, Johan M Kros
To date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the fifth modality). The cardiotoxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well known. Similar adverse cardiac events are resurging with the fourth modality. Aside from the conventional and newer targeted agents, even the most newly developed, immune-based therapeutic modalities of anticancer treatment (the fifth modality), e...
September 1, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861259/spatial-models-to-account-for-variation-in-observer-effort-in-bird-atlases
#11
Andrew M Wilson, Daniel W Brauning, Caitlin Carey, Robert S Mulvihill
To assess the importance of variation in observer effort between and within bird atlas projects and demonstrate the use of relatively simple conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for analyzing grid-based atlas data with varying effort. Pennsylvania and West Virginia, United States of America. We used varying proportions of randomly selected training data to assess whether variations in observer effort can be accounted for using CAR models and whether such models would still be useful for atlases with incomplete data...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859144/the-effects-of-sleep-loss-on-young-drivers-performance-a-systematic-review
#12
Shamsi Shekari Soleimanloo, Melanie J White, Veronica Garcia-Hansen, Simon S Smith
Young drivers (18-24 years) are over-represented in sleep-related crashes (comprising one in five fatal crashes in developed countries) primarily due to decreased sleep opportunity, lower tolerance for sleep loss, and ongoing maturation of brain areas associated with driving-related decision making. Impaired driving performance is the proximal reason for most car crashes. There is still a limited body of evidence examining the effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance, with discrepancies in the methodologies used, and in the definition of outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854497/influence-of-spine-surgery-on-the-ability-to-perform-an-emergency-stop-while-driving-a-car
#13
Ulf K Hofmann, Alena N Fischer, Maurice Jordan, Martina M Feierabend, Sina Wittmann, Ina-Christine Rondak, Ingmar Ipach, Falk Mittag
BACKGROUND: Spinal surgeries have strongly increased in number over the past decade. The question of when it is safe to resume driving is thereby one the most frequently asked questions that patients ask of their treating physician. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess braking performance before and after spine surgery. METHODS: Reaction time, foot transfer time (together brake response time [BRT]), and brake force (BF) were evaluated in a drive simulator...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846069/secreted-protein-del-1-regulates-myelopoiesis-in-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche
#14
Ioannis Mitroulis, Lan-Sun Chen, Rashim Pal Singh, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Matina Economopoulou, Tetsuhiro Kajikawa, Maria Troullinaki, Athanasios Ziogas, Klara Ruppova, Kavita Hosur, Tomoki Maekawa, Baomei Wang, Pallavi Subramanian, Torsten Tonn, Panayotis Verginis, Malte von Bonin, Manja Wobus, Martin Bornhäuser, Tatyana Grinenko, Marianna Di Scala, Andres Hidalgo, Ben Wielockx, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain mostly quiescent under steady-state conditions but switch to a proliferative state following hematopoietic stress, e.g., bone marrow (BM) injury, transplantation, or systemic infection and inflammation. The homeostatic balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation of HSCs is strongly dependent on their interactions with cells that constitute a specialized microanatomical environment in the BM known as the HSC niche. Here, we identified the secreted extracellular matrix protein Del-1 as a component and regulator of the HSC niche...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845700/investigating-the-driving-performance-of-drivers-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders-under-complex-driving-conditions
#15
Derserri Yan Ting Chee, Hoe Chung Yeung Lee, Ann-Helen Patomella, Torbjörn Falkmer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the driving performance of drivers with autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions. METHOD: Seventeen drivers with autism spectrum disorders and 18 typically developed drivers participated in a driving simulator trial. Prior to the assessment, participants completed the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire and measurements of cognitive and visual-motor ability. The driving simulation involved driving in an urban area with dense traffic and unpredictable events...
August 28, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841448/pre-crash-scenarios-at-road-junctions-a-clustering-method-for-car-crash-data
#16
Philippe Nitsche, Pete Thomas, Rainer Stuetz, Ruth Welsh
Given the recent advancements in autonomous driving functions, one of the main challenges is safe and efficient operation in complex traffic situations such as road junctions. There is a need for comprehensive testing, either in virtual simulation environments or on real-world test tracks. This paper presents a novel data analysis method including the preparation, analysis and visualization of car crash data, to identify the critical pre-crash scenarios at T- and four-legged junctions as a basis for testing the safety of automated driving systems...
October 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826528/chemokine-driven-cd4-t-cell-homing-new-concepts-and-recent-advances
#17
Carly E Gregor, Jade Foeng, Iain Comerford, Shaun R McColl
CD4(+) T cells are critical regulators of the adaptive immune system and have diverse roles in regulating responses to the broad array of microbes encountered. Appropriate execution of their effector function requires precise and coordinated migration of these cells to specific lymphoid niches and peripheral sites. This migration is largely controlled by dynamic expression of chemokine receptors and the discrete functions of distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells can often be determined from their expression of specific chemokine receptors...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821531/cd28-and-41bb-costimulation-enhances-the-effector-function-of-cd19-specific-engager-t-cells
#18
Mireya Paulina Velasquez, Arpad Szoor, Abishek Vaidya, Aarohi Thakkar, Phuong Nguyen, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Stephen Gottschalk
T cells expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) with endodomains that encode a signaling domain derived from CD3zeta and CD28 or 41BB have potent antitumor activity in early phase clinical studies for B-cell malignancies. Besides CD19-specific CARs, other approaches are actively being pursued to redirect T cells to CD19, including recombinant bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) proteins or T cells genetically modified to express BiTEs (engager [ENG] T cells). Since BiTEs provide no costimulation, we investigated here if provision of costimulation through CD28 and 41BB enhances the effector function of CD19-ENG T cells...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802458/semantic-distance-as-a-critical-factor-in-icon-design-for-in-car-infotainment-systems
#19
Johanna M Silvennoinen, Tuomo Kujala, Jussi P P Jokinen
In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797372/evaluation-of-the-older-driver
#20
REVIEW
Lucia Loredana Dattoma
Older adults in the United States are healthier and more active than ever before. The number of adult drivers 65 years and older is increasing rapidly. However, older drivers are involved in more fatal car incidents per miles driven than any other age group except teenagers. Driving has become very important for older adults because it is critical to their independence and self-esteem. Therefore, the role of health care providers and the interprofessional team is essential to maximizing the life expectancy of driving to match the life span and activity levels of the older adult population...
September 2017: Primary Care
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