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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340102/the-impact-of-antibiotic-usage-on-the-efficacy-of-chemoimmunotherapy-is-contingent-on-the-source-of-tumor-reactive-t-cells
#1
Michal P Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Tao Li, Tsadik Habtetsion, Tingting Chen, Zhonglin Hao, Locke Bryan, Nagendra Singh, James N Kochenderfer, Gang Zhou
In recent years the combined use of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, collectively termed chemoimmunotherapy, has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with cancer. Antibiotics are commonly used to reduce infection-related complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence has implicated gut microbiota as a critical determinant of host antitumor immune responses, raising the question as to whether the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics would invariably diminish tumor response to chemoimmunotherapies...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338353/developing-a-tailored-website-for-promoting-awareness-about-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa-among-blacks-in-community-based-settings
#2
Rebecca Robbins, Yalini Senathirajah, Natasha J Williams, Carly Hutchinson, David M Rapoport, John P Allegrante, Alwyn Cohall, April Rogers, Olugbenga Ogedegbe, Girardin Jean-Louis
Blacks are at greater risk for lower sleep quality and higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than other racial groups. In this study, we summarize the development of a tailored website including visuals, key messages, and video narratives, to promote awareness about sleep apnea among community-dwelling blacks. We utilized mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, usability-testing procedures, and brief surveys (n = 9, 55% female, 100% black, average age 38.5 years). Themes from the qualitative analysis illuminated varied knowledge regarding OSA symptoms and prevalent self-reported experience with sleep disturbance and OSA symptoms (e...
January 17, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286777/variational-approach-to-monte%C3%A2-carlo-renormalization-group
#3
Yantao Wu, Roberto Car
We present a Monte Carlo method for computing the renormalized coupling constants and the critical exponents within renormalization theory. The scheme, which derives from a variational principle, overcomes critical slowing down, by means of a bias potential that renders the coarse grained variables uncorrelated. The two-dimensional Ising model is used to illustrate the method.
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282693/new-approaches-in-car-t-cell-immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#4
Jinghua Wang, Penghui Zhou
Despite significant advances in surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and molecular-targeted therapy, breast cancer remains the leading cause of death from malignant tumors among women. Immunotherapy has recently become a critical component of breast cancer treatment with encouraging activity and mild safety profiles. CAR-T therapy using genetically modifying T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is the most commonly used approach to generate tumor-specific T cells. It has shown good curative effect for a variety of malignant diseases, especially for hematological malignancies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282234/validation-of-crafft-for-use-in-youth-correctional-institutions-in-lagos-nigeria
#5
Bolanle Ola, Olayinka Atilola
Substance-related disorders (SRD) are common psychiatric morbidities among adolescents within youth correctional systems. Identification and treatment of SRDs is critical for successful reformation and reintegration. Lack of simple, structured, valid, brief screening instruments that can be easily administered and scored by lay workers militates against screening for SRDs. We present the results of the reliability and concurrent validity of the CRAFFT (acronym for Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, and Trouble) substance abuse screening instrument among residents of youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281695/maternal-metabolism-affects-endometrial-expression-of-oxidative-stress-and-foxl2-genes-in-cattle
#6
Audrey Lesage-Padilla, Niamh Forde, Mélanie Poirée, Gareth D Healey, Corinne Giraud-Delville, Pierrette Reinaud, Caroline Eozenou, Anaïs Vitorino Carvalho, Laurent Galio, Mariam Raliou, Jean-François Oudin, Christophe Richard, I Martin Sheldon, Gilles Charpigny, Pat Lonergan, Olivier Sandra
Intensive selection for milk production has led to reduced reproductive efficiency in high-producing dairy cattle. The impact of intensive milk production on oocyte quality as well as early embryo development has been established but few analyses have addressed this question at the initiation of implantation, a critical milestone ensuring a successful pregnancy and normal post-natal development. Our study aimed to determine if contrasted maternal metabolism affects the previously described sensory properties of the endometrium to the conceptus in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277001/a-computational-approach-to-unraveling-tlr-signaling-in-murine-mammary-carcinoma
#7
Chun Wai Liew, Tiffany Phuong, Carli B Jones, Samantha Evans, Justin Hoot, Kendall Weedling, Damarcus Ingram, Stacy Nganga, Robert A Kurt
We developed an agent-based model to simulate a signaling cascade which allowed us to focus on the behavior of each class of agents independently of the other classes except when they were in physical contact. A critical piece was the ratio of the populations of agents that interact with one another, not their absolute values. This ratio reflects the effects of the density of each agent in the biological cascade as well as their size and velocity. Although the system can be used for any signaling cascade in any cell type, to validate the system we modeled Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in two very different types of cells; tumor cells and white blood cells...
December 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274898/reliability-and-validity-of-the-english-and-malay-versions-of-the-driving-and-riding-questionnaire-a-pilot-study-amongst-older-car-drivers-and-motorcycle-riders
#8
B H Ang, W S Chen, C K Ngin, J A Oxley, S W H Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the English and Malay versions of the Driving and Riding Questionnaire. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study with a mix-method approach by utilising both questionnaire and short debriefing interviews. METHODS: Forward and backward translations of the original questionnaire were performed. The translated questionnaire was assessed for clarity by a multidisciplinary research team, translators, and several Malay native speakers...
December 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248427/car-t-cells-a-systematic-review-and-mixed-methods-analysis-of-the-clinical-trial-landscape
#9
REVIEW
David Pettitt, Zeeshaan Arshad, James Smith, Tijana Stanic, Georg Holländer, David Brindley
CAR-T cells are a promising new therapy that offer significant advantages compared with conventional immunotherapies. This systematic review and clinical trial landscape identifies and critiques published CAR-T cell clinical trials and examines the critical factors required to enable CAR-T cells to become a standard therapy. A review of the literature was conducted to identify suitable studies from the MEDLINE and Ovid bibliographic databases. The literature and database searches identified 20 studies for inclusion...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247824/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-immune-repertoire-in-oncology-applications-for-clinical-diagnosis-monitoring-and-immunotherapies
#10
Baixin Ye, Daniel Smerin, Qingping Gao, Chunsheng Kang, Xiaoxing Xiong
The diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutic options for cancers currently remain limited. These limitations represent a large threat to human health. Adaptive immunity, which is dependent on diverse repertoires of B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs), plays a critical role in the anti-tumor immune response. Modulation and surveillance of adaptive immunity has become a powerful weapon to combat cancers. Recently, the high-throughput sequencing of immune repertoire (HTS-IR) technology, which provides a robust tool for deep sequencing repertoires of BCRs or TCRs, has been applied in the development of tumor biomarkers and immunotherapeutics for cancers...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244842/intensive-care-treatments-associated-with-favorable-discharge-outcomes-in-argentine-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-for-the-south-american-guideline-adherence-group
#11
Monica S Vavilala, Silvia B Lujan, Qian Qiu, Michael J Bell, Nicolás M Ballarini, Nahuel Guadagnoli, María Alejandra Depetris, Gabriela A Faguaga, Gloria M Baggio, Leonardo O Busso, Mirta E García, Osvaldo R González Carrillo, Paula L Medici, Silvia S Sáenz, Elida E Vanella, Carly K Farr, Gustavo J Petroni
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the critical care management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low middle income countries. We aimed to identify indicators of intensive care unit (ICU) treatments associated with favorable outcomes in Argentine children with severe TBI. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from patients previously enrolled in a prospective seven center study of children with severe TBI who were admitted to an ICU in one of the seven study centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239915/preclinical-assessment-of-car-t-cell-therapy-targeting-the-tumor-antigen-5t4-in-ovarian-cancer
#12
Gemma L Owens, Victoria E Sheard, Milena Kalaitsidou, Daniel Blount, Yatish Lad, Eleanor J Cheadle, Richard J Edmondson, Gurdeep Kooner, David E Gilham, Richard Harrop
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells represent a novel targeted approach to overcome both quantitative and qualitative shortfalls of the host immune system relating to the detection and subsequent destruction of tumors. The identification of antigens expressed specifically on the surface of tumor cells is a critical first step in the ability to utilize CAR T cells for the treatment of cancer. The 5T4 is a tumor-associated antigen which is expressed on the cell surface of most solid tumors including ovarian cancer...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219554/supercurrent-interference-in-few-mode-nanowire-josephson-junctions
#13
Kun Zuo, Vincent Mourik, Daniel B Szombati, Bas Nijholt, David J van Woerkom, Attila Geresdi, Jun Chen, Viacheslav P Ostroukh, Anton R Akhmerov, Sebastién R Plissard, Diana Car, Erik P A M Bakkers, Dmitry I Pikulin, Leo P Kouwenhoven, Sergey M Frolov
Junctions created by coupling two superconductors via a semiconductor nanowire in the presence of high magnetic fields are the basis for the potential detection, fusion, and braiding of Majorana bound states. We study NbTiN/InSb nanowire/NbTiN Josephson junctions and find that the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field exhibits gate-tunable nodes. This is in contrast with a well-known Fraunhofer effect, under which critical current nodes form a regular pattern with a period fixed by the junction area...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219092/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sedentary-behaviour-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#14
Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Xanne Janssen, Salome Aubert, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between sedentary behaviour (SB) and health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years, and to determine what doses of SB (i.e., duration, patterns [frequency, interruptions], and type) were associated with health indicators. METHODS: Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure and comparator (durations, patterns, and types of SB), and outcome/health indicator (critical: adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development; important: bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, fitness, risks/harm)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216607/frequency-of-risk-factors-and-coexisting-abnormalities-in-a-population-of-egyptian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Nagwa Abdel Meguid, Neveen Hassan Nashaat, Heba S Hashem, Mai M Khalil
BACKGROUND: Many risk factors interact together during the critical period of development and govern the future phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, co-occurring abnormalities among individuals with ASD vary a lot so as their abilities. AIM OF WORK: To investigate possible risk factors and to determine the prevalence of coexisting abnormalities in a sample of Egyptian ASD children and their influence on the severity and their communication performance...
December 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212954/inhibition-of-akt-signaling-uncouples-t-cell-differentiation-from-expansion-for-receptor-engineered-adoptive-immunotherapy
#16
Christopher A Klebanoff, Joseph G Crompton, Anthony J Leonardi, Tori N Yamamoto, Smita S Chandran, Robert L Eil, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Suman K Vodnala, Jinhui Hu, Yun Ji, David Clever, Mary A Black, Devikala Gurusamy, Michael J Kruhlak, Ping Jin, David F Stroncek, Luca Gattinoni, Steven A Feldman, Nicholas P Restifo
Adoptive immunotherapies using T cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T cell receptor (TCR) are entering mainstream clinical practice. Despite encouraging results, some patients do not respond to current therapies. In part, this phenomenon has been associated with infusion of reduced numbers of early memory T cells. Herein, we report that AKT signaling inhibition is compatible with CAR and TCR retroviral transduction of human T cells while promoting a CD62L-expressing central memory phenotype...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208775/cns-endothelial-cell-activation-emerges-as-a-driver-of-car-t-cell-associated-neurotoxicity
#17
COMMENT
Crystal L Mackall, David B Miklos
<b/> Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity associated with chimeric antigen receptor-based therapeutics has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and insights into the pathophysiology of this syndrome have been lacking. A new study provides evidence that cytokine-induced CNS endothelial cell activation leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier plays an early and critical role in this phenomenon. These insights provide new opportunities for targeted therapeutic interventions to modulate endothelial cell activation...
December 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202863/a-novel-family-dignity-intervention-fdi-for-enhancing-and-informing-holistic-palliative-care-in-asia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Andy Hau Yan Ho, Josip Car, Moon-Ho Ringo Ho, Geraldine Tan-Ho, Ping Ying Choo, Paul Victor Patinadan, Poh Heng Chong, Wah Ying Ong, Gilbert Fan, Yee Pin Tan, Robert A Neimeyer, Harvey M Chochinov
BACKGROUND: The lack of a holistic approach to palliative care can lead to a fractured sense of dignity at the end of life, resulting in depression, hopelessness, feelings of being a burden to others, and the loss of the will to live among terminally ill patients. Building on the clinical foundation of Dignity Therapy, together with the empirical understanding of dignity-related concerns of Asian families facing terminal illness, a novel Family Dignity Intervention (FDI) has been developed for Asian palliative care...
December 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189626/organizational-learning-in-an-orthopaedic-unit-a-learning-history
#19
Bret Lyman, Lindsey Shaw, Carly Moore
The purpose of this study was to explore organizational learning in an orthopaedic hospital unit. Skill in organizational learning is necessary to achieve high reliability in a dynamic healthcare environment, yet organizational learning in hospital units is not well understood. A learning history was conducted with a high-performing orthopaedic unit. Findings were interpreted in the context of a previous learning history conducted with a critical care unit. Despite contextual differences, each unit progressed through the same four developmental stages to achieve its current state of high reliability...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180536/high-affinity-gd2-specific-car-t-cells-induce-fatal-encephalitis-in-a-preclinical-neuroblastoma-model
#20
Sarah A Richman, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Babak Moghimi, Lucy Z Li, Zachary T Gershenson, Zissimos Mourelatos, David M Barrett, Stephan A Grupp, Michael C Milone
The GD2 ganglioside, which is abundant on the surface of neuroblastoma cells, is targeted by an FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal antibody and is an attractive tumor-associated antigen for cellular immunotherapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells can have potent antitumor activity in B-cell malignancies, and trials to harness this cytolytic activity toward GD2 in neuroblastoma are underway. In an effort to enhance the antitumor activity of CAR T cells that target GD2, we generated variant CAR constructs predicted to improve the stability and the affinity of the GD2-binding, 14G2a-based, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of the CAR, and compared their properties in vivo...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
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