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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634781/infectious-disease-surveillance-in-the-woylie-bettongia-penicillata
#1
Kim Skogvold, Kristin S Warren, Bethany Jackson, Carly S Holyoake, Kathryn Stalder, Joanne M Devlin, Simone D Vitali, Adrian F Wayne, Alistair Legione, Ian Robertson, Rebecca J Vaughan-Higgins
Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii...
June 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633424/three-dimensional-3d-heparg-spheroid-model-with-physiologically-relevant-xenobiotic-metabolism-competence-and-hepatocyte-functionality-for-liver-toxicity-screening
#2
Sreenivasa C Ramaiahgari, Suramya Waidyanatha, Darlene Dixon, Michael J DeVito, Richard S Paules, Stephen S Ferguson
Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using in vitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically-relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631581/the-writer-s-guide-to-education-scholarship-in-emergency-medicine-education-innovations-part-3
#3
Andrew K Hall, Carly Hagel, Teresa M Chan, Brent Thoma, Aleisha Murnaghan, Farhan Bhanji
OBJECTIVE: The scholarly dissemination of innovative medical education practices helps broaden the reach of this type of work, allowing scholarship to have an impact beyond a single institution. There is little guidance in the literature for those seeking to publish program evaluation studies and innovation papers. This study aims to derive a set of evidence-based features of high-quality reports on innovations in emergency medicine (EM) education. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and thematic analysis to determine quality markers for medical education innovation reports, with a focus on EM...
June 20, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608873/prediction-of-the-glass-transition-temperature-and-design-of-phase-diagrams-of-butadiene-rubber-and-styrene-butadiene-rubber-via-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#4
Myung Shin Ryu, Hyoung Gyu Kim, Hyun You Kim, Kyung-Shin Min, Hak Joo Kim, Hyuck Mo Lee
To prevent car accidents, it is important to evaluate the thermal stability of tire rubbers, such as natural rubber (NR), butadiene rubber (BR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). Controlling the glass transition temperature (Tg) is the main factor for obtaining desirable thermal stability. Here, we developed an optimized equation for the prediction of the Tg of the various rubber systems using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We modeled a random copolymer system, blended monomers, and calculated the Tg of butadiene isomers in each composition...
June 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599644/parent-engagement-and-attendance-in-peach%C3%A2-qld-an-up-scaled-parent-led-childhood-obesity-program
#5
Susan L Williams, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Anthea Magarey, Carly J Moores, Debbie Croyden, Emma Esdaile, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia) Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance) was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance...
June 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596644/highlights-of-multiple-myeloma-at-the-annual-meeting-of-american-society-of-hematology-2016
#6
REVIEW
Nidhi Tandon, Shaji K Kumar
This review discusses the landmark studies in the field of multiple myeloma (MM) which were presented at American society of hematology annual meeting, 2016. There were contrary results from two large phase III trials (one from US and one from Europe) that evaluated the role of additional interventions like tandem autologous transplant (ASCT) and consolidation after induction therapy followed by ASCT in newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients, but there were critical differences between the two studies. Novel agents like carfilzomib and ixazomib proved to be of benefit when used as induction and post ASCT consolidation and maintenance in NDMM...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522030/ensuring-universal-access-to-old-antibiotics-a-critical-but-neglected-priority
#7
C Pulcini, B Beovic, G Béraud, J Carlet, O Cars, P Howard, G Levy-Hara, G Li, D Nathwani, F Roblot, M Sharland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505886/modeling-carbon-emissions-from-urban-traffic-system-using-mobile-monitoring
#8
Daniel Jian Sun, Ying Zhang, Rui Xue, Yi Zhang
Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500990/evaluating-the-safety-impact-of-adaptive-cruise-control-in-traffic-oscillations-on-freeways
#9
Ye Li, Zhibin Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494259/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-conspicuity-in-the-detection-of-cyclists-by-car-drivers
#10
Joceline Rogé, Daniel Ndiaye, Isabelle Aillerie, Stéphane Aillerie, Jordan Navarro, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the visibility of cyclists for motorists in a simulated car driving task. BACKGROUND: In several cases involving collisions between cars and cyclists, car drivers failed to detect the latter in time to avoid collision because of their low conspicuity. METHOD: 2 groups of motorists (29.2 years old), including 12 cyclist-motorists and 13 non-cyclist-motorists, performed a vulnerable road user detection task in a car-driving simulator...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484827/-hot-rods-in-the-icu-what-is-the-antibiotic-mileage-of-your-renal-replacement-therapy
#11
REVIEW
J T Kielstein, A K Kruse, N Anderson, H Vaitiekunas, S Scherneck
We would neither be disappointed nor upset if the gas mileage on the sticker of a car didn't match our personal, real-life fuel consumption. Depending on our daily route to work, our style of accelerating and the number of passengers in our carpool, the gas mileage will vary. As soon as the falcon wing door of our car is closed and entrance to the ICU is granted, we tend to forget all of this, even though another hot rod is waiting there for us. Renal replacement therapy is like a car; it fulfills goals, such as the removal of uremic toxins and accumulated fluids, but it also "consumes" (removes) antibiotics...
May 8, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481176/do-overgeneral-memories-make-us-feel-better-an-experimental-examination
#12
Sarah L Bunnell, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. Further, while it is assumed that the reinforcing properties of said avoidance leads to the emergence of an overgeneral recall style over time, this question has not been addressed developmentally. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure...
May 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480271/epidemiological-surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-during-the-military-and-political-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-2013-and-2014
#13
Alain Farra, Ella C Gonofio, Alexandre Manirakiza, Arthur Mazitchi, Raphaël Mbaïlao, Casimir Manengu, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache
BACKGROUND: Since December 2012, the Central African Republic (CAR) has been undergoing a severe military and political conflict. This situation has resulted in general insecurity and total disorganization of surveillance activities, including those for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In this study, we used laboratory data to evaluate surveillance of AFP in 2013 and 2014, the most critical period of the conflict. METHODS: The laboratory data on AFP were analyzed retrospectively for the age, sex, vaccination status (oral poliovirus vaccines), and geographical origin of the samples...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441153/discharge-criteria-for-the-late-preterm-infant-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Jenny M Quinn, Marteen Sparks, Sheila M Gephart
BACKGROUND: Standardized late preterm infant (LPI) discharge criteria ensure best practice and help guide the neonatal provider to determine the appropriate level of care following birth. However, the location can vary from the well newborn setting to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to examine differences in LPI discharge criteria between the well newborn setting and the NICU by answering the clinical questions, "What are the recommended discharge criteria for the LPI and do they differ if admitted to the well newborn setting versus the NICU?" SEARCH STRATEGY: Databases searched include CINAHL, TRIP, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library...
April 24, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437778/strengthening-governance-for-intertidal-ecosystems-requires-a-consistent-definition-of-boundaries-between-land-and-sea
#15
Stefanie M Rog, Carly N Cook
The protection of intertidal ecosystems is complex because they straddle both marine and terrestrial realms. This leads to inconsistent characterisation as marine and/or terrestrial systems, or neither. Vegetated intertidal ecosystems are especially complex to classify because they can have an unclear border with terrestrial vegetation, causing confusion around taxonomy (e.g., mangrove-like plants). This confusion and inconsistency in classification can impact these systems through poor governance and incomplete protection...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421069/engineering-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-racing-in-solid-tumors-don-t-forget-the-fuel
#16
REVIEW
Melita Irving, Romain Vuillefroy de Silly, Kirsten Scholten, Nahzli Dilek, George Coukos
T-cells play a critical role in tumor immunity. Indeed, the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a predictor of favorable patient prognosis for many indications and is a requirement for responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting programmed cell death 1. For tumors lacking immune infiltrate, or for which antigen processing and/or presentation has been downregulated, a promising immunotherapeutic approach is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. CARs are hybrid receptors that link the tumor antigen specificity and affinity of an antibody-derived single-chain variable fragment with signaling endodomains associated with T-cell activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419659/making-visible-the-politics-and-ethics-of-alcohol-policy-research
#17
David Moore
Although research on alcohol policy has produced a huge international literature, alcohol research and policy itself-its cultural assumptions, methods, politics and ethics-has rarely been subject to critical analysis. In this article, I provide an appreciative review of an exception to this trend: Joseph Gusfield's 1981 classic, The Culture of Public Problems: Drinking-Driving and the Symbolic Order. I first outline Gusfield's argument that the 'problem of drinking-driving' is constructed as a 'drama of individualism' centring on the 'killer drunk'...
April 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417971/greater-cerebellar-gray-matter-volume-in-car-drivers-an-exploratory-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#18
Hiroyuki Sakai, Takafumi Ando, Norihiro Sadato, Yuji Uchiyama
Previous functional neuroimaging studies have identified multiple brain areas associated with distinct aspects of car driving in simulated traffic environments. Few studies, however, have examined brain morphology associated with everyday car-driving experience in real traffic. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify gray matter volume differences between drivers and non-drivers. We collected T1-weighted structural brain images from 73 healthy young adults (36 drivers and 37 non-drivers). We performed a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to examine between-group differences in regional gray matter volume...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412023/precise-prediction-of-activators-for-the-human-constitutive-androstane-receptor-using-structure-based-three-dimensional-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-methods
#19
Harutoshi Kato, Noriyuki Yamaotsu, Norihiko Iwazaki, Shigeaki Okamura, Toshiyuki Kume, Shuichi Hirono
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) regulates the expression of numerous drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The upregulation of various enzymes, including CYP2B6, by CAR activators is a critical problem leading to clinically severe drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To date, however, few effective computational approaches for identifying CAR activators exist. In this study, we aimed to develop three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models to predict the CAR activating potency of compounds emerging in the drug-discovery process...
June 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405539/quantifying-biomass-consumption-and-carbon-release-from-the-california-rim-fire-by-integrating-airborne-lidar-and-landsat-oli-data
#20
Mariano Garcia, Sassan Saatchi, Angeles Casas, Alexander Koltunov, Susan Ustin, Carlos Ramirez, Jorge Garcia-Gutierrez, Heiko Balzter
Quantifying biomass consumption and carbon release is critical to understanding the role of fires in the carbon cycle and air quality. We present a methodology to estimate the biomass consumed and the carbon released by the California Rim fire by integrating postfire airborne LiDAR and multitemporal Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery. First, a support vector regression (SVR) model was trained to estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB) from LiDAR-derived metrics over the unburned area. The selected model estimated AGB with an R(2) of 0...
February 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
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