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date rape

Ismael Loinaz, Luis Miguel Sánchez, Andrea Vilella
The assessment and treatment of emotional variables is a priority in the rehabilitation of offenders. Although theoretical proposals suggest a clear relationship between violence and self-esteem, attachment, and empathy, the research carried out to date has reached contradictory results due mainly to differences in the measurements used, the reliability of self-reports, or even to problems with the definition of the constructs. The present study analyzed these three variables in a prison sample of sexual offenders ( n = 48) and partner-violent men ( n = 68), using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Rape Empathy Measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adult Attachment Questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nan Dong, Ming-Ming Tang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Xing-Guo Bao, Yu Wang, Peter Christie, Long Li
Intercropping studies usually focus on yield advantage and interspecific interactions but few quantify temporal niche differentiation and its relationship with intercropping yield advantage. A field experiment conducted in northwest China in 2013 and 2014 examined four intercropping systems (oilseed rape/maize, oilseed rape/soybean, potato/maize, and soybean/potato) and the corresponding monocultures. Total dry matter data collected every 20 d after maize emergence were fitted to logistic models to investigate the temporal dynamics of crop growth and interspecific interactions...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashton M Lofgreen, Richard E Mattson, Samantha A Wagner, Edwin G Ortiz, Matthew D Johnson
Sexual victimization of women by men on college campuses is a growing societal concern, with research identifying a host of situational and characterological factors that may predict men's likelihood to engage in sexual misconduct. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution and potential interplay of these various determinants on college men's perceptions of women's sexual desire and consent in hypothetical dating scenarios depicting a sexual interaction. We found that the men ( N = 145) in this sample (a) conflated sexual desire with consent, (b) varied their appraisals of consent and desire depending on whether and how the woman in the vignette communicated consent or refusal, (c) perceived higher levels of consent if the man in the vignette had intercourse with the woman previously and as a function of escalating sexual intimacy in the ongoing interaction, (d) endorsed higher levels of perceived desire and consent across situations if they more strongly held rape-supportive attitudes, and (e) moderated their association between situational factors and perceptions of a woman's sexual intentions based on their endorsement of rape myths and a hypermasculine ideology...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Meredith G F Worthen
Although there is a wealth of existing research on various correlates and patterns of rape myth acceptance (RMA), including how RMA relates to homophobia (i.e., antigay and antilesbian perspectives) and negativity toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women rape victims, no research to date has specifically focused on RMA among LGB and "mostly heterosexual" men and women. The current study examines how gender, sexual identity, personal experiences with rape (i.e., knowing/being a survivor), feminist identity, patriarchal gender norms, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and the interactions among these relate to LGB college students' ( n = 389; 24% gay/lesbian, 19% bisexual, 57% mostly heterosexual) RMA using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anna E Jaffe, Anne L Steel, David DiLillo, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Rape by an intimate partner frequently involves a precedence of sexual consent between victim and perpetrator, often does not include the use of physical force, and may not fit societal definitions of rape. Given these unique characteristics, women who are assaulted by an intimate partner may be less likely to acknowledge the experience as a rape. In turn, they might make fewer blame attributions toward themselves and their perpetrators than victims of rape by a nonpartner. Consistent with these expectations, results from 208 community women reporting rape in adulthood revealed the presence of indirect effects of perpetrator type (nonpartner vs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kellie R Lynch, Jenna A Jewell, Nesa E Wasarhaley, Jonathan M Golding, Claire M Renzetti
We investigated the effect of the desirability of the defendant and the cost of a date on how participants assigned blame in a date rape context. Community participants ( N = 211) read one of four date rape trial summaries that differed based on the two manipulated independent variables: the desirability of the defendant (i.e., high vs. low desirability) and the cost of the date (i.e., expensive [US$175] vs. inexpensive [US$30]). Participants then rated the victim and defendant on various attributes related to the trial (credibility, blame, and guilt) and post-date sexual behavior (expectations, want, and deservingness of sex)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
LaVerne McQuiller Williams, Judy L Porter, Jason D Scott, Tony R Smith, Taylor V Vogt
This exploratory study examines the impact of auditory status, gender, and prior sexual victimization on attitudes andbehaviors related to date rape among undergraduate college students (n = 3,352) at a private university in the northeast. An abbreviated version of the College Date Rape Attitude and Behavior Survey (Lanier & Elliot, 1997) and the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) were employed. Findings indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students were more likely to experience negative sexual experiences than hearing students...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
Emily R Dworkin, Stephanie N Sessarego, Samantha L Pittenger, Katie M Edwards, Victoria L Banyard
High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
Amandine Suzanne Juhel, Corentin Mario Barbu, Pierre Franck, Jean Roger-Estrade, Arnaud Butier, Mathieu Bazot, Muriel Valantin-Morison
Many crop pests rely on resources out of crop fields; understanding how they colonize the fields is an important factor to develop integrated pest management. In particular, the time of crop colonization and damage severity might be determined by pest movements between fields and non-crop areas. Notably, the pollen beetle, Brassicogethes aeneus, previously named Meligethes aeneus, one of the most important pests of winter oilseed rape, overwinters in woodlands. As a result, its abundance increases in oilseed rape fields near wooded areas...
2017: PloS One
Bin Liang, Ming Hu
Efforts to classify sexual offending and offenders continued to evolve over the years based on criteria such as offender and victim characteristics, offender-victim relationships, the nature of sexual offenses, and other situational factors. This current study draws up a typology of sexual offending against minors based on 436 adjudicated rape and child molestation cases in China. Specifically, sexual offending against minors is classified into six major categories, including opportunistic offenses, serial offenses, dating couple offenses, educator abuses, gang/party offenses, and incest offenses...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Sheryl P Kubiak, Hannah J Brenner, Deborah Bybee, Rebecca Campbell, Cristy E Cummings, Kathleen M Darcy, Gina Fedock, Rachael Goodman-Williams
More than 80,000 prisoners each year are sexually victimized during incarceration, but only about 8% report victimization to correctional authorities. Complicating reporting is the fact that half of the perpetrators are staff members. Given the restrictive and highly regulated prison environment, studies that examine reporting behaviors are difficult to conduct and to date information available relied on those who have reported or hypothetical victimization studies. This study uses an ecological framework and archival data from a class action lawsuit of sexual misconduct to determine predictors of reporting...
August 2017: Law and Human Behavior
Andreas Stahl, Mara Pfeifer, Matthias Frisch, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lena-Maria Mehling, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess, Cornelius Courts
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as an agonist of the GABAB receptor, where GHB induces a depressant effect in the central nervous system. Besides its therapeutic application, GHB is also used as a date rape drug. However, the detection of GHB ingestion proves to be difficult due to its narrow detection window. The aim of this pilot study was to assess differential gene expressions after GHB intake to identify potential biomarkers for the detection of GHB intake. To this aim, alteration in gene expression of ALDH5A1, AKR7A2, EREG, and PEA15 was investigated via quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paul Galpern, Sarah A Johnson, Jennifer L Retzlaff, Danielle Chang, John Swann
One of the most commonly seeded crops in Canada is canola, a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). As a mass-flowering crop grown intensively throughout the Canadian Prairies, canola has the potential to influence pollinator success across tens of thousands of square kilometers of cropland. Bumble bees (Bombus sp.) are efficient pollinators of many types of native and crop plants. We measured the influence of this mass-flowering crop on the abundance and phenology of bumble bees, and on another species of social bee (a sweat bee; Halictus rubicundus), by continuously deploying traps at different levels of canola cultivation intensity, spanning the start and end of canola bloom...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Kevin A Bird, Hong An, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, J Chris Pires, Larry D Robertson, Joanne A Labate
The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura Jane Anderson, Asher Flynn, Jennifer Lucinda Pilgrim
PURPOSE: A systematic review was undertaken to determine the current global prevalence of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) reported in adults in order to identify trends in the toxicology findings in DFSA around the world over the past 20 years. METHODS: Databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus were systematically searched using the terms: "drug-facilitated sexual assault", "chemical submission", "date rape", "rape drugs" and "drink-spiking" to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the review...
April 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rafaqat A Gill, Basharat Ali, Peng Cui, Enhui Shen, Muhammad A Farooq, Faisal Islam, Shafaqat Ali, Bizeng Mao, Weijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Chromium (Cr) being multifarious industrial used element, is considered a potential environmental threat. Cr found to be a prospective water and soil pollutant, and thus it is a current area of concern. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is well known as a major source of edible oil around the globe. Due to its higher growth, larger biomass and capability to uptake toxic materials B. napus is considered a potential candidate plant against unfavorable conditions. To date, no study has been done that described the Cr and GSH mechanism at RNA-Seq level...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ronald M Rapee, Michael P Jones, Jennifer L Hudson, Gin S Malhi, Heidi J Lyneham, Sophie C Schneider
Use of the partial NMDA receptor agonist d-Cycloserine (DCS) to increase extinction to feared cues among anxious adults has shown mixed, although overall positive effects. Few studies have extended this effect to youth and none have addressed young people with broad-based anxiety such as separation anxiety, social anxiety, or generalised anxiety. In the current trial 51 children and adolescents with diagnosed anxiety disorders, aged 7-14 years received four sessions of graduated, experimenter-led, in vivo exposure to a hierarchy of feared cues relevant to their primary fear...
December 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
J Franzaring, K Wedlich, A Fangmeier, S Eckert, J Zipperle, I Krah-Jentgens, C Hünig, W Züghart
Seed losses from imported oilseed rape (OSR) and the genetically modified (GM) admixtures therein may potentially lead to the establishment of transgenic plants and their hybridization with wild crucifers. The post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) must therefore also address problems related to seed spillages of GM OSR. Since detailed information on imported commodity flows, GM contents, means of transport, downstream users and efficient containment of GM OSR was lacking, we performed a field study in the vicinity of large oil mills and seed processing industries at the harbours along the river Rhine...
November 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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