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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679432/an-rct-with-the-combination-of-varenicline-and-bupropion-for-smoking-cessation-clinical-implications-for-front-line-use
#1
Paul M Cinciripini, Jennifer A Minnix, Charles E Green, Jason D Robinson, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Francesco Versace, David W Wetter, Sanjay Shete, Maher Karam-Hage
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the availability of several efficacious smoking cessation treatments, less than 25% of smokers who quit remain abstinent 1 year post treatment. This study aimed to determine if varenicline and bupropion combination treatment would result in higher abstinence rates than varenicline alone. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, parallel groups smoking cessation clinical trial in which participants were exposed to 12 weeks of treatment and followed for 12 months...
April 21, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615835/the-effect-of-electronic-cigarette-and-tobacco-smoke-exposure-on-copd-bronchial-epithelial-cell-inflammatory-responses
#2
Andrew Higham, Declan Bostock, George Booth, Josiah V Dungwa, Dave Singh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE) and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584716/evaluation-of-e-liquid-toxicity-using-an-open-source-high-throughput-screening-assay
#3
M Flori Sassano, Eric S Davis, James E Keating, Bryan T Zorn, Tavleen K Kochar, Matthew C Wolfgang, Gary L Glish, Robert Tarran
The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) consist of propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine, and chemical additives for flavoring. There are currently over 7,700 e-liquid flavors available, and while some have been tested for toxicity in the laboratory, most have not. Here, we developed a 3-phase, 384-well, plate-based, high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to rapidly triage and validate the toxicity of multiple e-liquids. Our data demonstrated that the PG/VG vehicle adversely affected cell viability and that a large number of e-liquids were more toxic than PG/VG...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580719/the-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes-and-children-s-respiratory-health
#4
REVIEW
Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. Adverse effects may be ascribed to the nicotine itself, to the accompanying substances in the aerosol (often referred to as vapour) or to temperature modifications of the content...
February 10, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575755/peri-implant-parameters-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-1-beta-levels-in-vaping-individuals
#5
Khulud A Al-Aali, Mohammed Alrabiah, Aws S ArRejaie, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Zohaib Akram
BACKGROUND: To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig). PURPOSE: This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567331/an-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarette-formulations-and-aerosols-for-harmful-and-potentially-harmful-constituents-hphcs-typically-derived-from-combustion
#6
Karl A Wagner, Jason W Flora, Matt S Melvin, Karen C Avery, Regina M Ballentine, Anthony P Brown, Willie J McKinney
U.S. FDA draft guidance recommends reporting quantities of designated harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in e-cigarette e-liquids and aerosols. The HPHC list comprises potential matrix-related compounds, flavors, nicotine, tobacco-related impurities, leachables, thermal degradation products, and combustion-related compounds. E-cigarettes contain trace levels of many of these constituents due to tobacco-derived nicotine and thermal degradation. However, combustion-related HPHCs are not likely to be found due to the relatively low operating temperatures of most e-cigarettes...
March 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564955/assessing-electronic-cigarette-emissions-linking-physico-chemical-properties-to-product-brand-e-liquid-flavoring-additives-operational-voltage-and-user-puffing-patterns
#7
Jiayuan Zhao, Jordan Nelson, Oluwabunmi Dada, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ilias G Kavouras, Philip Demokritou
Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550362/effectiveness-of-adjunctive-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-reducing-peri-implant-inflammatory-response-in-individuals-vaping-electronic-cigarettes-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Mohammed Q Al Rifaiy, Osama A Qutub, Mohammed N Alasqah, Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Sameer A Mokeem, Ali Alrahlah
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have assessed the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). This study explored the effectiveness of aPDT as an adjunct to mechanical debridement (MD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (p-iM) in individuals vaping e-cigs. METHODS: Vaping individuals with p-iM were divided into 2 groups: (a) Group-I: receiving MD with aPDT (test group); and (b) Group-II: MD only (control group)...
March 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491036/immunological-and-toxicological-risk-assessment-of-e-cigarettes
#9
REVIEW
Gagandeep Kaur, Rakeysha Pinkston, Benathel Mclemore, Waneene C Dorsey, Sanjay Batra
Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs) are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355819/effects-of-six-weeks-of-electronic-cigarette-use-on-smoking-rate-co-cigarette-dependence-and-motivation-to-quit-smoking-a-pilot-study
#10
Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Rosemarie A Martin, Suzanne M Colby, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVES: Switching from combustible tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) may or may not help smokers to reduce cigarette consumption and toxicant exposure. This pilot study investigated the effects of asking smokers to switch to e-cigs for 6weeks on smoking, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, dependence, and motivation to quit smoking. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=18) were given free e-cigs and instructed to use them instead of smoking cigarettes for 6weeks...
May 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321926/lung-injury-associated-with-electronic-cigarettes-inhalation-diagnosed-by-transbronchial-lung-biopsy
#11
Masayuki Itoh, Kazutetsu Aoshiba, Yoriko Herai, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Tamiko Takemura
A 46-year-old healthy man developed respiratory distress, night sweats, fever, and weight loss after using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) for approximately 1 month. He presented to the hospital when the symptoms worsened 2 months after onset. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination and the following transbronchial lung biopsy examination led to the diagnosis of acute alveolitis: intra-alveolar fibrosis accompanied with exudate containing abundant lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306962/initial-ratings-of-different-types-of-e-cigarettes-and-relationships-between-product-appeal-and-nicotine-delivery
#12
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips-Waller, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
AIMS: Little is known about features of e-cigarettes (EC) that facilitate or hinder the switch from smoking to vaping. We tested eight brands of EC to determine how nicotine delivery and other product characteristics influence user's initial reactions. METHODS: Fifteen vapers tested each product after overnight abstinence from both smoking and vaping. At each session, participant's vaped ad lib for 5 min. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 30 min after starting vaping...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295483/differences-between-dual-users-and-switchers-center-around-vaping-behavior-and-its-experiences-rather-than-beliefs-and-attitudes
#13
Karolien Adriaens, Dinska Van Gucht, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201950/using-the-vape-shop-standardized-tobacco-assessment-for-retail-settings-v-stars-to-assess-product-availability-price-promotions-and-messaging-in-new-hampshire-vape-shop-retailers
#14
Amanda Y Kong, Jessica L Eaddy, Susan L Morrison, Donna Asbury, Kristine M Lindell, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. Methods: A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Results: Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191599/limited-mutagenicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-mouse-or-human-cells-in-vitro
#15
Stella Tommasi, Steven E Bates, Rachel Z Behar, Prue Talbot, Ahmad Besaratinia
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e-cig), which are promoted as safe alternatives to tobacco cigarettes or as aides to smoking cessation, are becoming increasingly popular among adult chronic smokers and adolescents experimenting with tobacco products. Despite the known presence of toxicants and carcinogens in e-cig liquid and vapor, the possible carcinogenic effects of e-cig use in humans are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have utilized two validated in vitro model systems to investigate whether e-cig vapor induces mutation in mouse or human cells...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175027/measuring-perceptions-related-to-e-cigarettes-important-principles-and-next-steps-to-enhance-study-validity
#16
REVIEW
Laura A Gibson, MeLisa R Creamer, Alison B Breland, Aida Luz Giachello, Annette Kaufman, Grace Kong, Terry F Pechacek, Jessica K Pepper, Eric K Soule, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions...
April 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102637/assessment-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-by-electronic-cigarettes-using-acellular-and-cellular-approaches
#17
Jiayuan Zhao, Yipei Zhang, Jennifer D Sisler, Justine Shaffer, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Yong Qian, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have fast increased in popularity but the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of the generated emission remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely present in e-cig emission and can play an important role in e-cig toxicity. However, e-cig ROS generation is poorly documented. Here, we generated e-cig exposures using a recently developed versatile exposure platform and performed systematic ROS characterization on e-cig emissions using complementary acellular and cellular techniques: 1) a novel acellular Trolox-based mass spectrometry method for total ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) detection, 2) electron spin resonance (ESR) for hydroxyl radical detection in an acellular and cellular systems and 3) in vitro ROS detection in small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) using the dihydroethidium (DHE) assay...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097631/chronic-exposure-to-electronic-cigarettes-results-in-impaired-cardiovascular-function-in-mice
#18
I Mark Olfert, Evan DeVallance, Hannah Hoskinson, Kayla W Branyan, Stuart Clayton, Christopher R Pitzer, D Patrick Sullivan, Matthew J Breit, Zhongxin Wu, Powsiri Klinkhachorn, W Kyle Mandler, Brett H Erdreich, Barbara S Ducatman, Randall W Bryner, Piyali Dasgupta, Paul D Chantler
Proponents for electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) claim that they are a safe alternative to tobacco-based cigarettes; however, little is known about the long-term effects of exposure to E-cig vapor on vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular consequences of chronic E-cig exposure. Female mice (C57BL/6 background strain) were randomly assigned to chronic daily exposure to E-cig vapor, standard (3R4F reference) cigarette smoke, or filtered air ( n = 15/group). Respective whole body exposures consisted of four 1-h-exposure time blocks, separated by 30-min intervals of fresh air breaks, resulting in intermittent daily exposure for a total of 4 h/day, 5 days/wk for 8 mo...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069879/the-surgical-impact-of-e-cigarettes-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-current-literature
#19
REVIEW
Megan Fracol, Robert Dorfman, Lindsay Janes, Swati Kulkarni, Kevin Bethke, Nora Hansen, John Kim
We report a case of a 51 years old female with a 25 pack year smoking history who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction for newly diagnosed right breast cancer. The patient reported herself as a non-smoker despite significant e-cigarette use, with resulting significant mastectomy skin flap necrosis and breast reconstruction failure. Little is known about the physiologic effect of e-cigarettes on wound healing and tissue perfusion. To this end, we provide an updated review of the impact of e-cigarettes on surgical outcomes...
November 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057201/-essentially-all-models-are-wrong-but-some-are-useful-a-preliminary-conceptual-model-of-co-occurring-e-cig-and-alcohol-use
#20
Alexandra Hershberger, Melissa A Cyders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As prevalence rates of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use increase, researchers and clinicians should not only be paying careful attention to the direct health effects of e-cigs, but also the potential impact e-cigs may have on alcohol use behaviors. We review the current state of the literature and propose a conceptual model for the relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, including important consequences, mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: The model is based in emerging literature examining the direct relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, as well as indirect evidence concerning potential mechanisms from research on cigarette and alcohol use...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
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