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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954048/electronic-cigarette-awareness-use-and-perception-of-harmfulness-in-brazil-findings-from-a-country-that-has-strict-regulatory-requirements
#2
Tânia Maria Cavalcante, André Salem Szklo, Cristina de Abreu Perez, James F Thrasher, Moyses Szklo, Janine Ouimet, Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Liz Maria de Almeida
Given the uncertainties regarding electronic cigarettes' (e-cigs) impact on health, in 2009 Brazil prohibited sales, importation or advertisements of these products until manufacturers are able to show they are safe and/or effective in smoking cessation. This study sought to analyze: (1) awareness of electronic cigarettes, ever-use and recent use; (2) perception of harmfulness of electronic cigarettes when compared with conventional cigarettes; and (3) correlates of awareness and perception of harmfulness. This is a cross-sectional study among Brazilian smokers (≥ 18 years) using the Wave 2 replenishment sample of the Brazilian International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey...
September 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861656/an-opportune-and-unique-research-to-evaluate-the-public-health-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes
#3
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, https://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/supplemental-information-nida-e-cig ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815224/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-words-electronic-cigarette-content-on-instagram-and-pinterest
#4
Alexander S Lee, Joy L Hart, Clara G Sears, Kandi L Walker, Allison Siu, Courteney Smith
INTRODUCTION: This study examined electronic cigarette (e-cig) content in visual materials posted on the social-media platforms Instagram and Pinterest. Both platforms allow users to upload pictures to the internet and share them globally. Users can search for pictures tagged with specific keywords and phrases. METHODS: Using content analysis, this study identified themes in image postings of e-cigs on social media. During five weeks of data collection, keywords were used to identify pictures related to e-cigs...
July 2017: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782062/exploratory-analysis-of-marketing-and-non-marketing-e-cigarette-themes-on-twitter
#5
Sifei Han, Ramakanth Kavuluru
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been gaining popularity and have emerged as a controversial tobacco product since their introduction in 2007 in the U.S. The smoke-free aspect of e-cigs renders them less harmful than conventional cigarettes and is one of the main reasons for their use by people who plan to quit smoking. The US food and drug administration (FDA) has introduced new regulations early May 2016 that went into effect on August 8, 2016. Given this important context, in this paper, we report results of a project to identify current themes in e-cig tweets in terms of semantic interpretations of topics generated with topic modeling...
November 2016: Soc Inform (2016)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714914/online-vape-shop-customers-who-use-e-cigarettes-report-abstinence-from-smoking-and-improved-quality-of-life-but-a-substantial-minority-still-have-vaping-related-health-concerns
#6
Dinska Van Gucht, Karolien Adriaens, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651446/acute-and-chronic-in-vivo-effects-of-exposure-to-nicotine-and-propylene-glycol-from-an-e-cigarette-on-mucociliary-clearance-in-a-murine-model
#7
Beth L Laube, Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Kirsten Koehler, Gang Chen, Philip Lazarus, Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an acute (1 week) and chronic (3 weeks) exposure to E-cigarette (E-cig) emissions on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in murine lungs. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice (age 10.5 ± 2.4 weeks) were exposed for 20 min/day to E-cigarette aerosol generated by a Joyetech 510-T(®) E-cig containing either 0% nicotine (N)/propylene glycol (PG) for 1 week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), or 2.4% N/PG for one week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), followed by measurement of MCC...
April 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650184/effects-of-nicotine-versus-placebo-e-cigarette-use-on-symptom-relief-during-initial-tobacco-abstinence
#8
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Valerie C Michael
Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#9
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy Mathe, Joseph P McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
August 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#11
REVIEW
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey E Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short- and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#12
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443340/e-cigs-are-they-cool-talking-to-teens-about-e-cigarettes
#13
REVIEW
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Camille Alvarado
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes as they are commonly called, have gained wide acceptance among adolescents, especially those with sweet flavors such as bubble gum and cheesecake. Although health effects of e-cigarettes have not been well characterized, their use increases a teen's exposure to nicotine and may serve as a gateway to traditional cigarettes. This article outlines the basics of e-cigarettes and potential health hazards, followed by selected literature on teens' perceptions of e-cigarettes, as well as motivational interviewing strategies that can be used in talking to teens about using electronic cigarettes...
September 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389330/a-comparison-of-nicotine-dependence-among-exclusive-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-users-in-the-path-study
#14
Guodong Liu, Emily Wasserman, Lan Kong, Jonathan Foulds
Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity, but their health risks, including dependence potential are unclear. This study analyzed the adult database from the Wave 1 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative survey of tobacco use in the United States, to assess the relative level of dependence among adult, exclusive everyday users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Of the total 32,320 observations from the Wave 1 PATH adult database, 3586 (5...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355200/electronic-cigarette-use-is-not-associated-with-quitting-of-conventional-cigarettes-in-youth-smokers
#15
Man Ping Wang, William H Li, Yongda Wu, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia S Chan
BackgroundTo investigate the association between electronic cigarette (e-cig) use and smoking cessation among smokers who called the Youth Quitline in Hong Kong.MethodsThis longitudinal study collected data on youth smokers' (N=189) use and perception of e-cigs, conventional cigarette smoking behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Self-reported past 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) was assessed in the 6-month telephone follow-up. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of e-cig use with quitting cigarette smoking and other cessation-related outcomes...
July 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337465/inflammatory-response-and-barrier-dysfunction-by-different-e-cigarette-flavoring-chemicals-identified-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-e-liquids-and-e-vapors-on-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#16
Janice Gerloff, Isaac K Sundar, Robert Freter, Emily R Sekera, Alan E Friedman, Risa Robinson, Todd Pagano, Irfan Rahman
Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
March 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#17
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289597/daily-users-compared-to-less-frequent-users-find-vape-as-or-more-satisfying-and-less-dangerous-than-cigarettes-and-are-likelier-to-use-non-cig-alike-vaping-products
#18
Lynn T Kozlowski, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
We assessed the roles of perceived satisfaction and perceived danger and vaping-product-type as correlates of more frequent use of vaping products. In a baseline assessment of a longitudinal study of US Army Reserve/National Guard Soldiers and their partners (New York State, USA, 2014-2016), participants were asked about current use of vaping products (e-cigarettes) and perceived satisfaction and danger in comparison to cigarettes as well as type of product used. Fisher-exact tests and multiple ordinal logistic regressions were used...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246235/e-cigs-have-lower-levels-of-harmful-toxins
#19
Roger Collier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212302/the-importance-of-conditioned-stimuli-in-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-craving-reduction-by-e-cigarettes
#20
Martijn Van Heel, Dinska Van Gucht, Koen Vanbrabant, Frank Baeyens
This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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