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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944523/a-new-method-for-analysing-transition-to-psychosis-joint-modelling-of-time-to-event-outcome-with-time-dependent-predictors
#1
Hok Pan Yuen, Andrew Mackinnon, Barnaby Nelson
An active area in psychosis research is the identification of predictors of transition to a psychotic state among those who are assessed as being at high risk of psychosis. Many of the potential predictors are time dependent in the sense that they may change over time and are measured at a number of assessment time points. Examples are various psychopathological measures such as negative symptoms, positive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Most research in transition to psychosis has not made use of the dynamic nature of these measures, probably because suitable statistical methods and software have not been easily available...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944312/the-structure-of-personality-disorders-within-a-depressed-sample-implications-for-personalizing-treatment
#2
Joanna M Berg, Jamie C Kennedy, Boadie W Dunlop, Cynthia L Ramirez, Lindsay M Stewart, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg, W Edward Craighead
BACKGROUND: Personality disorders (PDs) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both significant public health burdens. They are frequently comorbid, and this comorbidity predicts poorer treatment outcomes and lower maintenance of treatment effects. Although there is growing consensus on the structure of personality pathology in non-depressed individuals, there is limited research on the structure of personality pathology in individuals experiencing MDD. METHOD: As part of the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatment (PReDICT) randomized controlled trial, 192 treatment-naïve subjects meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD completed the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)...
March 2017: Pers Med Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943221/development-of-perinatal-mental-illness-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Qendresa Beka, Samantha Bowker, Anamaria Savu, Dawn Kingston, Jeffrey A Johnson, Padma Kaul
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the development of mental illness (affective and anxiety disorders) during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. METHODS: We linked clinical and administrative databases of mothers who delivered in Alberta, Canada, between April 1, 2000, and March 31, 2009, to identify diagnoses of GDM and mental illness. Women with prepregnancy type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the effect of GDM on the development of new-onset mental illness in 2 separate periods: during pregnancy and during the first postpartum year...
September 22, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942953/metacognitive-beliefs-as-psychological-predictors-of-social-functioning-an-investigation-with-young-people-at-risk-of-psychosis
#4
Measha Bright, Sophie Parker, Paul French, David Fowler, Andrew Gumley, Anthony P Morrison, Max Birchwood, Peter B Jones, Suzanne L K Stewart, Adrian Wells
Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942806/comparison-of-stepped-care-delivery-against%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-single-empirically-validated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-program-for-youth-with-anxiety-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Ronald M Rapee, Heidi J Lyneham, Viviana Wuthrich, Mary Lou Chatterton, Jennifer L Hudson, Maria Kangas, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Stepped care is embraced as an ideal model of service delivery but is minimally evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety delivered via a stepped-care framework compared against a single, empirically validated program. METHOD: A total of 281 youth with anxiety disorders (6-17 years of age) were randomly allocated to receive either empirically validated treatment or stepped care involving the following: (1) low intensity; (2) standard CBT; and (3) individually tailored treatment...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942527/psychological-pathways-from-racial-discrimination-to-cortisol-in-african-american-males-and-females
#6
Daniel B Lee, Melissa K Peckins, Justin E Heinze, Alison L Miller, Shervin Assari, Marc A Zimmerman
The association between racial discrimination (discrimination) and stress-related alterations in the neuroendocrine response-namely, cortisol secretion-is well documented in African Americans (AAs). Dysregulation in production of cortisol has been implicated as a contributor to racial health disparities. Guided by Clark et al. (Am Psychol 54(10):805-816, 1999. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805 ) biopsychosocial model of racism and health, the present study examined the psychological pathways that link discrimination to total cortisol concentrations in AA males and females...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940665/prediction-of-persistent-post-operative-pain-pain-specific-psychological-variables-compared-with-acute-post-operative-pain-and-general-psychological-variables
#7
C Horn-Hofmann, J Scheel, V Dimova, A Parthum, R Carbon, N Griessinger, R Sittl, S Lautenbacher
BACKGROUND: Psychological variables and acute post-operative pain are of proven relevance for the prediction of persistent post-operative pain. We aimed at investigating whether pain-specific psychological variables like pain catastrophizing add to the predictive power of acute pain and more general psychological variables like depression. METHODS: In all, 104 young male patients undergoing thoracic surgery for pectus excavatum correction were studied on the pre-operative day (T0) and 1 week (T1) and 3 months (T2) after surgery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938748/random-start-ovarian-stimulation-for-fertility-preservation-appears-unlikely-to-delay-initiation-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#8
Joseph M Letourneau, Nikita Sinha, Kaitlyn Wald, Eve Harris, Molly Quinn, Tal Imbar, Evelyn Mok-Lin, A Jo Chien, Mitchell Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936752/postpartum-specific-anxiety-as-a-predictor-of-infant-feeding-outcomes-and-perceptions-of-infant-feeding-behaviours-new-evidence-for-childbearing-specific-measures-of-mood
#9
Victoria Fallon, Jason Christian Grovenor Halford, Kate Mary Bennett, Joanne Allison Harrold
Studies of pregnancy-specific anxiety suggest that it is a distinct construct which predicts perinatal outcomes more effectively than other general measures of anxiety. In response, a novel measure of postpartum-specific anxiety (PSAS) has been developed and validated, but it is not yet clear whether it possesses the same predictive power as its pregnancy-specific counterparts. The aim of this short-term prospective study was to (a) test the predictive validity of the PSAS in the context of one specific perinatal outcome, infant-feeding, and (b) examine whether the PSAS may be more efficacious at predicting infant-feeding outcomes and behaviours than the more commonly used general measures...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#10
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934025/tamec-a-new-analogue-of-cyclomyrsinol-diterpenes-decreases-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Abdul Majid Ayatollahi, Mostafa Haji Molla Hoseini, Syed Mustafa Ghanadian, Morteza Kosari-Nasab, Fatemeh Mami, Zeinab Yazdiniapoure, Behzad Zolfaghari, Ali-Akbar Salari
Objectives There is a significant prevalence of affective disorders including depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), resulting in reduced quality of life. Since the current treatments are not generally effective, further studies are needed to find appropriate drugs to alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms in these patients. Methods The effects of a new analog of cyclomyrsinol diterpenes (TAMEC) isolated from Euphorbia sogdiana on the anxiety (open field and elevated plus maze test) and depressive-like behaviors (sucrose preference test and forced swim test) in EAE-induced C57BL/6 mice (EAE; a mouse model of MS) were investigated...
September 21, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933010/economic-evaluation-of-dupilumab-for-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-in-adults
#12
Andreas Kuznik, Gaëlle Bégo-Le-Bagousse, Laurent Eckert, Abhijit Gadkari, Eric Simpson, Christopher N Graham, LaStella Miles, Vera Mastey, Puneet Mahajan, Sean D Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab significantly improves signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD), including pruritus, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life versus placebo in adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Since the cost-effectiveness of dupilumab has not been evaluated, the objective of this analysis was to estimate a value-based price range in which dupilumab would be considered cost-effective compared with supportive care (SC) for treatment of moderate-to-severe AD in an adult population...
September 20, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#13
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931312/antidepressive-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-in-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#14
Ho-Hyun Seong, Jong-Min Park, Youn-Jung Kim
Depression is caused by a variety of factors, especially stressful life events. Chronic stress-induced depression has detrimental effects on hippocampal integrity. Environmental enrichment (EE) is a beneficial intervention for improving anxiety, fear, and stress. We aimed to investigate the antidepressive effects of EE in a depressive rat model (DEP) that was subjected to chronic stress. The control group ( n = 10) was kept under normal conditions, while depressive rats ( n = 8 per group) were randomized into DEP, DEP + EE, and DEP + fluoxetine (Flx) groups...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931086/re-evaluation-of-the-interrelationships-among-the-behavioral-tests-in-rats-exposed-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#15
Congli Hu, Ying Luo, Hong Wang, Shengnan Kuang, Guojuan Liang, Yang Yang, Shaoshan Mai, Junqing Yang
The chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression has been widely used as an experimental tool to investigate human psychopathology. Our objective was to provide an update on the validity and reliability of the chronic unpredictable mild stress model, by analyzing the interrelationships among the indexes using stepwise discriminant analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the possible combinations. We evaluated the depressive rats in both the presence and the absence of chronic unpredictable mild stress, using weight change, percentage of sucrose preference, coat state, splash test, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, forced swimming test, and Morris water maze test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#16
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930774/high-levels-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-chemokines-point-to-the-presence-of-neuroinflammation-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-a-cross-sectional-study-of-two-cohorts-of-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls
#17
Emmanuel Bäckryd, Anne-Li Lind, Måns Thulin, Anders Larsson, Björn Gerdle, Torsten Gordh
Animal models suggest that chemokines are important mediators in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Indeed, these substances have been called "gliotransmitters", a term that illustrates the close interplay between glial cells and neurons in the context of neuroinflammation and pain. However, evidence in humans is scarce. The aim of the study was to determine a comprehensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory profile for neuropathic pain patients. Our hypothesis was that we would thereby find indications of a postulated on-going process of central neuroinflammation...
September 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929924/the-search-for-a-subtype-selective-pet-imaging-agent-for-the-gabaa-receptor-complex-evaluation-of-the-radiotracer-11-c-ado-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
Shu-Fei Lin, Frederic Bois, Daniel Holden, Nabeel Nabulsi, Richard Pracitto, Hong Gao, Michael Kapinos, Jo-Ku Teng, Anupama Shirali, Jim Ropchan, Richard E Carson, Charles S Elmore, Neil Vasdev, Yiyun Huang
The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929805/-it-feels-like-something-difficult-is-coming-back-to-haunt-me-an-exploration-of-meltdowns-associated-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-from-a-parental-perspective
#19
Indiana Montaque, Rudi Dallos, Becky McKenzie
The research explored the experience and understandings expressed by parents of children with autism concerning 'meltdowns', which are commonly described as distressing, escalating episodes of conflicts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six parents of children with a diagnosis of autism regarding their experience of 'meltdowns'. Parents were asked to track the process of the meltdowns as well as to describe their experiences. Three over-arching themes emerged which encapsulated their experience: Living in Dread: Anxiety and fear of escalating patterns, Attempting to Correct for Negative Childhood Experiences and Condemnation from the Self and Others...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#20
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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