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Forward osmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306844/exploration-of-polyelectrolyte-incorporated-with-triton-x-114-surfactant-based-osmotic-agent-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#1
Saikat Sinha Ray, Shiao Shing Chen, Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Hau Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Phuoc Dan, Bui Xuan Thanh, Le Thuy Trang
Selection of a proper osmotic agent is important to make the forward osmosis (FO) feasible. The objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse solute flux and maintaining high water flux. Poly(propylene glycol) with molecular weight of 725 Da (PPG-725) was found to possess high osmolality, making it a strong candidate for using as a draw agent. In addition, to reduce the partial leakage of draw solute, a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) has been incorporated. Typically, when the hydrophobic tails of Triton X-114 interacted with the membrane surface, a layer on the surface of membrane is produced to constrict the pores and thus minimize the reverse solute flux...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306703/trace-organic-contaminant-rejection-by-aquaporin-forward-osmosis-membrane-transport-mechanisms-and-membrane-stability
#2
Ming Xie, Wenhai Luo, Hao Guo, Long D Nghiem, Chuyang Y Tang, Stephen R Gray
We investigated transport mechanisms of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) through aquaporin thin-film composite forward osmosis (FO) membrane, and membrane stability under extreme conditions with respect to TrOC rejections. Morphology and surface chemistry of the aquaporin membrane were characterised to identify the incorporation of aquaporin vesicles into membrane active layer. Pore hindrance model was used to estimate aquaporin membrane pore size as well as to describe TrOC transport. TrOC transport mechanisms were revealed by varying concentration and type of draw solutions...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295623/superior-antifouling-capability-of-hydrogel-forward-osmosis-membrane-for-treating-wastewaters-with-high-concentration-of-organic-foulants
#3
Detao Qin, Zhaoyang Liu, Zhi Liu, Hongwei Bai, Darren Delai Sun
Wastewaters with high concentrations of organic pollutants pose a great challenge for membrane filtration due to their severe fouling propensity. In this study, a hydrogel forward osmosis (FO) membrane is explored for treating wastewaters of high concentration organic pollutants. This FO membrane has an ultrathin hydrogel selective layer, which is highly hydrophilic (water contact angle: as low as 18°) and smooth (surface roughness: <5 nm). Investigated with typical organic foulants (protein, alginate, humic acid, and oil) of high concentration (2000 ~ 20000 mg/L), this hydrogel FO membrane exhibits remarkably superior antifouling capability, with its water flux decline ratio lower than a quarter of commercial FO membrane's under identical experimental conditions...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278486/mesh-embedded-polysulfone-psu-sulfonated-polysulfone-spsu-supported-thin-film-composite-membranes-for-forward-osmosis
#4
Yuntao Zhao, Xiao Wang, Yiwei Ren, Desheng Pei
In this work, mesh-embedded polysulfone (PSU)/sulfonated polysulfone (sPSU) supported thin film composite (TFC) membranes were developed for forward osmosis (FO). The robust mesh integrated in PSU/sPSU sublayer imparts impressive mechanical durability. The blending of hydrophilic sPSU in PSU sublayer affects the hydrophilicity, porosity, pore structure and pore size of mesh-embedded PSU/sPSU substrates, and the total thickness, crosslinking degree and roughness of the corresponding TFC-FO membrane active layers...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241113/concentrating-molasses-distillery-wastewater-using-biomimetic-forward-osmosis-fo-membranes
#5
N Singh, I Petrinic, C Hélix-Nielsen, S Basu, M Balakrishnan
Treatment of sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater is challenging due to the presence of complex phenolic compounds (melanoidins and polyphenols) having antioxidant properties. Due to zero liquid discharge regulations, Indian distilleries continue to explore effective treatment options. This work examines the concentration of distillery wastewater by forward osmosis (FO) using aquaporin biomimetic membranes and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2.6H2O) as draw solution. The operational parameters viz. feed solution and draw solution flow rate and draw solution concentration were optimized using 10% v/v melanoidins model feed solution...
December 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230651/preparation-and-assessment-of-carboxylate-polyelectrolyte-as-draw-solute-for-forward-osmosis
#6
Hongtao Cui, Hanmin Zhang, Wei Jiang, Fenglin Yang
Reverse draw solute diffusion not only reduces the water flux in forward osmosis (FO), but also contaminates the feed solution and eventually increases the regeneration cost of draw solution. In the present study, a new polyelectrolyte was synthesized as FO draw solute to address this problem. Acrylic acid and sodium p-styrenesulfonate monomers with hydrophilic group were used to fabricate carboxylate polyelectrolyte through free radical polymerization reaction. Results demonstrated that the osmotic pressure of carboxylate polyelectrolyte solution had a good linear relationship with concentration, and the viscosity of 0...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210702/effects-of-tannic-acid-on-membrane-fouling-and-membrane-cleaning-in-forward-osmosis
#7
Wanzhu Zhang, Lin Wang, Bingzhi Dong
The fouling behavior during forward osmosis (FO) was investigated. Tannic acid was used as a model organic foulant for natural organic matter analysis since the main characteristics are similar, and calcium ions were added at different concentrations to explore the anti-pollution capability of FO membranes. The initial permeate flux and calcium ions strength were varied in different operating conditions to describe membrane fouling with membrane cleaning methods. The observed flux decline in FO changed dramatically with the type of foulant and the type of draw solution used to provide the osmotic driving force...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197818/application-of-volume-retarded-osmosis-and-low-pressure-membrane-hybrid-process-for-water-reclamation
#8
Sung-Ju Im, Jungwon Choi, Jung-Gil Lee, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang
A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated...
November 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#9
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115322/graphene-membranes-with-nanoslits-for-seawater-desalination-via-forward-osmosis
#10
Madhavi Dahanayaka, Bo Liu, Zhongqiao Hu, Qing-Xiang Pei, Zhong Chen, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Kun Zhou
Stacked graphene (GE) membranes with cascading nanoslits can be synthesized economically compared to monolayer nanoporous GE membranes, and have potential for molecular separation. This study focuses on investigating the seawater desalination performance of these stacked GE layers as forward osmosis (FO) membranes by using molecular dynamics simulations. The FO performance is evaluated in terms of water flux and salt rejection and is explained by analysing the water density distribution and radial distribution function...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109434/new-concept-of-pump-less-forward-osmosis-fo-and-low-pressure-membrane-lpm-process
#11
Sung-Ju Im, Jungwon Choi, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang
We tested the possibility of energy-saving water treatment methods by using a pump-less forward osmosis (FO) and low-pressure membrane (LPM) hybrid process (FO-LPM). In this pump-less FO-LPM, permeate migrates from the feed solution (FS) to the draw solution (DS) through the FO membrane by use of osmotic pressure differences. At the same time, within the closed DS tank, inner pressure increases as the DS volume increases. By using the DS tank's internal pressure, the LPM process works to re-concentrate the diluted DS, maintaining the DS concentration and producing clean water...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102697/forward-osmosis-membrane-modular-configurations-for-osmotic-dilution-of-seawater-by-forward-osmosis-and-reverse-osmosis-hybrid-system
#12
Jung Eun Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Syed Muztuza Ali, Joon Young Choi, Ho Kyong Shon
This study evaluates various options for full-scale modular configuration of forward osmosis (FO) process for osmotic dilution of seawater using wastewater for simultaneous desalination and water reuse through FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. Empirical relationship obtained from one FO membrane element operation was used to simulate the operational performances of different FO module configurations. The main limiting criteria for module operation is to always maintain the feed pressure higher than the draw pressure throughout the housing module for safe operation without affecting membrane integrity...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080563/advanced-control-synthesis-for-reverse-osmosis-water-desalination-processes
#13
Bui Duc Hong Phuc, Sam-Sang You, Hyeung-Six Choi, Seok-Kwon Jeong
  In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040861/biomimetic-aquaporin-membranes-for-osmotic-membrane-bioreactors-membrane-performance-and-contaminant-removal
#14
Wenhai Luo, Ming Xie, Xiaoye Song, Wenshan Guo, Hao H Ngo, John L Zhou, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929938/fo-md-hybrid-system-for-real-dairy-wastewater-recycling
#15
Hongwei Song, Fang Xie, Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu
This study investigated a forward osmosis and membrane distillation (FO/MD) hybrid system for real dairy wastewater (DWW) recycling. Two types of FO membranes, cellulose triacetate-embedded polyester screen support (CTA-ES) and aquaporin inside (AQP), were employed. Sodium chloride was used as the draw solution. A cross-flow FO cell and an air gap membrane distillation module were established to conduct individual FO experiments and FO/MD experiments. From the experiments, an analysis of the water flux (Jw), reverse draw solute flux (Js), Js/Jw ratio and contaminant rejection was performed...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892354/hydrophilic-and-compressible-aerogel-a-novel-draw-agent-in-forward-osmosis
#16
Mingchuan Yu, Hanmin Zhang, Fenglin Yang
Forward osmosis (FO) technology is an efficient route to obtain purity water for drinking from wastewater or seawater. However, there are some challenges in draw solution to limit its application. We first introduce a novel sodium alginate-graphene oxide (SA-GO) aerogel as draw agent for highly efficient FO process. The GO nanosheets covalently cross-linked to SA matrix to form a three-dimensional and highly porous aerogel to provide excellent water flux and operation stability, together with the property of compressibility served by SA-GO aerogel resulting in easy water production and regeneration process...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871353/study-of-polyamide-thin-film-characteristics-impact-on-permeability-selectivity-performance-and-fouling-behavior-of-forward-osmosis-membrane
#17
Masoud Rastgar, Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi
In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its huge potentials in water desalination. The thin film composite (TFC) membrane used in the FO desalination consists of a bottom support layer covered by an active layer on top. Polyamide (PA) is commonly employed as an active layer forming via interfacial polymerization between m-phenylenediamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomers. In this study, the effects that the MPD and TMC concentrations could have on the performance and anti-fouling behavior of the obtained FO membrane have been investigated...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821117/chitosan-based-thin-active-layer-membrane-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#18
Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi, Masoud Rastgar
A novel hydrophilic chitosan-based thin active layer membrane was elaborately fabricated through a facile method and its performance was studied in forward osmosis (FO) desalination process. Chitosan (CS) was interfacially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomer on the surface of sulfonated polyethersulfone-polyethersulfone (SPES-PES) support layer. Two different procedures were employed to incorporate CS into the membrane thin active layer structure. The solutions containing different CS concentrations (from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803191/enhancing-recovery-of-magnesium-as-struvite-from-landfill-leachate-by-pretreatment-of-calcium-with-simultaneous-reduction-of-liquid-volume-via-forward-osmosis
#19
Simiao Wu, Shiqiang Zou, Guannan Liang, Guangren Qian, Zhen He
Landfill leachate contains substances that can be potentially recovered as valuable resources. In this study, magnesium in a landfill leachate was recovered as struvite with calcium pretreatment; meanwhile, the leachate volume was reduced by using a submerged forward osmosis (FO) process, thereby enabling significant reduction of further treatment footprint and cost. Without pretreatment, calcium exhibited strong competition for phosphate with magnesium. The pretreatment with a Ca(2+): CO3(2-) molar ratio of 1:1...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777991/microalgae-dewatering-based-on-forward-osmosis-employing-proton-exchange-membrane
#20
Jieun Son, Mina Sung, Hoyoung Ryu, You-Kwan Oh, Jong-In Han
In this study, electrically-facilitated forward osmosis (FO) employing proton exchange membrane (PEM) was established for the purpose of microalgae dewatering. An increase in water flux was observed when an external voltage was applied to the FO equipped with the PEM; as expected, the trend became more dramatic with both concentration of draw solution and applied voltage raised. With this FO used for microalgae dewatering, 247% of increase in flux and 86% in final biomass concentration were observed. In addition to the effect on flux improvement, the electrically-facilitated FO exhibited the ability to remove chlorophyll from the dewatered biomass, down to 0...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
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