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Forward osmosis

Wanzhu Zhang, Bingzhi Dong
Natural organic matter (NOM) in micro-polluted water purification using membranes is a critical issue to handle. Understanding the fouling mechanism in the forward osmosis (FO) process, particularly identifying the predominant factor that controls membrane fouling, could have significant effects on exerting the advantages of FO technique. Cellulose triacetate no-woven (CTA-NW) membrane is applied to experiments with a high removal efficiency (> 99%) for the model foulant. Tannic acid (TA) is used as a surrogate foulant for NOM in the membrane fouling process, thus enabling the analysis of the effects of physical and chemical aspects of water flux, retention, and adsorption...
May 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak
Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability...
May 5, 2018: Water Research
Lei Zheng, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
In this study, forward osmosis (FO) membranes and fouling solutions were systematically characterized to elucidate the effects of organic fouling on the rejection of two pharmaceutically active compounds, namely, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Municipal wastewater resulted in a more severe flux decline compared to humic acid and sodium alginate fouling solutions. This result is consistent with the molecular weight distribution of these foulant solutions. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection analysis shows that municipal wastewater consists of mostly low molecular weight acids and neutrals, which produce a more compact cake layer on the membrane surface...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ce Wang, Yongmei Li, Yanqiang Wang
Effects of operating conditions were investigated in terms of water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF) and pollutant rejection in a forward osmosis (FO) membrane system treating synthetic greywater. Changing cross-flow velocity had a slight impact on the performance of the FO membrane. Elevating operating temperature was more effective than increasing draw solution concentration to enhance the water flux. Further observation on the effect of heating mode showed that when the temperature was increased from 20 to 30 o C, heating the feed solution (FS) side was better than heating the draw solution (DS) side or heating both sides; further increasing the temperature to 40 and 50 o C, heating both the FS and DS achieved much higher water flux compared with only increasing the FS or DS temperature...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Nirenkumar Pathak, Luca Fortunato, Sheng Li, Laura Chekli, Sherub Phuntsho, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
This study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor for real sewage employing baffles in the reactor. To study the biofouling development on forward osmosis membranes optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique was employed. On-line monitoring of biofilm growth on a flat sheet cellulose triacetate forward osmosis (CTA-FO) membrane was conducted for 21 days. Further, the process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, organic and nutrient removal, microbial activity in terms of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and floc size...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaoxiao Song, Lifen Liu, Bing Wu, Jiefeng Pan, Saren Qi, Chuyang Y Tang, Congjie Gao
Forward osmosis has a great potential to be applied in treating biomass containing streams. However, the reverse salt permeation and the high energy consumption in draw solutes recovery pose two main obstacles. In this work, a porous FO membrane water extraction system is proposed to overcome these shortages. Using polyelectrolytes as draw solution and a porous PAN FO membrane, the system could recover water from a biologically treated wastewater (from a pilot anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactor) with a stable flux of 7 L/m2 ...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shahzad Jamil, Sanghyun Jeong, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from wastewater reclamation plants have high concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds, which have to be removed before its disposal. Forward osmosis (FO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were tested to treat the ROC for possible water reuse. This research investigated the combined and individual influence of organic and inorganic matter on the fouling of NF and FO membranes. The results revealed that the NF membrane removed most of the organic compounds and some inorganics...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Nirenkumar Pathak, Sheng Li, Youngjin Kim, Laura Chekli, Sherub Phuntsho, Am Jang, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxicanoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100%) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94-100%) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89-96%) and atrazine (16-40%) respectively...
April 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Olivia A Attallah, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Marianne Nebsen, Rasha El-Kholy, Maissa Y Salem
Novel magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) modified with pectin coating were fabricated, characterized, and evaluated as potential draw solute in a forward osmosis (FO) process for water desalination applications. The prepared NPs had a spherical shape with an average diameter of 200 nm and saturation magnetization of 23.13 emu/g. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR spectra elucidated the successful pectin coating on magnetite surface. The potential use of the fabricated NPs in water desalination was conducted via a newly developed lab-scale FO system...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Kalafatakis, S Braekevelt, A Lymperatou, A Zarebska, C Hélix-Nielsen, L Lange, I V Skiadas, H N Gavala
Forward osmosis (FO) is a low energy-intensive process since the driving force for water transport is the osmotic pressure difference, Δπ, between the feed and draw solutions, separated by the FO membrane, where πdraw  > πfeed . The potential of FO in wastewater treatment and desalination have been extensively studied; however, regeneration of the draw solution (thereby generating clean water) requires application of an energy-intensive process step like reverse osmosis (RO). In this study, the potential of applying FO for direct water recirculation from diluted fermentation effluent to concentrated feedstock, without the need for an energy-intensive regeneration step (e...
April 24, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Se Jong Kim, Jeong Woo Lee, Sang Yong Nam
In this study, hollow fiber membranes for forward osmosis using cellulose triacetate were prepared using the non-solvent phase separation method, and the water purification properties of the prepared membranes were tested. In order to optimize the membrane morphology, which affects the membrane performance, 1,4-dioxane and lithium chloride were used as additives. Using the forward osmosis process, the properties of the membrane were investigated according to changes in the factors such as the salt type, salt concentration, and solution temperature...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yue Cui, Tai-Shung Chung
The organic solvent forward osmosis (OSFO) process can simultaneously concentrate the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and recover the organic solvents. Here we demonstrate and evaluate an OSFO process for solvent recovery. In this demonstration, OSFO was conducted in different solvents with different draw solutes. The OSFO process shows rejections >98% when recovering organic solvents from different feed solutions, even when the feed concentration is as high as 20 wt%. More importantly, all systems exhibit relatively low ratios of reverse solute flux to solvent flux, indicating that the adverse effects of using hazardous draw solutions could be minimized...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Ashley J Ansari, Faisal I Hai, William E Price, Huu H Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Long D Nghiem
This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Numan Yanar, Moon Son, Eunmok Yang, Yeji Kim, Hosik Park, Seung-Eun Nam, Heechul Choi
Recently, feed spacer research for improving the performance of a membrane module has adopted three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. This study aims to improve the performance of membrane feed spacers by using various materials and incorporating 3D printing. The samples were fabricated after modeling with 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software to investigate the mechanical strength, water flux, reverse solute flux, and fouling performances. This research was performed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP), and natural polylactic acid (PLA) as printing material, and the spacer model was produced using a diamond-shaped feed spacer, with a commercially available product as a reference...
March 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Li, Deyin Hou, Kuiling Li, Yong Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiwang Zhang
In this study, real domestic wastewater treatment by forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) integrated system was investigated in laboratory scale. The integrated membrane system presented a good separation performance and the removal efficiency of most contaminants in the domestic wastewater was higher than 90%. High molecular weight contaminants were completely removed, while a few low molecular weight contaminants permeated through the membrane. The FO membrane fouling layer mainly consisted of organic substances like polysaccharides and proteins, and was very loose and could be effectively removed by rinsing the membrane surface with tap water...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ahmad Rahimpour, S Fatemeh Seyedpour, Sadegh Aghapour Aktij, Mostafa Dadashi Firouzjaei, Alireza Zirehpour, Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi, Saeed Khoshhal Salestan, Mostafa Jabbari, Masoud Soroush
This work shows that incorporating highly-compatible polyrhodanine nanoparticles (PRh-NPs) into a polyamide (PA) active layer allows for fabricating forward osmosis (FO) thin-film composite (TFC)-PRh membranes that have simultaneously-improved anti-microbial, antifouling, and transport properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study of its kind to this date. The presence of the PRh-NPs on the surface of the TFC-PRh membrane active layers is evaluated using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and XPS...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenhai Luo, Benedicta Arhatari, Stephen R Gray, Ming Xie
We employed synchrotron infrared (IR) mapping to resolve forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling in osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR). Synchrotron IR mapping offers a unique perspective to elucidate the fouling mechanisms and associated consequences in OMBR operation. We demonstrated the spatial distribution and relative intensity of carbohydrate and protein longitudinally along of the fouled FO membrane at the conclusion of OMBR operation. Both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) modes were used to map the cross-section and surface of the fouled FO membrane...
March 8, 2018: Water Research
S Liyanaarachchi, S Muthukumaran, Joshua Kaiser, Paul Rogers, Li Shu, Ho Kyong Shon, V Jegatheesan
Diffusion coefficient of solutes through a porous membrane media is different from diffusion coefficient through a free homogenous media. Porosity, tortuosity and the thickness of the membrane significantly affect the diffusion through a specific thickness of a membrane and therefore it is termed as effective diffusion coefficient (Deff ) which is lower than the actual diffusion coefficient, D. The Deff of single or dual solutes through a porous membrane layer are well documented but not for multiple salts...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Wei Cheng, Xinglin Lu, Yi Yang, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma
Thin film composite (TFC) membranes are the gold standard for the application of forward osmosis (FO) in seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. However, bidirectional mass transport phenomena in this process still hinder its wider application. A deeper understanding of ion transport behavior in various solution conditions is critical for the fabrication of FO membrane and future development of FO process. In this work, we systematically investigated the influences of solution chemistry on ion mass transport in TFC FO membranes...
June 15, 2018: Water Research
P Kuntke, T H J A Sleutels, M Rodríguez Arredondo, S Georg, S G Barbosa, A Ter Heijne, Hubertus V M Hamelers, C J N Buisman
In recent years, (bio)electrochemical systems (B)ES have emerged as an energy efficient alternative for the recovery of TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, including ammonia and ammonium) from wastewater. In these systems, TAN is removed or concentrated from the wastewater under the influence of an electrical current and transported to the cathode. Subsequently, it can be removed or recovered through stripping, chemisorption, or forward osmosis. A crucial parameter that determines the energy required to recover TAN is the load ratio: the ratio between TAN loading and applied current...
May 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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