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Forward osmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#1
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115322/graphene-membranes-with-nanoslits-for-seawater-desalination-via-forward-osmosis
#2
Madhavi Dahanayaka, Bo Liu, Zhongqiao Hu, Qing-Xiang Pei, Zhong Chen, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Kun Zhou
Stacked graphene (GE) membranes with cascading nanoslits can be synthesized economically compared to monolayer nanoporous GE membranes, and have potential for molecular separation. This study focuses on investigating the seawater desalination performance of these stacked GE layers as forward osmosis (FO) membranes by using molecular dynamics simulations. The FO performance is evaluated in terms of water flux and salt rejection and is explained by analysing the water density distribution and radial distribution function...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109434/new-concept-of-pump-less-forward-osmosis-fo-and-low-pressure-membrane-lpm-process
#3
Sung-Ju Im, Jungwon Choi, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang
We tested the possibility of energy-saving water treatment methods by using a pump-less forward osmosis (FO) and low-pressure membrane (LPM) hybrid process (FO-LPM). In this pump-less FO-LPM, permeate migrates from the feed solution (FS) to the draw solution (DS) through the FO membrane by use of osmotic pressure differences. At the same time, within the closed DS tank, inner pressure increases as the DS volume increases. By using the DS tank's internal pressure, the LPM process works to re-concentrate the diluted DS, maintaining the DS concentration and producing clean water...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102697/forward-osmosis-membrane-modular-configurations-for-osmotic-dilution-of-seawater-by-forward-osmosis-and-reverse-osmosis-hybrid-system
#4
Jung Eun Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Syed Muztuza Ali, Joon Young Choi, Ho Kyong Shon
This study evaluates various options for full-scale modular configuration of forward osmosis (FO) process for osmotic dilution of seawater using wastewater for simultaneous desalination and water reuse through FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. Empirical relationship obtained from one FO membrane element operation was used to simulate the operational performances of different FO module configurations. The main limiting criteria for module operation is to always maintain the feed pressure higher than the draw pressure throughout the housing module for safe operation without affecting membrane integrity...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080563/advanced-control-synthesis-for-reverse-osmosis-water-desalination-processes
#5
Bui Duc Hong Phuc, Sam-Sang You, Hyeung-Six Choi, Seok-Kwon Jeong
  In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040861/biomimetic-aquaporin-membranes-for-osmotic-membrane-bioreactors-membrane-performance-and-contaminant-removal
#6
Wenhai Luo, Ming Xie, Xiaoye Song, Wenshan Guo, Hao H Ngo, John L Zhou, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929938/fo-md-hybrid-system-for-real-dairy-wastewater-recycling
#7
Hongwei Song, Fang Xie, Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu
This study investigated a forward osmosis and membrane distillation (FO/MD) hybrid system for real dairy wastewater (DWW) recycling. Two types of FO membranes, cellulose triacetate-embedded polyester screen support (CTA-ES) and aquaporin inside (AQP), were employed. Sodium chloride was used as the draw solution. A cross-flow FO cell and an air gap membrane distillation module were established to conduct individual FO experiments and FO/MD experiments. From the experiments, an analysis of the water flux (Jw), reverse draw solute flux (Js), Js/Jw ratio and contaminant rejection was performed...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892354/hydrophilic-and-compressible-aerogel-a-novel-draw-agent-in-forward-osmosis
#8
Mingchuan Yu, Hanmin Zhang, Fenglin Yang
Forward osmosis (FO) technology is an efficient route to obtain purity water for drinking from wastewater or seawater. However, there are some challenges in draw solution to limit its application. We first introduce a novel sodium alginate-graphene oxide (SA-GO) aerogel as draw agent for highly efficient FO process. The GO nanosheets covalently cross-linked to SA matrix to form a three-dimensional and highly porous aerogel to provide excellent water flux and operation stability, together with the property of compressibility served by SA-GO aerogel resulting in easy water production and regeneration process...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871353/study-of-polyamide-thin-film-characteristics-impact-on-permeability-selectivity-performance-and-fouling-behavior-of-forward-osmosis-membrane
#9
Masoud Rastgar, Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi
In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its huge potentials in water desalination. The thin film composite (TFC) membrane used in the FO desalination consists of a bottom support layer covered by an active layer on top. Polyamide (PA) is commonly employed as an active layer forming via interfacial polymerization between m-phenylenediamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomers. In this study, the effects that the MPD and TMC concentrations could have on the performance and anti-fouling behavior of the obtained FO membrane have been investigated...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821117/chitosan-based-thin-active-layer-membrane-for-forward-osmosis-desalination
#10
Alireza Shakeri, Hasan Salehi, Masoud Rastgar
A novel hydrophilic chitosan-based thin active layer membrane was elaborately fabricated through a facile method and its performance was studied in forward osmosis (FO) desalination process. Chitosan (CS) was interfacially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) monomer on the surface of sulfonated polyethersulfone-polyethersulfone (SPES-PES) support layer. Two different procedures were employed to incorporate CS into the membrane thin active layer structure. The solutions containing different CS concentrations (from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803191/enhancing-recovery-of-magnesium-as-struvite-from-landfill-leachate-by-pretreatment-of-calcium-with-simultaneous-reduction-of-liquid-volume-via-forward-osmosis
#11
Simiao Wu, Shiqiang Zou, Guannan Liang, Guangren Qian, Zhen He
Landfill leachate contains substances that can be potentially recovered as valuable resources. In this study, magnesium in a landfill leachate was recovered as struvite with calcium pretreatment; meanwhile, the leachate volume was reduced by using a submerged forward osmosis (FO) process, thereby enabling significant reduction of further treatment footprint and cost. Without pretreatment, calcium exhibited strong competition for phosphate with magnesium. The pretreatment with a Ca(2+): CO3(2-) molar ratio of 1:1...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777991/microalgae-dewatering-based-on-forward-osmosis-employing-proton-exchange-membrane
#12
Jieun Son, Mina Sung, Hoyoung Ryu, You-Kwan Oh, Jong-In Han
In this study, electrically-facilitated forward osmosis (FO) employing proton exchange membrane (PEM) was established for the purpose of microalgae dewatering. An increase in water flux was observed when an external voltage was applied to the FO equipped with the PEM; as expected, the trend became more dramatic with both concentration of draw solution and applied voltage raised. With this FO used for microalgae dewatering, 247% of increase in flux and 86% in final biomass concentration were observed. In addition to the effect on flux improvement, the electrically-facilitated FO exhibited the ability to remove chlorophyll from the dewatered biomass, down to 0...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772356/integrating-seawater-desalination-and-wastewater-reclamation-forward-osmosis-process-using-thin-film-composite-mixed-matrix-membrane-with-functionalized-carbon-nanotube-blended-polyethersulfone-support-layer
#13
Hyeon-Gyu Choi, Moon Son, Heechul Choi
Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761159/anti-fouling-double-skinned-forward-osmosis-membrane-with-zwitterionic-brush-for-oily-wastewater-treatment
#14
Chi Siang Ong, Bader Al-Anzi, Woei Jye Lau, Pei Sean Goh, Gwo Sung Lai, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Yue Seong Ong
Despite its attractive features for energy saving separation, the performance of forward osmosis (FO) has been restricted by internal concentration polarization and fast fouling propensity that occur in the membrane sublayer. These problems have significantly affected the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. In this study, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with excellent anti-fouling properties has been developed for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between a highly dense polyamide (PA) layer for salt rejection and a fairly loose dense bottom zwitterionic layer for emulsified oil particle removal...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709179/modeling-of-nanoscale-liquid-mixture-transport-by-density-functional-hydrodynamics
#15
Oleg Yu Dinariev, Nikolay V Evseev
Modeling of multiphase compositional hydrodynamics at nanoscale is performed by means of density functional hydrodynamics (DFH). DFH is the method based on density functional theory and continuum mechanics. This method has been developed by the authors over 20 years and used for modeling in various multiphase hydrodynamic applications. In this paper, DFH was further extended to encompass phenomena inherent in liquids at nanoscale. The new DFH extension is based on the introduction of external potentials for chemical components...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692923/permeability-recovery-of-fouled-forward-osmosis-membranes-by-chemical-cleaning-during-a-long-term-operation-of-anaerobic-osmotic-membrane-bioreactors-treating-low-strength-wastewater
#16
Xinhua Wang, Taozhan Hu, Zhiwei Wang, Xiufen Li, Yueping Ren
Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR)...
October 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672186/effect-of-pretreatment-and-membrane-orientation-on-fluxes-for-concentration-of-whey-with-high-foulants-by-using-nh3-co2-in-forward-osmosis
#17
M Seker, E Buyuksari, S Topcu, D S Babaoglu, D Celebi, B Keskinler, C Aydiner
Usage of forward osmosis membrane in FO mode, in which active and support layers of the membrane were in contact with the feed and the draw solutions respectively, provided higher initial water flux (12L/m(2)h) than the usage of membrane in PRO mode (6L/m(2)h) having opposite orientation but fluxes approached to each other after 4h during concentration of whey with NH3/CO2 as draw salt. High organic and inorganic foulants of whey was considered as reason for observed result in addition to lower solute resistivity...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628880/forward-osmosis-for-oily-wastewater-reclamation-multi-charged-oxalic-acid-complexes-as-draw-solutes
#18
Qingchun Ge, Gary Lee Amy, Tai-Shung Chung
Forward osmosis (FO) has demonstrated its merits in hybrid FO seawater desalination. However, FO may have a potential for other applications if suitable draw solutes are available. In this study, a series of novel draw solutes based on oxalic acid (OA)-transitional metal complexes are presented. Influential factors of FO performance have been systematically investigated by varying the transitional metals, cations of the complex draw solutes as well as the experimental conditions. Compared to NaCl and other recently synthesized draw solutes, the OA complexes show superior FO performance in terms of high water fluxes up to 27...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628868/an-overview-on-exploration-and-environmental-impact-of-unconventional-gas-sources-and-treatment-options-for-produced-water
#19
REVIEW
Tânia L S Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, Sérgio Castro-Silva, José L Figueiredo, Adrián M T Silva
Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621919/insights-on-tuning-the-nanostructure-of-rgo-laminate-membranes-for-low-pressure-osmosis-process
#20
Qiuze Wang, Cyril Aubry, Yaxin Chen, Huaihe Song, Linda Zou
In this research, rGO laminates were prepared by a controlled partial reduction step, aimed to avoid aggregation and tune the interlayer spacing (d) between the rGO layers. The mild reducing agent vitamin C (l-AA) and cross-linker poly(carboxylic acid)s were used to improve the stability of the assembled rGO laminate membranes. AFM was used for the first time to further investigate the statistical size distribution of spacing between rGO layers. Topographical images of the edges of the rGO layers were obtained with an AFM instrument; interlayer spacing profiles were extracted, and then the data was plotted and fitted with Gaussian curves...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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