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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885802/cross-immunity-of-a-h9n2-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-against-h5n2-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-chickens
#1
Mingyang Wang, Yandi Wei, Juan Pu, Guoxia Bing, Yipeng Sun, Honglei Sun, Fanhua Wei, Jinhua Liu
The most commonly utilized inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are usually deficient in cross immunity against divergent viruses. On the other hand, live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are proved to be more effective in cross-protective immunity. We previously developed a H9N2 LAIV and verified its effective protection against a broad spectrum of H9N2 strains. In the present study, we evaluated its cross-immunity against H5N2 virus, a representative subtype of currently predominant H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736841/evaluation-of-the-interaction-of-amino-acid-infusion-on-177-lu-dotatate-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#2
Alicja Puszkiel, Mathilde Bauriaud-Mallet, Roxane Bourgeois, Lawrence Dierickx, Frédéric Courbon, Etienne Chatelut
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 177 Lu-Dotatate is a radio-labeled analog of somatostatin used in the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In order to prevent nephrotoxic effects of 177 Lu-Dotatate a co-infusion of amino acids (AA) is administered, resulting in a decrease in tubular renal reabsorption of 177 Lu-Dotatate. This study aimed to quantify the impact of AA co-infusion on the pharmacokinetics of 177 Lu-Dotatate in cancer patients and to evaluate its relationship with toxicity during the first treatment cycle (C1)...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601483/invertebrate-iridoviruses-a-glance-over-the-last-decade
#3
REVIEW
İkbal Agah İnce, Orhan Özcan, Ayca Zeynep Ilter-Akulke, Erin D Scully, Arzu Özgen
Members of the family Iridoviridae (iridovirids) are large dsDNA viruses that infect both invertebrate and vertebrate ectotherms and whose symptoms range in severity from minor reductions in host fitness to systemic disease and large-scale mortality. Several characteristics have been useful for classifying iridoviruses; however, novel strains are continuously being discovered and, in many cases, reliable classification has been challenging. Further impeding classification, invertebrate iridoviruses (IIVs) can occasionally infect vertebrates; thus, host range is often not a useful criterion for classification...
March 30, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572662/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-amikacin-in-pediatric-patients-a-comprehensive-review-of-population-pharmacokinetic-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Sílvia M Illamola, Catherine M Sherwin, J G Coen van Hasselt
Amikacin plays a key role in the treatment of severe hospital-acquired infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic use of amikacin is challenged by high inter-individual variability (IIV) combined with a narrow therapeutic spectrum. Pediatric patients represent a particularly fragile population where adequate dosing is crucial yet challenging to achieve due significant IIV associated with developmental processes and other factors. The current review provides an overview of parametric population pharmacokinetic analyses of amikacin in pediatric patients and associated patient-specific determinants of IIV...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441001/early-life-stress-related-elevations-in-reaction-time-variability-are-associated-with-brain-volume-reductions-in-hiv-adults
#5
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395525/vaccine-failure-and-serologic-response-to-live-attenuated-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-in-children-during-the-2013-2014-season
#6
Jennifer P King, Huong Q McLean, Jennifer K Meece, Min Z Levine, Sarah M Spencer, Brendan Flannery, Edward A Belongia
BACKGROUND: Recent observational studies in the United States indicated live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was less effective in children against clinical influenza infection caused by A(H1N1)pdm09 relative to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). During the 2013-2014 influenza season, we conducted an observational study among children aged 5-17 years to compare serologic responses to LAIV and IIV and explore factors associated with vaccine failure. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one children received one dose of trivalent IIV or quadrivalent LAIV according to parental preference...
February 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343970/a-retrospective-examination-of-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-s-clinical-pharmacology-reviews-of-oncology-biologics-for-potential-use-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#7
Brett Fleisher, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Background: Biologics have gained traction for use in oncology, but have demonstrate clinical variability for efficacy and safety. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can benefit patients' outcomes from a biologic therapy when the latter has a defined therapeutic window. A clinically relevant therapeutic window may exist for biologics with established exposure-response (E-R) relationships for efficacy and/or safety and a documented maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Additionally, the inter-individual variability (IIV) on the clearance (CL) parameter could determine risks for patients falling outside the proposed therapeutic window...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282881/the-negative-influence-of-adiposity-extends-to-intraindividual-variability-in-cognitive-control-among-preadolescent-children
#8
Morgan R Chojnacki, Lauren B Raine, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Naiman A Khan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between adiposity and cognition by using mean accuracy, mean reaction time, and intraindividual variability (IIV) among preadolescents. METHODS: Children 7 to 9 years old (N = 233, 133 females) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a maximal oxygen consumption test to assess whole-body adiposity and aerobic fitness relative to fat-free mass (VO2 FF), respectively. Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task...
February 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194586/intraindividual-pharmacokinetic-variability-focus-on-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitors
#9
Etienne Chatelut, René Bruno, Mark J Ratain
The magnitude of interindividual pharmacokinetic variability (IIV) of a drug and the factors responsible for this variability are intensively studied before-and sometimes after-registration as crucial information in anticipating and understanding variability in toxicity and efficacy. However, there has been much less attention paid to intraindividual variability, reflecting random or systematic changes in an individual's pharmacokinetics over time. We have chosen to focus on small-molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs)...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033547/new-tablet-formulation-of-tacrolimus-with-smaller-interindividual-variability-may-become-a-better-treatment-option-than-the-conventional-capsule-formulation-in-organ-transplant-patients
#10
Yu Kyong Kim, Anhye Kim, Shin Jung Park, Howard Lee
To evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and tolerability profiles of a new tablet formulation of tacrolimus and its interindividual variability (IIV) in the systemic exposure, and to compare them with those of the conventional capsule formulation, a randomized, open-label, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study was performed in 47 healthy males. The capsule or tablet formulation of tacrolimus was orally administered, and serial blood samples were collected up to 96 hours after dosing. Whole-blood tacrolimus concentration was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886989/factors-associated-with-contralateral-deep-venous-thrombosis-after-iliocaval-venous-stenting
#11
S A Khairy, R J Neves, O Hartung, G J O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: The majority of iliac venous obstructions occur on the left side, and endovascular therapy has become the first line treatment for this condition. A left common iliac venous stent will protrude into the inferior vena cava (IVC) to some extent, thereby covering the contralateral common iliac vein (CIV) outflow. This may increase the risk of thrombosis of the contralateral iliac vein. The aim of this paper was to determine the rate of, and factors associated with, contralateral lower limb venous thrombosis after stenting, and to evaluate the results of salvage revascularisation...
December 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760609/influenza-vaccination-rates-in-children-decline-when-the-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-is-not-recommended
#12
Benjamin Fogel, Steven Hicks
BACKGROUND: In 2016 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended against using the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for the 2016-2017 influenza season. This recommendation is potentially important for vaccination rates because perceived effectiveness and ease of administration are among the primary determinants of families decisions to vaccinate their children. This investigation sought to determine whether rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when the LAIV was not recommended...
September 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651371/sleep-and-physiological-dysregulation-a-closer-look-at-sleep-intraindividual-variability
#13
Bei Bei, Teresa E Seeman, Judith E Carroll, Joshua F Wiley
Study Objectives: Variable daily sleep (ie, higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined how the IIV of sleep timing, duration, and quality is associated with physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome and allostatic load (AL) as a multisystem distal outcome. Methods: Participants are 436 adults (Mage ± standard deviation = 54...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559276/population-pharmacokinetic-model-linking-plasma-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-its-metabolite-8-hydroxy-efavirenz-in-hiv-patients
#14
Abiy Habtewold, Eleni Aklillu, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Leif Bertilsson, Jürgen Burhenne, Joel S Owen
The objectives of this study were to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of efavirenz (EFV) and 8-hydroxy-efavirenz (8OHEFV) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to explore covariates affecting the PK parameters. Fifty-one patients had steady-state 0-to-24-h concentrations of EFV and 8OHEFV in plasma with corresponding concentrations in PBMCs, while 261 patients had one or two sparse concentrations at 16 ± 1 h postdose at weeks 4 and/or 16. The pharmacogenetic markers CYP2B6*6 , CYP3A5*3 , CYP3A5*6 , UGT2B7*2 , ABCB1 (3435C→T, 3842A→G), OATP1B1*1B , and OATP1B1*5 , the presence of a rifampin-based antituberculosis (anti-TB) regimen, baseline body weight and organ function values, and demographic factors were explored as covariates...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462758/a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-associations-between-reaction-time-intraindividual-variability-and-age-related-cognitive-decline-or-impairment-dementia-and-mortality
#15
REVIEW
Becky I Haynes, Sarah Bauermeister, David Bunce
OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time refers to the trial-to-trial fluctuations in responding across a given cognitive task. Cross-sectional research suggests that IIV increases with normal and neuropathological ageing and it may serve as a marker of neurobiological integrity. This raises the possibility that IIV may also predict future cognitive decline and, indeed, neuropathology. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to address these issues. METHODS: A search of electronic databases Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was completed on May 17, 2016 that identified longitudinal investigations of IIV in middle-aged or older adults...
May 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052734/motor-timing-intraindividual-variability-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-cognitively-intact-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Christina D Kay, Michael Seidenberg, Sally Durgerian, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith, John L Woodard, Stephen M Rao
INTRODUCTION: Intraindividual variability (IIV) in motor performance has been shown to predict future cognitive decline. The apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele is also a well-established risk factor for memory decline. Here, we present novel findings examining the influence of the APOE-ε4 allele on the performance of asymptomatic healthy elders in comparison to individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI) on a fine motor synchronization, paced finger-tapping task (PFTT). METHOD: Two Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk groups, individuals with aMCI (n = 24) and cognitively intact APOE-ε4 carriers (n = 41), and a control group consisting of cognitively intact APOE-ε4 noncarriers (n = 65) completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the PFTT, which requires index finger tapping in synchrony with a visual stimulus (interstimulus interval = 333 ms)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799217/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacogenetics-analysis-of-rilpivirine-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#17
Manel Aouri, Catalina Barcelo, Monia Guidi, Margalida Rotger, Matthias Cavassini, Cédric Hizrel, Thierry Buclin, Laurent A Decosterd, Chantal Csajka
Rilpivirine (RPV), the latest nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor active against HIV-1, is prescribed in a standard dosage of 25 mg once a day in combination with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The aim of this observational study was to characterize the RPV pharmacokinetic profile, to quantify interpatient variability, and to identify potential factors that could influence drug exposure. RPV concentration data were collected from HIV-infected patients as part of routine therapeutic drug monitoring performed in our center (Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology)...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750071/canine-influenza-viruses-with-modified-ns1-proteins-for-the-development-of-live-attenuated-vaccines
#18
Aitor Nogales, Kai Huang, Caroline Chauché, Marta L DeDiego, Pablo R Murcia, Colin R Parrish, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) H3N8 is the causative agent of canine influenza, a common and contagious respiratory disease of dogs. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIV H3N8. However, live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are known to provide better immunogenicity and protection efficacy than IIVs. Influenza NS1 is a virulence factor that offers an attractive target for the preparation of attenuated viruses as LAIVs. Here we generated recombinant H3N8 CIVs containing truncated or a deleted NS1 protein to test their potential as LAIVs...
January 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571779/assessment-of-the-regulatory-methods-for-the-comparison-of-highly-variable-dissolution-profiles
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Victor Mangas-Sanjuan, Sarin Colon-Useche, Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marival Bermejo, Alfredo Garcia-Arieta
The objective is to compare the performance of dissolution-profile comparison methods when f 2 is inadequate due to high variability. The 90% confidence region of the Mahalanobis distance and the 90% bootstrap confidence interval (CI) of the f 2 similarity factor (f 2-bootstrap) were explored. A modification of the Mahalanobis distance (new D-Mahalanobis) in which those points >85% were not taken into account for calculation was also used. A population kinetic approach in NONMEM was used to simulate dissolution profiles with the first-order or Weibull kinetic models...
November 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558294/neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-antigenically-drifted-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-among-children-and-adolescents-following-2014-2015-inactivated-and-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccination
#20
Min Z Levine, Judith M Martin, F Liaini Gross, Stacie Jefferson, Kelly Stefano Cole, Crystal Ann Archibald, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael Susick, Krissy Moehling, Sarah Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman
Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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