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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531853/methane-production-in-an-anaerobic-osmotic-membrane-bioreactor-using-forward-osmosis-effect-of-reverse-salt-flux
#1
Sheng Li, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Laura Chekli, Ho Kyong Shon, TorOve Leiknes, Noreddine Ghaffour
This study investigated the impact of reverse salt flux (RSF) on microbe community and bio-methane production in a simulated fertilizer driven FO-AnMBR system using KCl, KNO3 and KH2PO4 as draw solutes. Results showed that KH2PO4 exhibited the lowest RSF in terms of molar concentration 19.1mM/(m(2).h), while for KCl and KNO3 it was 32.2 and 120.8mM/(m(2).h), respectively. Interestingly, bio-methane production displayed an opposite order with KH2PO4, followed by KCl and KNO3. Pyrosequencing results revealed the presence of different bacterial communities among the tested fertilizers...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528964/inhibitory-interneurons-and-their-circuit-motifs-in-the-many-layers-of-the-barrel-cortex
#2
Dirk Feldmeyer, Guanxiao Qi, Vishalini Emmenegger, Jochen F Staiger
Recent years have seen substantial progress in studying the structural and function properties of GABAergic interneurons and their roles in the neuronal networks of barrel cortex. Although GABAergic interneurons represent only about 12% of the total number of neocortical neurons, they are extremely diverse with respect to their structural and functional properties. It has become clear that barrel cortex interneurons not only serve the maintenance of an appropriate excitation/inhibition balance but also are directly involved in sensory processing...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528503/a-flux-enhancing-forward-osmosis-nanofiltration-integrated-treatment-system-for-the-tannery-wastewater-reclamation
#3
Parimal Pal, Sankha Chakrabortty, Jayato Nayak, Suman Senapati
Effective treatment of tannery wastewater prior to discharge to the environment as per environmental regulations remains a big challenge despite efforts to bring down the concentrations of the pollutants which are often quite high as measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (7800 mg/L), total dissolved solids (5400 mg/L), chloride (4260 mg/L), sulphides (250 mg/L) and chromium. A pilot-scale forward osmosis and nanofiltration integrated closed loop system was developed for continuous reclamation of clean water from tannery wastewater at a rate of 52-55 L/m(2)/h at 1...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527139/exploration-of-an-innovative-draw-solution-for-a-forward-osmosis-membrane-distillation-desalination-process
#4
Nguyen Cong Nguyen, Shiao-Shing Chen, Shubham Jain, Hau Thi Nguyen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Ngoc Tuan Lam, Hung Cong Duong
Forward osmosis (FO) has emerged as a viable technology to alleviate the global water crisis. The greatest challenge facing the application of FO technology is the lack of an ideal draw solution with high water flux and low reverse salt flux. Hence, the objective of this study was to enhance FO by lowering reverse salt flux and maintaining high water flux; the method involved adding small concentrations of Al2(SO4)3 to a MgCl2 draw solution. Results showed that 0.5 M MgCl2 mixed with 0.05 M of Al2(SO4)3 at pH 6...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516841/us3-and-us9-proteins-contribute-to-the-stromal-invasion-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-in-the-respiratory-mucosa
#5
Jing Zhao, Katrien C K Poelaert, Lennert Steukers, Herman W Favoreel, Yewei Li, Shafiqul I Chowdhury, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Brigitte Caij, Hans J Nauwynck
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection may lead to conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract problems, pneumonia, genital disorders and abortion. BHV-1 is able to spread quickly in a plaque-wise manner and invade by breaching the basement membrane (BM) barrier in the respiratory mucosa. BHV-1 Us3, a serine/threonine kinase, induces a dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization and BHV-1 Us9, a tail-anchored membrane protein, is required for axonal transport of viruses in neurons. In this study, we investigated the role of Us3 and Us9 during BHV-1 infection in the respiratory mucosa...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514493/the-narrow-road-to-the-deep-past
#6
Jack W Szostak
The sequence of events that gave rise to the first life on our planet took place in the Earth's deep past, seemingly forever beyond our reach. Perhaps for that very reason the idea of reconstructing our ancient story is tantalizing, almost irresistible. Understanding the processes that led to synthesis of the chemical building blocks of biology and the ways in which these molecules self-assembled into cells that could grow, divide and evolve, nurtured by a rich and complex environment, seems at times insurmountably difficult...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507137/arabidopsis-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-protein-llg1-associates-with-and-modulates-fls2-to-regulate-innate-immunity
#7
Qiujing Shen, Gildas Bourdais, Huairong Pan, Silke Robatzek, Dingzhong Tang
Plants detect and respond to pathogen invasion with membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate downstream immune responses. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana LORELEI-LIKE GPI-ANCHORED PROTEIN 1 (LLG1), a coreceptor of the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, regulates PRR signaling. In a forward genetic screen for suppressors of enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1), we identified the point mutation llg1-3, which suppresses edr1 disease resistance but does not affect plant growth and development...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502201/prediction-of-chorioamnionitis-in-cases-of-intraamniotic-infection-by-ureaplasma-urealyticum-in-women-with-very-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-or-preterm-labour
#8
Rocio Revello, María José Alcaide, Daniel Abehsera, María Martin-Camean, Mafalda Sousa E Faro Gomes, Bárbara Alonso-Luque, Jose L Bartha
OBJECTIVES: First, to determinate the frequency of chorioamnionitis and funisitis in cases of intramniotic detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum. And second, to assess the predictive capability of some biological markers in the amniotic fluid of these women to predict histological inflammation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 20 cases of women with premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour (PROM) or preterm labour and intraamniotic detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501672/combining-reactive-triblock-copolymers-with-functional-cross-linkers-a-versatile-pathway-to-disulfide-stabilized-polyplex-libraries-and-their-application-as-pdna-vaccines
#9
Philipp Heller, Dominika Hobernik, Ulrich Lächelt, Meike Schinnerer, Benjamin Weber, Manfred Schmidt, Ernst Wagner, Matthias Bros, Matthias Barz
Therapeutic nucleic acids such as pDNA hold great promise for the treatment of multiple diseases. These therapeutic interventions are, however, compromised by the lack of efficient and safe non-viral delivery systems, which guarantee stability during blood circulation together with high transfection efficiency. To provide these desired properties within one system, we propose the use of reactive triblock copolypept(o)ides, which include a stealth-like block for efficient shielding, a hydrophobic block based on reactive disulfides for cross-linking and a cationic block for complexation of pDNA...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499580/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channels-as-molecular-targets-in-lung-toxicology-and-associated-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Dietrich, Dirk Steinritz, Thomas Gudermann
The lungs as the gateways of our body to the external environment are essential for gas exchange. They are also exposed to toxicants from two sides, the airways and the vasculature. Apart from naturally produced toxic agents, millions of human made chemicals were produced since the beginning of the industrial revolution whose toxicity still needs to be determined. While the knowledge about toxic substances is increasing only slowly, a paradigm shift regarding the proposed mechanisms of toxicity at the plasma membrane emerged...
April 26, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485711/mctp-is-an-er-resident-calcium-sensor-that-stabilizes-synaptic-transmission-and-homeostatic-plasticity
#11
Özgür Genç, Dion Kai Dickman, Wenpei Ma, Amy Tong, Richard D Fetter, Graeme W Davis
Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) controls synaptic transmission in organisms from Drosophila to human and is hypothesized to be relevant to the cause of human disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PHP are just emerging and direct disease associations remain obscure. In a forward genetic screen for mutations that block PHP we identified mctp (Multiple C2 Domain Proteins with Two Transmembrane Regions). Here we show that MCTP localizes to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that elaborate throughout the soma, dendrites, axon and presynaptic terminal...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475313/signal-sensing-and-transduction-by-histidine-kinases-as-unveiled-through-studies-on-a-temperature-sensor
#12
Luciano A Abriata, Daniela Albanesi, Matteo Dal Peraro, Diego de Mendoza
Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory proteins of two-component systems, responsible for a large fraction of bacterial responses to stimuli and environmental changes. Prototypical HKs are membrane-bound proteins that phosphorylate cognate response regulator proteins in the cytoplasm upon signal detection in the membrane or periplasm. HKs stand as potential drug targets but also constitute fascinating systems for studying proteins at work, specifically regarding the chemistry and mechanics of signal detection, transduction through the membrane, and regulation of catalytic outputs...
May 5, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475297/systems-biology-of-cellular-membranes-a-convergence-with-biophysics
#13
REVIEW
Morgan Chabanon, Jeanne C Stachowiak, Padmini Rangamani
Systems biology and systems medicine have played an important role in the last two decades in shaping our understanding of biological processes. While systems biology is synonymous with network maps and '-omics' approaches, it is not often associated with mechanical processes. Here, we make the case for considering the mechanical and geometrical aspects of biological membranes as a key step in pushing the frontiers of systems biology of cellular membranes forward. We begin by introducing the basic components of cellular membranes, and highlight their dynamical aspects...
May 5, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472790/triggering-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-perifosine
#14
Jasmin Egler, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The alkylphospholipid perifosine is used for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective by triggering suicidal tumor cell death or apoptosis. Side effects of perifosine include anemia. At least in theory, perifosine-induced anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis are cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms participating in the orchestration of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, increase of ceramide abundance, as well as activation of staurosporine sensitive protein kinase C and/or of SB203580 sensitive p38 kinase...
May 4, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463842/inhibition-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-reversine
#15
Mohamed Jemaà, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The A3 adenosine receptor antagonist reversine (2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-6-cyclohexylaminopurine) influences cellular differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell-cycle arrest, triggers apoptosis, causes cell swelling with polyploidy and stimulates autophagy. The effect on apoptosis involves mitochondria and caspases. Erythrocytes are lacking mitochondria but express caspases and are, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, able to enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis...
April 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439275/arabidopsis-ala1-and-ala2-mediate-rnai-based-antiviral-immunity
#16
Biyun Zhu, Hua Gao, Gang Xu, Dewei Wu, Susheng Song, Hongshan Jiang, Shuifang Zhu, Tiancong Qi, Daoxin Xie
RNA intereferencing (RNAi) pathway regulates antiviral immunity and mediates plant growth and development. Despite considerable research efforts, a few components in RNAi pathway have been revealed, including ARGONAUTEs (AGOs), DICER-LIKEs (DCLs), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and 6 (RDR1/6), and ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 (AMP1). In this study, we performed a forward genetic screening for enhancers of rdr6 via inoculation of CMV2aTΔ2b, a 2b-deficient Cucumber Mosaic Virus that is unable to suppress RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439041/cues-from-the-membrane-bacterial-glycerophospholipids
#17
Zachary D Dalebroux
In this issue of Journal of Bacteriology, Rowlett et al. unveil new Escherichia coli circuitry linking membrane glycerophospholipid (GPL) homeostasis to bacterial stress response and adaptation mechanisms. Glycerophospholipids comprise critical components of the dual-membrane envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and participate in many processes. The new evidence suggests that in some instances distinct E. coli GPL molecules function for distinct biochemistry, and bacteria sense perturbations in membrane GPL concentrations to coordinate survival strategies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436504/designing-co2-resistant-oxygen-selective-mixed-ionic-electronic-conducting-membranes-guidelines-recent-advances-and-forward-directions
#18
REVIEW
Chi Zhang, Jaka Sunarso, Shaomin Liu
CO2 resistance is an enabling property for the wide-scale implementation of oxygen-selective mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes in clean energy technologies, i.e., oxyfuel combustion, clean coal energy delivery, and catalytic membrane reactors for greener chemical synthesis. The significant rise in the number of studies over the past decade and the major progress in CO2-resistant MIEC materials warrant systematic guidelines on this topic. To this end, this review features the pertaining aspects in addition to the recent status and advances of the two most promising membrane materials, perovskite and fluorite-based dual-phase materials...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414439/mitigation-of-thin-film-composite-membrane-biofouling-via-immobilizing-nano-sized-biocidal-reservoirs-in-the-membrane-active-layer
#19
Alireza Zirehpour, Ahmad Rahimpour, Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi, Mohammad Sharifian Gh, Masoud Soroush
This work investigates the use of a silver-based metal-organic framework (MOF) for mitigating biofouling in forward-osmosis thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. This is the first study of the use of MOFs for biofouling control in membranes. MOF nanocrystals were immobilized in the active layer of the membranes via dispersion in the organic solution used for interfacial polymerization. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization results showed the presence of the MOF nanocrystals in the active layer of the membranes...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412549/enhancing-boron-rejection-in-fo-using-alkaline-draw-solutions
#20
Yi-Ning Wang, Weiyi Li, Rong Wang, Chuyang Y Tang
This study provides a novel method to enhance boron removal in a forward osmosis (FO) process. It utilizes the reverse solute diffusion (RSD) of ions from alkaline draw solutions (DSs) and the concentration polarization of the hydroxyl ions to create a highly alkaline environment near the membrane active surface. The results show that boron rejection can be significantly enhanced by increasing the pH of NaCl DS to 12.5 in the active-layer-facing-feed-solution (AL-FS) orientation. The effect of RSD enhanced boron rejection was further promoted in the presence of concentration polarization (e...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
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