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Forward membrane

Ernst R Werner, Markus A Keller, Sabrina Sailer, Daniele Seppi, Georg Golderer, Gabriele Werner-Felmayer, Raphael A Zoeller, Katrin Watschinger
Plasmanylethanolamine desaturase (E.C. introduces the 1-prime double bond into plasmalogens, one of the most abundant phospholipids in the human body. This labile membrane enzyme has not been purified and its coding sequence is unknown. Previous assays for this enzyme used radiolabeled substrates followed by multistep processing. We describe here a straight-forward method for the quantification of plasmanylethanolamine desaturase in enzyme incubation mixtures using pyrene-labeled substrates and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Wen Dun, Peter Danilo, Peter J Mohler, Penelope A Boyden
Cardiac Na+ channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 cytoskeletal- and endosomal-based membrane trafficking and function are linked to tubulin, microtubular (MT) networks, and Eps15 homology domain containing proteins like EHD4. AIM: Our objective is to understand the relation of tubulin and EHD4 to Nav 1.5 channel protein remodeling observed in border zone cells (IZs) when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 3-h, 48-h and 5-day post coronary occlusion...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
David Macku, Pavel Hedvicak, John Quinn, Vladimir Bencko
Due to the hybrid warfare currently experienced by multiple NATO coalition and NATO partner nations, the tactical combat casualty care (TCCC) paradigm is greatly challenged. One of the major challenges to TCCC is the ad hoc extension phase in resource-poor environments, referred to as prolonged field care (PFC) and forward resuscitative care (FRC). The nuanced clinical skills with limited resources required by warfighters and auxiliary health care professionals to mitigate death on the battlefield and prevent morbidity and mortality in the PFC phase represent a balance that is still under review...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Masafumi Taniwaki, Mihoko Yoshida, Yosuke Matsumoto, Kazuho Shimura, Junya Kuroda, Hiroto Kaneko
Elotuzumab, targeting signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family 7 (SLAMF7), has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) based on the findings of the phase III randomized trial ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797). Four-year follow-up analyses of ELOQUENT-2 have demonstrated that progression-free survival was 21% in ELd versus 14% in Ld. Elotuzumab binds a unique epitope on the membrane IgC2 domain of SLAMF7, exhibiting a dual mechanism of action: natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and enhancement of NK cell activity...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
S Liyanaarachchi, S Muthukumaran, Joshua Kaiser, Paul Rogers, Li Shu, Ho Kyong Shon, V Jegatheesan
Diffusion coefficient of solutes through a porous membrane media is different from diffusion coefficient through a free homogenous media. Porosity, tortuosity and the thickness of the membrane significantly affect the diffusion through a specific thickness of a membrane and therefore it is termed as effective diffusion coefficient (Deff ) which is lower than the actual diffusion coefficient, D. The Deff of single or dual solutes through a porous membrane layer are well documented but not for multiple salts...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Wei Cheng, Xinglin Lu, Yi Yang, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma
Thin film composite (TFC) membranes are the gold standard for the application of forward osmosis (FO) in seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. However, bidirectional mass transport phenomena in this process still hinder its wider application. A deeper understanding of ion transport behavior in various solution conditions is critical for the fabrication of FO membrane and future development of FO process. In this work, we systematically investigated the influences of solution chemistry on ion mass transport in TFC FO membranes...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Tingting Zhang, Rihui Li, Thomas Potter, Jin Keun Seo, Guanglin Li, Yingchun Zhang
Electrical properties of human tissues are usually linked with structure of thin insulating membranes and thereby reflect physiological function of the tissues or organs. It is clinically important to characterize electrical properties of tissues in vivo. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed medical imaging technique which has been exploited to characterize electrical properties (conductivity and permittivity) of human tissues by injecting currents and measuring the resulting voltages at boundary electrodes...
March 8, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Sandra Stefanovic-Barrett, Anna S Dickson, Stephen P Burr, James C Williamson, Ian T Lobb, Dick Jh van den Boomen, Paul J Lehner, James A Nathan
Misfolded or damaged proteins are typically targeted for destruction by proteasome-mediated degradation, but the mammalian ubiquitin machinery involved is incompletely understood. Here, using forward genetic screens in human cells, we find that the proteasome-mediated degradation of the soluble misfolded reporter, mCherry-CL1, involves two ER-resident E3 ligases, MARCH6 and TRC8. mCherry-CL1 degradation is routed via the ER membrane and dependent on the hydrophobicity of the substrate, with complete stabilisation only observed in double knockout MARCH6/TRC8 cells...
March 8, 2018: EMBO Reports
Daniela Ponce-Balbuena, Guadalupe Guerrero-Serna, Carmen R Valdivia, Ricardo Caballero, F J Díez-Guerra, Eric N Jiménez-Vázquez, Rafael J Ramirez, Andre Monteiro da Rocha, Todd J Herron, Katherine F Campbell, B C Willis, Francisco J Alvarado, Manuel Zarzoso, Kuljeet Kaur, Marta Pérez-Hernández, Marcos Matamoros, Héctor H Valdivia, Eva Delpón, José Jalife
<u>Rationale:</u> In cardiomyocytes, NaV 1.5 and Kir2.1 channels interact dynamically as part of membrane bound macromolecular complexes. <u>Objective:</u> To test whether NaV 1.5 and Kir2.1 preassemble during early forward trafficking and travel together to common membrane microdomains. <u>Methods and Results:</u> In patch-clamp experiments, co-expression of trafficking deficient mutants Kir2.1Δ314-315 or Kir2.1R44A/R46A with wildtype (WT) NaV 1.5WT in heterologous cells reduced INa , compared to NaV 1...
March 7, 2018: Circulation Research
Yang Ji, Yuan Lu, Yishu Yan, Xinxin Liu, Nan Su, Chong Zhang, Shengli Bi, Xin-Hui Xing
The Ebola hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus is an extremely dangerous disease, and effective therapeutic agents are still lacking. Platforms for the efficient production of vaccines are crucial to ensure quick response against an Ebola virus outbreak. Ebolavirus glycoprotein (EbolaGP) on the virion surface is responsible for membrane binding and virus entry, thus becoming the key target for vaccine development. However, heterologous expression of this protein still faces engineering challenges such as low production levels and insoluble aggregation...
March 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Xiaoye Song, Ming Xie, Yun Li, Guoxue Li, Wenhai Luo
Osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), which integrates forward osmosis (FO) with biological treatment, has been developed to advance wastewater treatment and reuse. OMBR is superior to conventional MBR, particularly in terms of higher effluent quality, lower membrane fouling propensity, and higher membrane fouling reversibility. Nevertheless, advancement and future deployment of OMBR are hindered by salinity build-up in the bioreactor (e.g., up to 50 mS/cm indicated by the mixed liquor conductivity), due to high salt rejection of the FO membrane and reverse diffusion of the draw solution...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hang Cao, Anja T Umbach, Rosi Bissinger, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anaplastic lymphoma (tyrosine) kinase (ALK) inhibitor ceritinib triggers apoptosis of tumor cells and eryptosis of erythrocytes. Blood platelets may similarly enter a state resembling apoptosis, which could be triggered by activation with collagen related peptide (CRP). CRP-induced platelet apoptosis is characterized by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure to the platelet surface and cell shrinkage, preceded by externalization of Ca2+ channel Orai1, increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase activation...
February 23, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Qingchun Ge, Cher Hon Lau, Minghua Liu
The potential of forward osmosis for water treatment can only be maximized with suitable draw solutes. Here a three-dimensional, multi-charge draw solute of decasodium phytate (Na10-phytate) is designed and synthesized for removing organic arsenicals from water using a hybrid forward osmosis (FO) - membrane distillation (MD) process. Efficient water recovery is achieved using Na10-phytate as a draw solute with a water flux of 20.0 LMH and negligible reverse solute diffusion when 1000 ppm organic arsenicals as the feed and operated under ambient conditions with FO mode...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Seungho Kook, Chivukula D Swetha, Jangho Lee, Chulmin Lee, Tony Fane, In S Kim
Forward osmosis (FO) membranes fall into the category of nonporous membranes, based on the assumption that water and solute transport occur solely based on diffusion. The solution-diffusion (S-D) model has been widely used in predicting their performances in the coexistence of hydraulic and osmotic driving forces, a model that postulates the hydraulic and osmotic driving forces have identical nature. It was suggested, however, such membranes may have pores and mass transport could occur both by convection (i...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuliya Salanenka, Inge Verstraeten, Christian Löfke, Kaori Tabata, Satoshi Naramoto, Matouš Glanc, Jiří Friml
The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) is a crucial regulator of growth and development. The main paradigm of GA signaling puts forward transcriptional regulation via the degradation of DELLA transcriptional repressors. GA has also been shown to regulate tropic responses by modulation of the plasma membrane incidence of PIN auxin transporters by an unclear mechanism. Here we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which GA redirects protein trafficking and thus regulates cell surface functionality...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Terrens N V Saaki, Henrik Strahl, Leendert W Hamoen
Chemoreceptors are localized at the cell poles of Escherichia coli and other rod-shaped bacteria. Over the years different mechanisms have been put forward to explain this polar localization; from stochastic clustering, membrane curvature driven localization, interactions with the Tol-Pal complex, to nucleoid exclusion. To evaluate these mechanisms, we monitored the cellular localization of the aspartate chemoreceptor Tar in different deletion mutants. We did not find any indication for either stochastic cluster formation or nucleoid exclusion...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Jeremy W Cannon, Phillip E Mason, Andriy I Batchinsky
Advanced extracorporeal therapies have been successfully applied in the austere environment of combat casualty care over the previous decade. In this review, we describe the historic underpinnings of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), review the recent experience with both partial and full lung support during combat operations, and critically assess both the current status of the Department of Defense ECMO program and the way forward to establish long-range lung rescue therapy as a routine capability for combat casualty care...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos Campos, Michelle Franz-Montan, Eneida de Paula, Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva, Cíntia Rodrigues Maruyama, Tatiane Pasquoto Stigliani, Renata de Lima, Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work describes the development of poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules (PCL-NC) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) aiming delivery for articaine (ATC), in order to improve its chemical stability in semi-solid preparations looking forward their use for skin delivery. The nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, and pH. Cellular viability was evaluated using the MTT test and the in vitro release kinetics was determined using a two-compartment model. The hydrogels with nanoparticle suspensions were characterized considering their rheological aspects and in vitro permeation across artificial membranes...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Arkajo Majumdar, Rup Kumar Kar
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O2˙-, respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H+-ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H+-ATPase inhibitor)...
February 12, 2018: Protoplasma
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