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Forward membrane

Alan D Stern, Adeeb H Rahman, Marc R Birtwistle
Mass cytometry offers the advantage of allowing the simultaneous measurement of a greater number parameters than conventional flow cytometry. However, to date, mass cytometry has lacked a reliable alternative to the light scatter properties that are commonly used as a cell size metric in flow cytometry (forward scatter intensity-FSC). Here, we report the development of two plasma membrane staining assays to evaluate mammalian cell size in mass cytometry experiments. One is based on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining and the other on Osmium tetroxide (OsO4 ) staining, both of which have preferential affinity for cell membranes...
October 21, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
A G Dimitrov
The membrane transporters (pumps and co-transporters) are the main players in maintaining the cell homeostasis. Models of various types, each with their own drawbacks, describe transporter behavior. The aim of this study is to find the link between the biophysically based and empirical models to face and solve their specific problems. Instead of decreasing the number of states and using few complex rate constants as is usually done, we use the number of states as great as possible. Then, each transition in the cycle can represent an elementary process and we can apply the mass action law, according to which if rate constants depend on concentrations the dependence is linear...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Peng Sang, Yan Shi, Peng Teng, Annie Cao, Hai Xu, Qi Li, Jianfeng Cai
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public concerns in the 21st century. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) can potentially mitigate the problem through the disruption of bacterial membranes; however, they suffer from moderate activity and low stability. We recently developed a new class of peptidomimetics termed "AApeptides". This class of peptidomimetics can mimic the mechanism of action of HDPs, and effectively arrest the growth of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As they are built on unnatural backbone, they are highly resistant to proteolytic degradation...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Prashant Praveen, Jonathan Yun Ping Heng, Kai-Chee Loh
Discharge of wastewater with high nitrogen and phosphorus content is a major cause of eutrophication. In this study, a microfiltration-based membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) and forward osmosis-based osmotic membrane photobioreactor (OMPBR) have been operated with Chlorella vulgaris for continuous tertiary wastewater treatment. Both the bioreactors exhibited good biomass accumulation (over 2g/L), although the OMPBR achieved better nutrients removal due to high rejection properties of the membranes. At 2days HRT, the OMPBR achieved nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 86-99% and 100%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values in the MPBR were 48-97% and 46%, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Pontus Nordenfelt, Hunter L Elliott, Timothy A Springer
For a cell to move forward it must convert chemical energy into mechanical propulsion. Force produced by actin polymerization can generate traction across the plasma membrane by transmission through integrins to their ligands. However, the role this force plays in integrin activation is unknown. Here we show that integrin activity and cytoskeletal dynamics are reciprocally linked, where actin-dependent force itself appears to regulate integrin activity. We generated fluorescent tension-sensing constructs of integrin αLβ2 (LFA-1) to visualize intramolecular tension during cell migration...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Mengke Xing, Marshall C Peterman, Robert L Davis, Karen Oegema, Andrew K Shiau, Seth J Field
The mechanism of directional cell migration remains an important problem with relevance to cancer invasion and metastasis. GOLPH3 is a common oncogenic driver of human cancers, and is the first oncogene that functions at the Golgi in trafficking to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of GOLPH3 is reported to drive enhanced cell migration. Here we show that the PtdIns(4)P/GOLPH3/MYO18A/F-actin pathway that is critical for Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking is necessary and limiting for directional cell migration...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Sukanya Lodh, Junji Yano, Megan S Valentine, Judith L Van Houten
Paramecium cells swim by beating their cilia, and make turns by transiently reversing their power stroke. Reversal is caused by Ca(2+) entering the cilium through voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels that are found exclusively in the cilia. As ciliary Ca(2+) levels return to normal, the cell pivots and swims forward in a new direction. Thus, the activation of the CaV channels causes cells to make a turn in their swimming paths. For 45 years, the physiological characteristics of the Paramecium ciliary CaV channels have been known, but the proteins were not identified until recently, when the P...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mark C Gillies, Vuong Nguyen, Vincent Daien, Jennifer J Arnold, Nigel Morlet, Daniel Barthelmes
PURPOSE: To directly compare visual acuity (VA) outcomes with ranibizumab vs. aflibercept for eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Database observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-naïve eyes with nAMD tracked by the Fight Retinal Blindness outcome registry that commenced anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy with ranibizumab or aflibercept between December 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmology
M Eslami, H Ghasemiyan, E Zadeh Hashem
The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the protective effects of palmitoleate on the quality of ram semen during low temperature liquid storage. Ejaculates were collected using the artificial vagina from four Qezel rams twice a week. Ejaculates were pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender without palmitoleate (control) or supplemented with 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) mM palmitoleate at a final concentration of 500 × 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. Total motility and forward progressive motility (FPM) as well as other spermatozoa kinematics were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis...
October 4, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Szilárd S Bucs, Rodrigo Valladares Linares, Johannes S Vrouwenvelder, Cristian Picioreanu
This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Kerrie A Morrison, Aneel Akram, Ashlyn Mathews, Zoeya A Khan, Jaimin H Patel, Chumin Zhou, David John Hardy, Charles Moore-Kelly, Roshani Patel, Victor Odiba, Tim Knowles, Masood-Ul-Hassan Javed, Nikola P Chmel, Timothy R Dafforn, Alice Jane Rothnie
The use of styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymers to extract and purify transmembrane proteins, whilst retaining their native bilayer environment, overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with conventional detergent based procedures. This approach has huge potential for the future of membrane protein structural and functional studies. In this investigation we have systematically tested a range of commercially available SMA polymers, varying in both the ratio of styrene to maleic acid and in total size, for the ability to extract, purify and stabilise transmembrane proteins...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Ali Afshar-Oromieh, John W Babich, Clemens Kratochwil, Frederik L Giesel, Michael Eisenhut, Klaus Kopka, Uwe Haberkorn
The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has received increased consideration during the past few years as an excellent target for both imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. After many years of outstanding preclinical research, the first significant step forward in clinical use was achieved in 2008 with the first human experience with the small-molecule PSMA inhibitors (123)I-MIP-1972 and (123)I-MIP-1095. A clinical breakthrough followed in 2011 with (68)Ga-PSMA-11 for PET imaging and (131)I-MIP-1095 for endoradiotherapy of metastatic prostate cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Mohan Qin, Ibrahim M Abu-Reesh, Zhen He
Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) take advantages of synergy between forward osmosis (FO) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to accomplish wastewater treatment, current generation, and high-quality water extraction. As an FO based technology, OsMFCs also encounter reverse salt flux (RSF) that is the backward transport of salt ions across the FO membrane into the treated wastewater. This RSF can reduce water flux, contaminate the treated wastewater, and increase the operational expense, and thus must be properly addressed before any possible applications...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Elizabeth A Calle, Ryan C Hill, Katherine L Leiby, Andrew V Le, Ashley L Gard, Joseph A Madri, Kirk C Hansen, Laura E Niklason
: Extracellular matrix is a key component of many products in regenerative medicine. Multiple regenerative medicine products currently in the clinic are comprised of human or xenogeneic extracellular matrix. In addition, whole-organ regeneration exploits decellularized native organs as scaffolds for organotypic cell culture. However, precise understanding of the constituents of such extracellular matrix-based implants and scaffolds has sorely lagged behind their use. We present here an advanced protein extraction method using known quantities of proteotypic (13)C-labeled peptides to quantify matrix proteins in native and decellularized lung tissues...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Wangsheng Wang, Chao Liu, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes (ROM) can initiate parturition at both term and preterm birth. Apoptosis of the amnion epithelium plays a key role in structural remodeling of the membranes preceding ROM. However, the causative factors for apoptosis remain unidentified. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) exists in the fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for amnion cells apoptosis...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
Qingwu Long, Liang Shen, Rongbiao Chen, Jiaqi Huang, Shu Xiong, Yan Wang
The development of suitable draw solution in forward osmosis (FO) process has attracted the growing attention for water treatment purpose. In this study, a series of organic phosphonate salts (OPSs) are synthesized by one-step Mannich-like reaction, confirmed by FTIR and NMR characterizations, and applied as novel draw solutes in FO applications. Their solution properties including osmotic pressures and viscosities, as well as their FO performance as a function of the solution concentration are investigated systematically...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Anja Lena Thiebes, Nicola Kelly, Caoimhe A Sweeney, Donnacha J McGrath, Johanna Clauser, Kathrin Kurtenbach, Valentine N Gesche, Weiluan Chen, Robbert Jan Kok, Ulrich Steinseifer, Mark Bruzzi, Barry J O'Brien, Peter E McHugh, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Christian G Cornelissen
Currently, there is no optimal treatment available for end stage tumour patients with airway stenosis. The PulmoStent concept aims on overcoming current hurdles in airway stenting by combining a nitinol stent with a nutrient-permeable membrane, which prevents tumour ingrowth. Respiratory epithelial cells can be seeded onto the cover to restore mucociliary clearance. In this study, a novel hand-braided dog bone stent was developed, covered with a polycarbonate urethane nonwoven and mechanically tested. Design and manufacturing of stent and cover were improved in an iterative process according to predefined requirements for permeability and mechanical properties and finally tested in a proof of concept animal study in sheep for up to 24 weeks...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
S Cointe, C Judicone, S Robert, M J Mooberry, P Poncelet, M Wauben, R Nieuwland, N S Key, F Dignat-George, R Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Microparticles are extracellular vesicles resulting from the budding of cellular membranes that have a high potential as emergent biomarkers; however, their clinical relevance is hampered by methodological enumeration concerns and a lack of standardization. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains the most commonly used technique with the best capability to determine the cellular origin of single MPs. However, instruments behave variably depending on which scatter parameter, (Forward (FSC) or Side scatter (SSC)), provides the best resolution to discriminate submicron particles...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Joanna Lazniewska, Yuriy Rzhepetskyy, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Gerald W Zamponi, Norbert Weiss
T-type calcium channels are key contributors to neuronal physiology where they shape electrical activity of nerve cells and contribute to the release of neurotransmitters. Enhanced T-type channel expression has been causally linked to a number of pathological conditions including peripheral painful diabetic neuropathy. Recently, it was demonstrated that asparagine-linked glycosylation not only plays an essential role in regulating cell surface expression of Cav3.2 channels, but may also support glucose-dependent potentiation of T-type currents...
September 23, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yoshinori Oie, Shinya Watanabe, Kohji Nishida
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a bilateral corneal endothelial dystrophy characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix (guttae), thickening of Descemet membrane, and progressive loss of corneal endothelial cells. Progressive endothelial cellular loss leads to corneal edema and impairs visual function. In eyes with FECD, corneal edema begins in the central cornea and expands into the periphery. FECD is the most common dystrophic reason for corneal transplantation in many countries. Some patients with FECD report visual discomfort despite the absence of corneal edema...
November 2016: Cornea
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