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Forward membrane

Alonso M Acuña, Pascal van Alphen, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Rienk van Grondelle, Klaas J Hellingwerf, Ivo H M van Stokkum
Cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes are known to host photosynthetic and respiratory complexes. This hampers a straight forward interpretation of the highly dynamic fluorescence originating from photosynthetic units. The present study focuses on dark-to-light transitions in whole cells of a PSI-deficient mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The time-dependent cellular fluorescence spectrum has been measured, while having previously exposed the cells to different conditions that affect respiratory activity...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ksenia Maximova, Tom Venken, Nathalie Reuter, Joanna Trylska
Proteinase 3 (PR3) is a neutrophil serine protease present in cytoplasmic granules but also expressed at the neutrophil surface where it mediates proinflammatory effects. Studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of inhibitors of the PR3 membrane anchorage. Indeed while there exist inhibitors of the catalytic activity of PR3, its membrane interfacial binding site (IBS) is distinct from its catalytic site. The IBS has been characterized both by mutagenesis experiments and molecular modeling...
November 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Carmine Giorgio, Matteo Incerti, Miriam Corrado, Marco Rusnati, Paola Chiodelli, Simonetta Russo, Donatella Callegari, Francesca Ferlenghi, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Alessio Lodola, Massimiliano Tognolini
Eph/ephrin system is an emerging target for cancer therapy but the lack of potent, stable and orally bioavailable compounds is impairing the development of the field. Since 2009 our research group has been devoted to the discovery and development of small molecules targeting Eph/ephrin system and our research culminated with the synthesis of UniPR129, a potent but problematic Eph/ephrin antagonist. Herein, we describe the in vitro pharmacological properties of two derivatives (UniPR139 and UniPR502) stemmed from structure of UniPR129...
November 9, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Madhavi Dahanayaka, Bo Liu, Zhongqiao Hu, Qing-Xiang Pei, Zhong Chen, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Kun Zhou
Stacked graphene (GE) membranes with cascading nanoslits can be synthesized economically compared to monolayer nanoporous GE membranes, and have potential for molecular separation. This study focuses on investigating the seawater desalination performance of these stacked GE layers as forward osmosis (FO) membranes by using molecular dynamics simulations. The FO performance is evaluated in terms of water flux and salt rejection and is explained by analysing the water density distribution and radial distribution function...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sung-Ju Im, Jungwon Choi, Sanghyun Jeong, Am Jang
We tested the possibility of energy-saving water treatment methods by using a pump-less forward osmosis (FO) and low-pressure membrane (LPM) hybrid process (FO-LPM). In this pump-less FO-LPM, permeate migrates from the feed solution (FS) to the draw solution (DS) through the FO membrane by use of osmotic pressure differences. At the same time, within the closed DS tank, inner pressure increases as the DS volume increases. By using the DS tank's internal pressure, the LPM process works to re-concentrate the diluted DS, maintaining the DS concentration and producing clean water...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shamshul Ansari, Evariste Tshibangu Kabamba, Pradeep Krishna Shrestha, Hafeza Aftab, Thein Myint, Lotay Tshering, Rabi Prakash Sharma, Nwe Ni, Than Than Aye, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomohisa Uchida, Thawee Ratanachu-Ek, Ratha-Korn Vilaichone, Varocha Mahachai, Takashi Matsumoto, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori BabA is an important outer membrane protein that involves in the attachment to the gastric mucosa and enhances the virulence property of the bacterium. This study was aimed to characterize the bab genotypes, to evaluate its association with cagA, vacA and clinical diseases as well as degree of gastric inflammation. METHODS: H. pylori isolates from four countries were subjected for the characterization of bab. The locus specific forward and bab specific reverse primers were used to get the specific products by PCR, which could distinguish the three locus (A, B and C)...
2017: PloS One
Yothin Teethaisong, Thippawan Pimchan, Rungrudee Srisawat, Glyn Hobbs, Griangsak Eumkeb
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. Extract (BRE) and peptidoglycan inhibitor antibiotics, either used alone or in combination against β-lactam resistant Staphylococci. METHODS: Antibacterial and synergistic activities of BRE alone and in combination with ampicillin (AMP), cloxacillin (CLX), cefazolin (CFZ) or vancomycin (VAN) were evaluated against two β-lactam-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BRSA) and one β-lactam-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (BRSE)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jung Eun Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Syed Muztuza Ali, Joon Young Choi, Ho Kyong Shon
This study evaluates various options for full-scale modular configuration of forward osmosis (FO) process for osmotic dilution of seawater using wastewater for simultaneous desalination and water reuse through FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. Empirical relationship obtained from one FO membrane element operation was used to simulate the operational performances of different FO module configurations. The main limiting criteria for module operation is to always maintain the feed pressure higher than the draw pressure throughout the housing module for safe operation without affecting membrane integrity...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
Tariq M Aslam, Haider R Zaki, Sajjad Mahmood, Zaria C Ali, Nur A Ahmad, Mariana R Thorell, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: To develop a neural network for the estimation of visual acuity from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration and to demonstrate its use to model the impact of specific controlled OCT changes on vision. DESIGN: Artificial Intelligence (neural network) study. METHODS: We assessed 1400 OCT scans of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD). 15 physical features for each eligible OCT as well as patient age were used as input data and corresponding recorded visual acuity as the target data to train, validate and test a supervised neural network...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Kumar Nilesh, Aaditee V Vande, Shivsagar Tewary, K V Suresh
Traumatic bone cysts (TBCs) are uncommon intraosseous lesions, classified as pseudocysts because they lack an epithelial membrane lining. The etiology of a pseudocyst has not been determined. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain its pathogenesis, of which the traumatic-hemorrhagic theory is the most commonly accepted. Minor trauma, insufficient to cause fracture or iatrogenic injury, is commonly implicated as the stimulus initiating cyst formation. A TBC presenting after jaw fracture has been rarely reported in the literature...
November 2017: General Dentistry
Teresa Milano, Sebastiana Angelaccio, Angela Tramonti, Martino Luigi di Salvo, Isabel Nogues, Roberto Contestabile, Stefano Pascarella
Bacterial proteins belonging to the YczE family are predicted to be membrane proteins of yet unknown function. In many bacterial species, the yczE gene coding for the YczE protein is divergently transcribed with respect to an adjacent transcriptional regulator of the MocR family. According to in silico predictions, proteins named YczR are supposed to regulate the expression of yczE genes. These regulators linked to the yczE genes are predicted to constitute a subfamily within the MocR family. To put forward hypotheses amenable to experimental testing about the possible function of the YczE proteins, a phylogenetic profile strategy was applied...
November 2, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Dean J Pettinga, Junjun Ou, Eric L Patterson, Mithila Jugulam, Philip Westra, Todd A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Resistance to the synthetic auxin herbicide dicamba is increasingly problematic in Kochia scoparia. The resistance mechanism in an inbred dicamba-resistant K. scoparia line (9425R) was investigated using physiological and transcriptomics (RNA-Seq) approaches. RESULTS: No differences were found in dicamba absorption or metabolism between 9425R and a dicamba-susceptible line, but 9425R was found to have significantly reduced dicamba translocation. Known auxin-responsive genes ACC synthase (ACS) and indole-3-acetic acid amino synthetase (GH3) were transcriptionally induced following dicamba treatment in dicamba-susceptible K...
October 30, 2017: Pest Management Science
Bui Duc Hong Phuc, Sam-Sang You, Hyeung-Six Choi, Seok-Kwon Jeong
  In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Martin Höhl, Daphne DeTemple, Stefan Lyutenski, Georg Leuteritz, Arthur Varkentin, Heike Andrea Schmitt, Thomas Lenarz, Bernhard Roth, Merve Meinhardt-Wollweber, Uwe Morgner
Optical techniques are effective tools for diagnostic applications in medicine and are particularly attractive for the noninvasive analysis of biological tissues and fluids in vivo. Noninvasive examinations of substances via a fiber optic probe need to consider the optical properties of biological tissues obstructing the optical path. This applies to the analysis of the human perilymph, which is located behind the round window membrane. The composition of this inner ear liquid is directly correlated to inner ear hearing loss...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Nancy J Leidenheimer
Pharmacological chaperones (PCs) are small molecules that bind to nascent protein targets to facilitate their biogenesis. The ability of PCs to assist in the folding and subsequent forward trafficking of disease-causative protein misfolding mutants has opened new avenues for the treatment of conformational diseases such as cystic fibrosis and lysosomal storage disorders. In this chapter, an overview of the use of PCs for the treatment of conformational disorders is provided. Beyond the therapeutic application of PCs for the treatment of these disorders, pharmacological chaperoning of wild-type integral membrane proteins is discussed...
October 26, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mattia Quattrocelli, Joanna Capote, Joyce C Ohiri, James L Warner, Andy H Vo, Judy U Earley, Michele Hadhazy, Alexis R Demonbreun, Melissa J Spencer, Elizabeth M McNally
Genetic disruption of the dystrophin complex produces muscular dystrophy characterized by a fragile muscle plasma membrane leading to excessive muscle degeneration. Two genetic modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy implicate the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway, osteopontin encoded by the SPP1 gene and latent TGFβ binding protein 4 (LTBP4). We now evaluated the functional effect of these modifiers in the context of muscle injury and repair to elucidate their mechanisms of action. We found that excess osteopontin exacerbated sarcolemmal injury, and correspondingly, that loss of osteopontin reduced injury extent both in isolated myofibers and in muscle in vivo...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Lubna Nadeem, Oksana Shynlova, Sam Mesiano, Stephen Lye
Effective labour contractions require synchronization of myometrial cells through gap junctions (GJs). Clasically, progesterone (P4) is known to inhibit the expression of connexin-43 (Cx43, major component of GJs) and GJ formation in myometrium. Our current study is based on a striking observation that challenges this dogma. We observed conspicuous differences in the intracellular localization of Cx43 protein in PRA versus PRB expressing myocytes. Thus in P4 stimulated PRA cells Cx43 protein forms GJs, whereas in PRB cells the forward trafficking of Cx43 and GJ formation is inhibited even when Cx43 is overexpressed...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenhai Luo, Ming Xie, Xiaoye Song, Wenshan Guo, Hao H Ngo, John L Zhou, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Emilio R Mustafá, Eduardo J López Soto, Valentina Martínez Damonte, Silvia S Rodríguez, Diane Lipscombe, Jesica Raingo
Voltage gated calcium (CaV) channels couple membrane depolarization to calcium influx, triggering a range of calcium-dependent cellular processes. CaV channels are therefore critical in shaping neuronal activity and function, depending on their individual temporal and spatial properties. Furthermore, many neurotransmitters and drugs that act through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), modulate neuronal activity by altering the expression, trafficking, or function of CaV channels. GPCR-dependent mechanisms that down regulate CaV channel expression levels are observed in many neurons but are, by comparison, less studied...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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