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Forward membrane

Aaron D Springer, Steven F Dowdy
Short-interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced RNAi responses have great potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases from cancer to pandemic viral outbreaks to Parkinson's Disease. However, before siRNAs can become drugs, they must overcome a billion years of evolutionary defenses designed to keep invading RNAs on the outside cells from getting to the inside of cells. Not surprisingly, significant effort has been placed in developing a wide array of delivery technologies. Foremost of these has been the development of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver...
May 24, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Yannick Guerringue, Sébastien Thomine, Jean-Marie Frachisse
Mechanosensitive (MS) channels behave as micro-probes that transduce mechanical tension into electric and ion signals. The plasma membrane anion-permeant channel AtMSL10 belongs to the first family of MS channels (MscS-LIKE) that has been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the same membrane, a rapidly activated calcium MS channel activity (RMA) associated with the presence of the DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (AtDEK1) protein has been recently described. In this Review, based on the comparison of the specific properties of AtMSL10 and RMA, we put forward hypotheses on the mechanism of activation of these two channels, their respective roles in signaling, and also raise the question of the molecular identity of RMA...
May 21, 2018: FEBS Letters
Wanzhu Zhang, Bingzhi Dong
Natural organic matter (NOM) in micro-polluted water purification using membranes is a critical issue to handle. Understanding the fouling mechanism in the forward osmosis (FO) process, particularly identifying the predominant factor that controls membrane fouling, could have significant effects on exerting the advantages of FO technique. Cellulose triacetate no-woven (CTA-NW) membrane is applied to experiments with a high removal efficiency (> 99%) for the model foulant. Tannic acid (TA) is used as a surrogate foulant for NOM in the membrane fouling process, thus enabling the analysis of the effects of physical and chemical aspects of water flux, retention, and adsorption...
May 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak
Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability...
May 5, 2018: Water Research
Leslie A Herrera, Daniel A Starr
Unlike the classical nuclear envelope with two membranes found in other eukaryotic cells, most nematode sperm nuclei are not encapsulated by membranes. Instead, they are surrounded by a nuclear halo of unknown composition. How the halo is formed and regulated is unknown. We used forward genetics to identify molecular lesions behind three classical fer (fertilization defective) mutations that disrupt the ultrastructure of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm nuclear halo. We found fer-2 and fer-4 alleles to be nonsense mutations in mib-1...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Mustapha Kandouz
The Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases and interact with a group of ligands called Ephrins. An essential feature of the Eph receptors and Ephrin ligands is that both are membrane-bound and, upon cell-cell interaction, initiate a bidirectional signaling involving both the receptor (forward signaling) and the ligand (reverse signaling). They regulate a large set of pleiotropic functions in virtually every tissue and physiological system...
May 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Lei Zheng, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
In this study, forward osmosis (FO) membranes and fouling solutions were systematically characterized to elucidate the effects of organic fouling on the rejection of two pharmaceutically active compounds, namely, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Municipal wastewater resulted in a more severe flux decline compared to humic acid and sodium alginate fouling solutions. This result is consistent with the molecular weight distribution of these foulant solutions. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection analysis shows that municipal wastewater consists of mostly low molecular weight acids and neutrals, which produce a more compact cake layer on the membrane surface...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ce Wang, Yongmei Li, Yanqiang Wang
Effects of operating conditions were investigated in terms of water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF) and pollutant rejection in a forward osmosis (FO) membrane system treating synthetic greywater. Changing cross-flow velocity had a slight impact on the performance of the FO membrane. Elevating operating temperature was more effective than increasing draw solution concentration to enhance the water flux. Further observation on the effect of heating mode showed that when the temperature was increased from 20 to 30 o C, heating the feed solution (FS) side was better than heating the draw solution (DS) side or heating both sides; further increasing the temperature to 40 and 50 o C, heating both the FS and DS achieved much higher water flux compared with only increasing the FS or DS temperature...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Tim Jancelewicz, Mary E Brindle, Matthew T Harting, Elizabeth A Tolley, Max R Langham, Pamela A Lally, Ankush Gosain, Stephanie A Storgion, David W Kays
BACKGROUND: A means for early postnatal stratification of ECMO risk in CDH newborns could be used to comparatively assess the utilization and outcomes of ECMO use between centers. While multiple CDH mortality risk calculators are available, no validated tool exists specifically for prediction of ECMO use. The purpose of this study was to derive and validate an ECMO risk stratification model. METHODS: The study population was obtained from CDH Study Group registry for the period between 2007 and 2016...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Nirenkumar Pathak, Luca Fortunato, Sheng Li, Laura Chekli, Sherub Phuntsho, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
This study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor for real sewage employing baffles in the reactor. To study the biofouling development on forward osmosis membranes optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique was employed. On-line monitoring of biofilm growth on a flat sheet cellulose triacetate forward osmosis (CTA-FO) membrane was conducted for 21 days. Further, the process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, organic and nutrient removal, microbial activity in terms of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and floc size...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Paul L Sorgen, Andrew J Trease, Gaelle Spagnol, Mario Delmar, Morten S Nielsen
Connexins are integral membrane building blocks that form gap junctions, enabling direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low-molecular-mass metabolites between adjacent cells. In the heart, gap junctions mediate the propagation of cardiac action potentials and the maintenance of a regular beating rhythm. A number of connexin interacting proteins have been described and are known gap junction regulators either through direct effects (e.g., kinases) or the formation of larger multifunctional complexes (e.g., cytoskeleton scaffold proteins)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoxiao Song, Lifen Liu, Bing Wu, Jiefeng Pan, Saren Qi, Chuyang Y Tang, Congjie Gao
Forward osmosis has a great potential to be applied in treating biomass containing streams. However, the reverse salt permeation and the high energy consumption in draw solutes recovery pose two main obstacles. In this work, a porous FO membrane water extraction system is proposed to overcome these shortages. Using polyelectrolytes as draw solution and a porous PAN FO membrane, the system could recover water from a biologically treated wastewater (from a pilot anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactor) with a stable flux of 7 L/m2 ...
May 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kate E Smith, Robert C Johnson, Klearchos K Papas
There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic...
May 6, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Gitu Pandey, Naresh Mittapelly, Venkatesh Teja Banala, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra
Nanotechnology has emerged as the most successful strategy for targeting the drug payloads to the tumors with potential to overcome the problems of low concentration at the target site, nonspecific distribution and untoward toxicities. Here, we synthesized a novel polymeric conjugate comprising of chondroitin sulfate A and polyethylene glycol using carbodiimide chemistry. We further employed this glycoconjugate possessing the propensity to provide stability, stealth effect and tumor targeting via CD44 receptors, all in one, to develop a nanocrystalline system of docetaxel (DTX@CSA-NCs) with size< 200nm, negative zeta potential and 98% drug content...
May 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ayelén Gazquez, Juan Manuel Vilas, Jorge Esteban Colman Lerner, Santiago Javier Maiale, Pablo Ignacio Calzadilla, Ana Bernardina Menéndez, Andrés Alberto Rodríguez
The purpose of this research was to identify differences between two contrasting rice cultivars in their response to suboptimal low temperatures stress. A transcriptomic analysis of the seedlings was performed and results were complemented with biochemical and physiological analyses. The microarray analysis showed downregulation of many genes related with PSII and particularly with the oxygen evolving complex in the sensitive cultivar IR50. Complementary studies indicated that the PSII performance, the degree of oxygen evolving complex coupling with the PSII core and net photosynthetic rate diminished in this cultivar in response to the stress...
April 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shahzad Jamil, Sanghyun Jeong, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from wastewater reclamation plants have high concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds, which have to be removed before its disposal. Forward osmosis (FO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were tested to treat the ROC for possible water reuse. This research investigated the combined and individual influence of organic and inorganic matter on the fouling of NF and FO membranes. The results revealed that the NF membrane removed most of the organic compounds and some inorganics...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Tobias Engl, Jochen Rutz, Sebastian Maxeiner, Sorel Fanguen, Eva Juengel, Sebastian Koschade, Frederik Roos, Wael Khoder, Igor Tsaur, Roman A Blaheta
The mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, temsirolimus, has significantly improved the outcome of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, development of temsirolimus-resistance limits its effect and metastatic progression subsequently recurs. Since integrin α7 (ITGA7) is speculated to promote metastasis, this investigation was designed to investigate whether temsirolimus-resistance is associated with altered ITGA7 expression in RCC cell lines and modified tumor cell adhesion and invasion...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
Ari Helenius
Research over a period of more than half a century has provided a reasonably accurate picture of mechanisms involved in animal virus entry into their host cells. Successive steps in entry include binding to receptors, endocytosis, passage through one or more membranes, targeting to specific sites within the cell, and uncoating of the genome. For some viruses, the molecular interactions are known in great detail. However, as more viruses are analyzed, and as the focus shifts from tissue culture to in vivo experiments, it is evident that viruses display considerable redundancy and flexibility in receptor usage, endocytic mechanism, location of penetration, and uncoating mechanism...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Vincenzo Lariccia, Salvatore Amoroso
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX) mediate bidirectional Ca2+ fluxes across cell membranes and contribute to Ca2+ homeostasis in many cell types. Exchangers are regulated by gating reactions that depend on Na+ and Ca2+ binding to transport and regulatory sites. A Na+ i -dependent inactivation is prominent in all isoforms, whereas Ca2+ i -dependent regulation varies among isoforms. Here we characterize new details of NCX operation and describe differences and similarities between NCX3 and NCX1 regulation by intracellular Ca2+ and ATP...
April 20, 2018: Cell Calcium
Charles S Springer
The cell plasma membrane Na+ ,K+ -ATPase [NKA] is one of biology's most [if not the most] significant enzymes. By actively transporting Na+ out [and K+ in], it maintains the vital trans-membrane ion concentration gradients and the membrane potential. The forward NKA reaction is shown in the Graphical Abstract [which is elaborated in the text]. Crucially, NKA does not operate in isolation. There are other transporters that conduct K+ back out of [II, Graphical Abstract] and Na+ back into [III, Graphical Abstract] the cell...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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