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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149747/analysis-of-effect-of-particles-on-cake-layer-compressibility-during-ultrafiltration-of-upflow-biological-activated-carbon-effluent
#1
Lu Ao, Wenjun Liu, Minglu Zhang, Xiaomao Wang
Three different hollow-fibre ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were applied to treat upflow biological activated carbon (UBAC) effluent to determine the characteristics of membrane biofouling by microorganisms and particles. At the beginning of filtration, the cake layer formed on the membrane was loose and highly compressible, and the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) rapidly increased. When compressed to a certain extent, cake layer with low compressibility was formed by the accumulated particles and resulted in slower TMP increment...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149739/removal-of-tio2-nanoparticles-from-water-by-low-pressure-pilot-plant-filtration
#2
Josune Olabarrieta, Oihane Monzón, Yolanda Belaustegui, Jon-Iñaki Alvarez, Saioa Zorita
Rising use of nanoparticles in manufacturing as well as in commercial products bring issues related to environmental release and human exposure. A large amount of TiO2 nanoparticles will eventually reach wastewater treatment plants. Low pressure membrane filtration has been suggested as a feasible treatment of water streams. This study investigated first at laboratory scale the influence of: i) membrane material, ii) pore size and iii) water chemistry on nTiO2 removal. TiO2 retention was governed by the cake layer formation mechanism and significant retention of nanoparticles was observed even for filters having considerably larger pores than nTiO2...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#3
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149696/clearance-of-plasmin-pn-1-complexes-by-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-human-aneurysm-of-the-ascending-aorta
#4
Kamel Boukais, Luciano F Borges, Laurence Venisse, Ziad Touat, Déborah François, Véronique Arocas, Guillaume Jondeau, Paul Declerck, Marie-Christine Bouton, Jean-Baptiste Michel
Plasminogen is a circulating zymogen which enters the arterial wall by radial, transmural hydraulic conductance, where it is converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator t-PA on an activation platform involving S100A4 on the vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) membrane. Plasmin is involved in the progression of human thoracic aneurysm of the ascending aorta (TAA). vSMCs protect the TAA wall from plasmin-induced proteolytic injury by expressing high levels of antiproteases. Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a tissue antiprotease belonging to the serpin superfamily, expressed in the vascular wall, and is able to form a covalent complex with plasmin...
October 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149675/evaluation-of-potassium-ferrate-as-an-alternative-disinfectant-on-cyanobacteria-inactivation-and-associated-toxin-fate-in-various-waters
#5
Jiajia Fan, Bo-Hung Lin, Che-Wei Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Tsair-Fuh Lin
Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) is an effective oxidant that may be used as a pre- or post-oxidant in the purification of source water with cyanobacterial issues. To provide a better basis for the application of this oxidant during water treatment processes, the impacts of K2FeO4 on the cell viability of Microcystis aeruginosa and the fate of associated microcystins (MCs) were investigated in various water matrices. The results showed that a water matrix can significantly affect the effectiveness of K2FeO4 on cyanobacteria inactivation...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149673/the-feasibility-of-nanofiltration-membrane-bioreactor-nf-mbr-reverse-osmosis-ro-process-for-water-reclamation-comparison-with-ultrafiltration-membrane-bioreactor-uf-mbr-ro-process
#6
Ming Feng Tay, Chang Liu, Emile R Cornelissen, Bing Wu, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m(2)h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149672/the-application-of-bacteriophages-as-novel-indicators-of-viral-pathogens-in-wastewater-treatment-systems
#7
Edgard Dias, James Ebdon, Huw Taylor
Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149664/copper-phospholipid-interaction-at-cell-membrane-model-hydrophobic-surfaces
#8
Marina Mlakar, Vlado Cuculić, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović
Detailed investigation of Cu (II) binding with natural lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in aqueous solution was carried out by voltammetric measurements at the mercury drop electrode, complemented by monolayer studies in a Langmuir trough and electrophoretic measurements, all used as models for hydrophobic cell membranes. Penetration of copper ions into the PG layer was facilitated by the formation of hydrophilic Cu-Phenanthroline (Phen) complex in the subphase, followed by the mixed ligand Cu-Phen-PG complex formation at the hydrophobic interface...
November 11, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149609/snapshot-functions-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane-contact-sites
#9
Raquel Salvador-Gallego, Melissa J Hoyer, Gia K Voeltz
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a reticulated interconnected network of tubules and sheets. ER sheets are studded with ribosomes and provide the entryway for proteins into the secretory pathway. ER tubules move dynamically on microtubules and form membrane contact sites with other organelles, where membranes are tethered, but not fused. This Snapshot reviews key biological processes that take place at ER contact sites with the Golgi, endosomes, and mitochondria.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149604/nrf1-is-an-er-membrane-sensor-that-is-central-to-cholesterol-homeostasis
#10
Scott B Widenmaier, Nicole A Snyder, Truc B Nguyen, Alessandro Arduini, Grace Y Lee, Ana Paula Arruda, Jani Saksi, Alexander Bartelt, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Cholesterol is a critical nutrient requiring tight constraint in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to its uniquely challenging biophysical properties. While the mechanisms by which the ER defends against cholesterol insufficiency are well described, it remains unclear how the ER senses and effectively defends against cholesterol excess. Here, we identify the ER-bound transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-1, Nrf1/Nfe2L1, as a critical mediator of this process. We show that Nrf1 directly binds to and specifically senses cholesterol in the ER through a defined domain and that cholesterol regulates Nrf1 turnover, processing, localization, and activity...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149599/autophagosomal-content-profiling-reveals-an-lc3c-dependent-piecemeal-mitophagy-pathway
#11
François Le Guerroué, Franziska Eck, Jennifer Jung, Tatjana Starzetz, Michel Mittelbronn, Manuel Kaulich, Christian Behrends
Autophagy allows the degradation of cytosolic endogenous and exogenous material in the lysosome. Substrates are engulfed by double-membrane vesicles, coined autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Depending on the involvement of specific receptor proteins, autophagy occurs in a selective or nonselective manner. While this process is well understood at the level of bulky cargo such as mitochondria and bacteria, we know very little about individual proteins and protein complexes that are engulfed and degraded by autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149594/conversion-of-bim-bh3-from-activator-to-inhibitor-of-bak-through-structure-based-design
#12
Jason M Brouwer, Ping Lan, Angus D Cowan, Jonathan P Bernardini, Richard W Birkinshaw, Mark F van Delft, Brad E Sleebs, Adeline Y Robin, Ahmad Wardak, Iris K Tan, Boris Reljic, Erinna F Lee, W Douglas Fairlie, Melissa J Call, Brian J Smith, Grant Dewson, Guillaume Lessene, Peter M Colman, Peter E Czabotar
Certain BH3-only proteins transiently bind and activate Bak and Bax, initiating their oligomerization and the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane, a pivotal step in the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis. Here we describe the first crystal structures of an activator BH3 peptide bound to Bak and illustrate their use in the design of BH3 derivatives capable of inhibiting human Bak on mitochondria. These BH3 derivatives compete for the activation site at the canonical groove, are the first engineered inhibitors of Bak activation, and support the role of key conformational transitions associated with Bak activation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149529/scalable-fabrication-of-highly-active-and-durable-membrane-electrodes-toward-water-oxidation
#13
Yu Li, Shuangming Chen, Dawei Xi, Yanan Bo, Ran Long, Chengming Wang, Li Song, Yujie Xiong
The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a highly important reaction that requires a relatively high overpotential and determines the rate of water splitting-a process for producing hydrogen. The overall OER performance is often largely limited by uncontrollable interface when active catalysts are loaded on conductive supports, for which polymer binders are widely used, but inevitably block species transportation channels. Here, a scalable fabrication approach to freestanding graphitized carbon nanofiber networks is reported, which provides abundant sites for in situ growing Fe/Ni catalysts with the improved interface...
November 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149494/inhibiting-mt2-tfe3-dependent-autophagy-enhances-melatonin-induced-apoptosis-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Tengfei Fan, Huifeng Pi, Min Li, Zhenhu Ren, Zhijing He, Feiya Zhu, Li Tian, Manyu Tu, Jia Xie, Mengyu Liu, Yuming Li, Miduo Tan, Gaoming Li, Weijia Qing, Russel J Reiter, Zhengping Yu, Hanjiang Wu, Zhou Zhou
Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Melatonin possesses significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, whether melatonin induces autophagy and its roles in cell death in TSCC are unclear. Herein, we show that melatonin induced significant apoptosis in the TSCC cell line Cal27. Apart from the induction of apoptosis, we demonstrated that melatonin-induced autophagic flux in Cal27 cells as evidenced by the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, and the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of SQSTM1/P62...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149403/structure-function-relationship-of-tctp
#15
Beatriz Xoconostle-Cázares, Roberto Ruiz-Medrano
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a small, multifunctional protein found in most, if not all, eukaryotic lineages, involved in a myriad of key regulatory processes. Among these, the control of proliferation and inhibition of cell death, as well as differentiation, are the most important, and it is probable that other responses are derived from the ability of TCTP to influence them in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. In the latter, an additional function for TCTP stems from its capacity to be secreted via a nonclassical pathway and function in a non-cell autonomous (paracrine) manner, thus affecting the responses of neighboring or distant cells to developmental or environmental stimuli (as in the case of serum TCTP/histamine-releasing factor in mammals and phloem TCTP in Arabidopsis)...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149369/the-osps1-f-gene-regulates-growth-and-development-in-rice-by-modulating-photosynthetic-electron-transport-rate
#16
Rengasamy Ramamoorthy, Bhushan Vishal, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Prakash P Kumar
Ds insertion in rice OsPS1-F gene results in semi-dwarf plants with reduced tiller number and grain yield, while genetic complementation with OsPS1-F rescued the mutant phenotype. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane by multi-protein complexes. Studies about photosynthetic machinery and its subunits in crop plants are necessary, because they could be crucial for yield enhancement in the long term. Here, we report the characterization of OsPS1-F (encoding Oryza sativa PHOTOSYSTEM 1-F subunit) using a single copy Ds insertion rice mutant line...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149363/indications-for-extracorporeal-support-why-do-we-need-the-results-of-the-eolia-trial
#17
REVIEW
A Combes, N Bréchot, C-E Luyt, M Schmidt
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung disease, with an associated mortality rate exceeding 60% for the most severe forms of the disease. In these situations, establishing an extracorporeal circuit, combining a centrifugal pump and a membrane oxygenator (extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO), can ensure total pulmonary assistance and allow the lungs to rest under ultraprotective mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, former trials of ECMO in ARDS were negative or highly criticized due to many technical and methodological shortcomings...
November 17, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149347/signal-recognition-particle-binds-to-translating-ribosomes-before-emergence-of-a-signal-anchor-sequence
#18
Evan Mercier, Wolf Holtkamp, Marina V Rodnina, Wolfgang Wintermeyer
The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) is part of the machinery that targets ribosomes synthesizing membrane proteins to membrane-embedded translocons co-translationally. Recognition of nascent membrane proteins occurs by virtue of a hydrophobic signal-anchor sequence (SAS) contained in the nascent chain, usually at the N terminus. Here we use fluorescence-based stopped-flow to monitor SRP-ribosome interactions with actively translating ribosomes while an SRP substrate is synthesized and emerges from the peptide exit tunnel...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149305/rituximab-for-non-responsive-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-in-a-chinese-cohort
#19
Xin Wang, Zhao Cui, Yi-Miao Zhang, Zhen Qu, Fang Wang, Li-Qiang Meng, Xu-Yang Cheng, Gang Liu, Fu-de Zhou, Ming-Hui Zhao
Background: Rituximab had been shown to be effective in inducing remission of nephrotic syndrome in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). This study applied rituximab therapy for 36 non-responsive iMN patients to investigate its effects and safety. Methods: Thirty-six iMN patients who were non-responsive to prior immunosuppression were enrolled. Rituximab was used for B-cell depletion in patients, with a goal of <5 B cells/mm3 in the circulation...
November 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149282/structure-related-differences-between-cytochrome-oxidase-i-proteins-in-a-stable-heteroplasmic-mitochondrial-system
#20
David O F Skibinski, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Angel P Diz, Liliana Milani, Jonathan G L Mullins
Many bivalve species have two types of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) passed independently through the female line (F genome) and male line (M genome). Here we study the Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) protein in such bivalve species and provide evidence for differences between the F and M proteins in amino acid property values, particularly relating to hydrophobicity and helicity. The magnitude of these differences varies between different regions of the protein and the change from the ancestor is most marked in the M protein...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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