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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722706/sub-national-mapping-of-population-pyramids-and-dependency-ratios-in-africa-and-asia
#1
Carla Pezzulo, Graeme M Hornby, Alessandro Sorichetta, Andrea E Gaughan, Catherine Linard, Tomas J Bird, David Kerr, Christopher T Lloyd, Andrew J Tatem
The age group composition of populations varies substantially across continents and within countries, and is linked to levels of development, health status and poverty. The subnational variability in the shape of the population pyramid as well as the respective dependency ratio are reflective of the different levels of development of a country and are drivers for a country's economic prospects and health burdens. Whether measured as the ratio between those of working age and those young and old who are dependent upon them, or through separate young and old-age metrics, dependency ratios are often highly heterogeneous between and within countries...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722214/impairment-due-to-combined-sleep-restriction-and-alcohol-is-not-mitigated-by-decaying-breath-alcohol-concentration-or-rest-breaks
#2
Jessica E Manousakis, Clare Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological and laboratory-based driving simulator studies have shown the detrimental impact of moderate, legal levels of alcohol consumption on driving performance in sleepy drivers. As less is known about the time course of decaying alcohol alongside performance impairment, our study examined impairment and recovery of performance alongside decaying levels of alcohol, with and without sleep restriction. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young males (18-27 years) underwent 4 counterbalanced conditions: Baseline, Alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] < 0...
July 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719285/trial-of-a-novel-intervention-to-improve-multiple-food-hygiene-behaviors-in-nepal
#3
Om Prasad Gautam, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sandy Cairncross, Sue Cavill, Valerie Curtis
AbstractIn this study, we report on the results of a trial of an intervention to improve five food hygiene behaviors among mothers of young children in rural Nepal. This novel intervention targeted five behaviors; cleanliness of serving utensils, handwashing with soap before feeding, proper storage of cooked food, and thorough reheating and water treatment. Based on formative research and a creative process using the Behavior-Centered Design approach, an innovative intervention package was designed and delivered over a period of 3 months...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715728/mobile-phone-use-during-driving-effects-on-speed-and-effectiveness-of-driver-compensatory-behaviour
#4
Pushpa Choudhary, Nagendra R Velaga
This study analysed and modelled the effects of conversation and texting (each with two difficulty levels) on driving performance of Indian drivers in terms of their mean speed and accident avoiding abilities; and further explored the relationship between speed reduction strategy of the drivers and their corresponding accident frequency. 100 drivers of three different age groups (young, mid-age and old-age) participated in the simulator study. Two sudden events of Indian context: unexpected crossing of pedestrians and joining of parked vehicles from road side, were simulated for estimating the accident probabilities...
July 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709967/advances-in-asthma-2016-designing-individualized-approaches-to-management
#5
William C Anderson, Andrea Apter, Cullen M Dutmer, Daniel A Searing, Stanley J Szefler
In this years Advances in Asthma review we discuss viral infections in asthma and potential therapeutic agents, the microbiome, novel genetic associations with asthma, air quality and climate effects on asthma, exposures during development and long term sequelae of childhood asthma, patient centered outcome research, and precision medicine. In addition, we discuss application of biomarkers to precision medicine, and new information on asthma medications. New evidence indicates that rhinovirus-triggered asthma exacerbations become more severe as the degree of sensitization to dust mite and mouse increase...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706192/integrative-profiling-of-bee-communities-from-habitats-of-tropical-southern-yunnan-china
#6
X W Liu, D Chesters, Q Y Dai, Z Q Niu, P Beckschäfer, K Martin, C D Zhu
Understanding and managing pollination service is hindered by taxonomic impediments and paucity of data, particularly in the tropics. Herein we apply integrative species delineation and taxonomy to test impacts of land use on the diversity of bee communities within Xishuangbanna (Yunnan, south China), a highly biodiverse tropical region which has undergone extensive land conversion to rubber plantation. 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were inferred by an iterative and integrative approach. Bee activity differed significantly across land use samples, although community composition corresponded more to level of vegetation density, when accounting for spatial structure...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699210/driving-in-search-of-analyses
#7
Bruce Simons-Morton
Although transportation safety has greatly improved over the past 2 decades, motor vehicle crash injuries remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among young drivers. Driver errors and behaviors such as speeding and distraction contribute disproportionately to crashes among inexperienced novices, who develop safe driving judgment only with substantial driving experience, commonly described as the "young driver problem." Research on young drivers has applied a range of research methods, including analyses of national archival data (mainly from police reports), crash analyses, observation of driver behavior, surveys of driver behavior and dispositions, and experimental research on driver behavior and vehicle crash worthiness...
July 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697762/cash-transfers-for-hiv-prevention-what-do-young-women-spend-it-on-mixed-methods-findings-from-hptn-068
#8
Catherine MacPhail, Nomhle Khoza, Amanda Selin, Aimée Julien, Rhian Twine, Ryan G Wagner, Xavier Goméz-Olivé, Kathy Kahn, Jing Wang, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. METHODS: Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance...
July 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687003/inhibition-of-chk1-sensitizes-ewing-sarcoma-cells-to-the-ribonucleotide-reductase-inhibitor-gemcitabine
#9
Kelli L Goss, Stacia L Koppenhafer, Kathryn M Harmoney, William W Terry, David J Gordon
Ewing sarcoma is a bone and soft tissue sarcoma that occurs in children and young adults. The EWS-FLI1 gene fusion is the driver mutation in most Ewing sarcoma tumors and functions, in part, as an aberrant transcription factor. We recently identified that Ewing sarcoma cells are sensitive to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. In this report, we show that Ewing sarcoma cells are sensitive to treatment with clofarabine, which is a nucleoside analogue and allosteric inhibitor of RNR...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683775/alk-rearranged-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-responding-to-alectinib-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Nobuaki Mamesaya, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Tateaki Naito, Takashi Nakajima, Masahiro Endo, Toshiaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Although anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion genes are generally identified in lung adenocarcinoma patients, they are relatively rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). Metastatic ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with ALK inhibitors demonstrate higher response rates, improved progression-free survival, and reduced toxicity relative to those treated with conventional chemotherapy regimens. However, the efficacy of treatment with ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK-rearranged lung SqCC remains unknown...
July 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681169/influence-of-proximity-to-kin-on-residential-mobility-and-destination-choice-examining-local-movers-in-metropolitan-areas
#11
Amy Spring, Elizabeth Ackert, Kyle Crowder, Scott J South
A growing body of research has examined how family dynamics shape residential mobility, highlighting the social-as opposed to economic-drivers of mobility. However, few studies have examined kin ties as both push and pull factors in mobility processes or revealed how the influence of kin ties on mobility varies across sociodemographic groups. Using data on local residential moves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1980 to 2013, we find that location of noncoresident kin influences the likelihood of moving out of the current neighborhood and the selection of a new destination neighborhood...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679489/listening-to-communities-mixed-method-study-of-the-engagement-of-disadvantaged-mothers-and-pregnant-women-with-digital-health-technologies
#12
Sylvia Guendelman, Andrew Broderick, Hmellisa Mlo, Alison Gemmill, David Lindeman
BACKGROUND: US health care providers are increasingly demanding patient engagement with digital health technologies to enroll in care, access personal health information, communicate with providers, and monitor their own health. Such engagement may be difficult for disadvantaged populations who may have limited health literacy, time constraints, or competing priorities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the extent of adoption and use of digital health tools and to identify key perceived psychological motivators of technology use among disadvantaged first-time pregnant women and mothers of young children...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676084/social-and-demographic-drivers-of-trend-and-seasonality-in-elective-abortions-in-denmark
#13
Tim A Bruckner, Laust H Mortensen, Ralph A Catalano
BACKGROUND: Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences-and a potentially rising trend-among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low-fertility country with excellent data on terminations and births. METHODS: We examined monthly elective abortions (n = 225,287) from 1995 to 2009, by maternal age, parity, income level and mother's country of origin...
July 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675133/policy-content-and-stakeholder-network-analysis-for-infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-nepal
#14
Sumit Karn, Madhu Dixit Devkota, Shahadat Uddin, Anne Marie Thow
BACKGROUND: Despite concerted effort from government and partners, Nepal continues to have a high burden of under nutrition among children. Identifying opportunities to strengthen policy support for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is a key component to improve child survival, growth and development. This study aims to explore policy support for IYCF and to identify the influential stakeholders for IYCF for effective future policy development and programmatic action. METHODS: Policies relevant to IYCF were identified through web searches and direct approaches to relevant government ministries...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675131/changes-in-the-policy-environment-for-infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-vietnam-bangladesh-and-ethiopia-and-the-role-of-targeted-advocacy
#15
Jody Harris, Edward A Frongillo, Phuong H Nguyen, Sunny S Kim, Purnima Menon
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature examining shifts in policy environments for nutrition and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) over time, and on the potential contribution of targeted advocacy to improved policy environments in low- and middle-income countries. This study tracked changes in the policy environment over a four-year period in three countries, and examined the role of targeted nutrition and IYCF advocacy strategies by a global initiative. METHODS: Qualitative methods, including key informant interviews, social network mapping, document and literature review, and event tracking, were used to gather data on nutrition and IYCF policies and programs, actor networks, and perceptions and salience of nutrition as an issue in 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671688/the-genomic-landscape-of-pediatric-and-young-adult-t-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
Yu Liu, John Easton, Ying Shao, Jamie Maciaszek, Zhaoming Wang, Mark R Wilkinson, Kelly McCastlain, Michael Edmonson, Stanley B Pounds, Lei Shi, Xin Zhou, Xiaotu Ma, Edgar Sioson, Yongjin Li, Michael Rusch, Pankaj Gupta, Deqing Pei, Cheng Cheng, Malcolm A Smith, Jaime Guidry Auvil, Daniela S Gerhard, Mary V Relling, Naomi J Winick, Andrew J Carroll, Nyla A Heerema, Elizabeth Raetz, Meenakshi Devidas, Cheryl L Willman, Richard C Harvey, William L Carroll, Kimberly P Dunsmore, Stuart S Winter, Brent L Wood, Brian P Sorrentino, James R Downing, Mignon L Loh, Stephen P Hunger, Jinghui Zhang, Charles G Mullighan
Genetic alterations that activate NOTCH1 signaling and T cell transcription factors, coupled with inactivation of the INK4/ARF tumor suppressors, are hallmarks of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but detailed genome-wide sequencing of large T-ALL cohorts has not been carried out. Using integrated genomic analysis of 264 T-ALL cases, we identified 106 putative driver genes, half of which had not previously been described in childhood T-ALL (for example, CCND3, CTCF, MYB, SMARCA4, ZFP36L2 and MYCN)...
July 3, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666919/age-molecular-subtypes-and-local-therapy-decision-making
#17
Anne Kuijer, Tari A King
The relationship between age and breast cancer subtype is complex: both impact risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and survival. Young patients frequently present with aggressive tumors but the increased risk imparted by young age appears to differ among breast cancer subtypes. Dramatic improvements in local control among young women with breast cancer of all tumor subtypes have been observed, likely attributable to improved local therapy strategies, improvements in adjuvant therapies and implementation of subtype-specific targeted therapies...
June 27, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665458/a-robotic-needle-driver-to-facilitate-vescico-urethral-anastomosis-during-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy
#18
Virginia Varca, Andrea Benelli, Francesco Pietrantuono, Nazareno Suardi, Andrea Gregori, Franco Gaboardi
PURPOSE: The completion of the vescico-urethral anastomosis (VUA) represents the most critical step of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), and it can often discourage the use of minimally invasive surgery in less experienced laparoscopic surgeons. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the usefulness of a new robotic needle driver named Dextérité in performing the VUA after LRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomized clinical study enrolled 40 consecutive patients eligible for LRP, which were randomized into four groups: group A, patients undergoing LRP done by an expert surgeon; group B, patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by the same expert surgeon; group C, patients undergoing LRP performed by a young surgeon at the beginning of the learning curve; group D, patients undergoing LRP performed by another young surgeon at the beginning of the learning curve with the aid of Dextérité needle driver for completion of the VUA...
June 19, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652265/a-massively-parallel-fluorescence-assay-to-characterize-the-effects-of-synonymous-mutations-on-tp53-expression
#19
Geetha Bhagavatula, Matthew S Rich, David L Young, Maximillian Marin, Stanley Fields
Although synonymous mutations can affect gene expression, they have generally not been considered in genomic studies that focus on mutations that increase the risk of cancer. However, mounting evidence implicates some synonymous mutations as driver mutations in cancer. Here a massively parallel assay, based on cell sorting of a reporter containing a segment of p53 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), was used to measure the effects of nearly all synonymous mutations in exon 6 of TP53. In this reporter context, several mutations within the exon caused strong expression changes including mutations that may cause potential gain or loss of function...
June 26, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649329/food-availability-as-a-major-driver-in-the-evolution-of-life-history-strategies-of-sibling-species
#20
Raphaël Arlettaz, Philippe Christe, Michael Schaub
Life-history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive and survival traits such that different strategies or environmental constraints may yield comparable lifetime reproductive success among conspecifics. Food availability is one of the most important environmental factors shaping developmental processes. It notably affects key life-history components such as reproduction and survival prospect. We investigated whether food resource availability could also operate as an ultimate driver of life-history strategy variation between species...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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