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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548584/the-sex-disparity-in-risky-driving-a-survey-of-colombian-young-drivers
#1
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
OBJECTIVE: The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognised as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has also been recognised as a pervasive young driver problem. Whilst progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilisation and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538216/the-emerging-view-of-aging-as-a-reversible-epigenetic-process
#2
Micaela López-León, Rodolfo G Goya
The achievement of animal cloning and subsequent development of cell reprogramming technology are having a profound impact on our view of the mechanisms of aging in complex organisms. The experimental evidence showing that an adult somatic nucleus implanted into an enucleated oocyte can give rise to a whole new individual strongly suggests that the integrity of the genome of an adult nucleus is fully preserved. Here, we will review recent experimental evidence showing that pluripotency gene-based cell reprogramming can erase the epigenetic marks of aging and rejuvenate cells from old individuals reversing most signs of aging and that when induced pluripotent stem cells are differentiated back to the cell type of origin, the rejuvenated cells share many of the features of wild-type counterparts from young donors...
May 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512475/risk-factors-for-road-traffic-injuries-among-different-road-users-in-the-gambia
#3
Edrisa Sanyang, Corinne Peek-Asa, Paul Bass, Tracy L Young, Babanding Daffeh, Laurence J Fuortes
We identified risk factors for road traffic injuries among road users who received treatment at two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. The study includes pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers/passengers of cars and trucks. We examined distributions of injury by age, gender, collision vehicle types and vehicle category, and driver and environment factors. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study. Two-thirds were male and one-third female. Two-thirds (67%) of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists; and these were more common during weekdays (74%) than weekends...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512244/engineering-and-functional-characterization-of-fusion-genes-identifies-novel-oncogenic-drivers-of-cancer
#4
Hengyu Lu, Nicole Villafane, Turgut Dogruluk, Caitlin L Grzeskowiak, Kathleen Kong, Yiu Huen Tsang, Oksana Zagorodna, Angeliki Pantazi, Lixing Yang, Nicholas J Neill, Young Won Kim, Chad J Creighton, Roel G Verhaak, Gordon B Mills, Peter Park, Raju S Kucherlapati, Kenneth L Scott
Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK, and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in TCGA datasets. In addition to confirming oncogenic activity of the known fusion oncogenes engineered by our construction strategy, we validated five novel fusion genes involving MET, NTRK2, and BRAF kinases that exhibited potent transforming activity and conferred sensitivity to FDA-approved kinase inhibitors...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507274/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-identifies-somatic-mutations-and-gene-fusions-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#5
Zheming Lu, Yujie Zhang, Dongdong Feng, Jindong Sheng, Wenjun Yang, Baoguo Liu
138 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples were assessed for somatic mutation profile and fusion genes by targeted resequencing using a cancer panel (ThyGenCapTM) targeting 244 cancer-related genes and 20 potential fusion genes. At least one genetic alteration (including mutations and fusion genes) was observed in 118/138 (85.5%) samples. The most frequently mutated gene was BRAF V600E (57.2%). Moreover, we identified 11 fusion genes including eight previously reported ones and three novel fusion genes, UEVLD-RET, OSBPL9-BRAF, and SQSTM1-NTRK3...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507205/a-case-of-metastatic-atypical-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-alk-translocation-and-diffuse-brain-metastases
#6
Victoria E Wang, Lauren Young, Siraj Ali, Vincent A Miller, Anatoly Urisman, John Wolfe, Trever G Bivona, Bertil Damato, Shannon Fogh, Emily K Bergsland
A challenge in precision medicine requires identification of actionable driver mutations. Critical to such effort is the deployment of sensitive and well-validated assays for mutation detection. Although identification of such alterations within the tumor tissue remains the gold standard, many advanced non-small cell lung cancer cases have only limited tissue samples, derived from small biopsies or fine-needle aspirates, available for testing. More recently, noninvasive methods using either circulating tumor cells or tumor DNA (ctDNA) have become an alternative method for identifying molecular biomarkers and screening patients eligible for targeted therapies...
May 15, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504719/novel-myc-driven-medulloblastoma-models-from-multiple-embryonic-cerebellar-cells
#7
D Kawauchi, R J Ogg, L Liu, D J H Shih, D Finkelstein, B L Murphy, J E Rehg, A Korshunov, C Calabrese, F Zindy, T Phoenix, Y Kawaguchi, J Gronych, R J Gilbertson, P Lichter, A Gajjar, M Kool, P A Northcott, S M Pfister, M F Roussel
Group3 medulloblastoma (MBG3) that predominantly occur in young children are usually associated with MYC amplification and/or overexpression, frequent metastasis and a dismal prognosis. Physiologically relevant MBG3 models are currently lacking, making inferences related to their cellular origin thus far limited. Using in utero electroporation, we here report that MBG3 mouse models can be developed in situ from different multipotent embryonic cerebellar progenitor cells via conditional expression of Myc and loss of Trp53 function in several Cre driver mouse lines...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504531/the-role-of-familiarity-in-correcting-inaccurate-information
#8
Briony Swire, Ullrich K H Ecker, Stephan Lewandowsky
People frequently continue to use inaccurate information in their reasoning even after a credible retraction has been presented. This phenomenon is often referred to as the continued influence effect of misinformation. The repetition of the original misconception within a retraction could contribute to this phenomenon, as it could inadvertently make the "myth" more familiar-and familiar information is more likely to be accepted as true. From a dual-process perspective, familiarity-based acceptance of myths is most likely to occur in the absence of strategic memory processes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504324/electromagnetic-fields-pulsed-radiofrequency-radiation-and-epigenetics-how-wireless-technologies-may-affect-childhood-development
#9
Cindy Sage, Ernesto Burgio
Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504303/distracted-walking-bicycling-and-driving-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-mobile-technology-and-youth-crash-risk
#10
Despina Stavrinos, Caitlin N Pope, Jiabin Shen, David C Schwebel
This article examined the impact of mobile technology on young pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. A systematic search yielded 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, published before February 1, 2016, behavioral outcome related to pedestrian, bicycling, or driving in the presence of mobile technology use, youth sample. Eleven studies were meta-analyzed to evaluate increased risk for crash/near-crash while distracted. Risk of bias and quality of research were assessed. Across methodologies, developmental stages, and type of distracting task, mobile technology use impairs youth safety on the road...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502721/met-exon-14-skipping-mutations-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-clinicopathologic-implications-and-prognostic-values
#11
Geun Dong Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Doo-Yi Oh, Dan-Bi Yu, Hae Min Jeong, Jooseok Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Hun Soon Jung, Ensel Oh, Ji-Young Song, Mi-Sook Lee, Mingi Kim, Kyungsoo Jung, Jhingook Kim, Young Kee Shin, Yoon-La Choi, Hyeong Ryul Kim
INTRODUCTION: Response to MET inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer with MET exon 14 (METex14) skipping has fueled molecular screening efforts and search for optimal therapies. However, further work is needed to refine the clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of METex14 skipping METHODS: Among 795 East-Asian patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer, we screened 45 patients with quintuple-negative (EGFR-/KRAS-/ALK-/ROS1-/RET-) lung adenocarcinomas using RT-PCR, and found 17 patients (37...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502403/the-role-of-driver-age-in-performance-and-attention-allocation-effects-of-roadway-sign-count-format-and-familiarity
#12
Maryam Zahabi, Patricia Machado, Carl Pankok, Mei Ying Lau, Yi-Fan Liao, Joseph Hummer, William Rasdorf, David B Kaber
White-on-blue logo signs are used to inform drivers of food, gas, lodging, and attraction businesses at highway interchanges. In this study, 60 drivers were asked to look for food and attraction targets on logo signs while driving in a realistic freeway simulation. The objective of the study was to quantify effects of the number of sign panels (six vs. nine), logo familiarity (familiar vs. unfamiliar), logo format (text vs. pictorial), and driver age (young, middle, and elderly) on performance, attention allocation and target identification accuracy...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472770/modeling-african-american-prostate-adenocarcinoma-by-inducing-defined-genetic-alterations-in-organoids
#13
Kenji Unno, Meejeon Roh, Young A Yoo, Yousef Al-Shraideh, Lu Wang, Larisa Nonn, Sarki A Abdulkadir
Genomic studies are rapidly identifying genetic alterations in human cancer, but functional validation of such alterations has been slow. Here, using human prostate cancer as a model, we have assessed the feasibility of engineering defined genetic alterations in well-known cancer driver genes to transform benign prostate epithelial organoids derived from African American men. Benign human prostate organoids were transduced with lentiviruses expressing MYC, shPTEN, shTP53 and AR, alone and in various combinations, to recapitulate prostate cancer development...
April 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468594/prostate-derived-ets-factor-an-oncogenic-driver-in-breast-cancer
#14
Ashwani K Sood, Joseph Geradts, Jessica Young
Prostate-derived Ets factor (PDEF), a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, differs from other family members in its restricted expression in normal tissues and its unique DNA-binding motif. These interesting attributes coupled with its aberrant expression in cancer have rendered PDEF a focus of increasing interest by tumor biologists. This review provides a current understanding of the characteristics of PDEF expression and its role in breast cancer. The bulk of the evidence is consistent with PDEF overexpression in most breast tumors and an oncogenic role for this transcription factor in breast cancer...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464175/risky-teen-driving-in-a-rural-southern-state
#15
Kathy Monroe, William Hardwick, Victoria Lawson, Elizabeth Nichols, Michele Nichols, William D King
OBJECTIVE: Alabama is one of the five US states with the highest teen driving mortality. We recruited teen drivers to participate in a questionnaire regarding high-risk driving behaviors. METHODS: Teens were recruited from a large county school system to participate in a voluntary anonymous survey. Questions were taken in part from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1023 teen drivers participated (46% boys, 47% African American, 39% white, 6% Latino, and 7% other)...
May 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463691/evaluating-public-education-messages-aimed-at-monitoring-and-responding-to-social-interactive-technology-on-smartphones-among-young-drivers
#16
Cassandra S Gauld, Ioni Lewis, Katherine M White, Judy J Fleiter, Barry Watson
Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones...
April 29, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462990/widespread-anthropogenic-nitrogen-in-northwestern-pacific-ocean-sediment
#17
Haryun Kim, Kitack Lee, Dhong-Il Lim, Seung-Il Nam, Tae-Wook Kim, Jin-Yu T Yang, Young Ho Ko, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Eunil Lee
Sediment samples from the East China and Yellow seas collected adjacent to continental China were found to have lower δ(15)N values (expressed as δ(15)N = [(15)N:(14)Nsample/(15)N:(14)Nair - 1] × 1000‰; the sediment (15)N:(14)N ratio relative to the air nitrogen (15)N:(14)N ratio). In contrast, the Arctic sediments from the Chukchi Sea, the sampling region furthest from China, showed higher δ(15)N values (2-3‰ higher than those representing the East China and the Yellow sea sediments). Across the sites sampled, the levels of sediment δ(15)N increased with increasing distance from China, which is broadly consistent with the decreasing influence of anthropogenic nitrogen (N(ANTH)) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461427/climate-strategies-thinking-through-arctic-examples
#18
REVIEW
Barbara Bodenhorn, Olga Ulturgasheva
Frequent and unpredictable extreme weather events in Siberia and Alaska destroy infrastructure and threaten the livelihoods of circumpolar peoples. Local responses are inventive and flexible. However, the distinct politics of post-Soviet Siberia and Alaska play a key role in the pragmatics of strategic planning. The Arctic is a planetary climate driver, but also holds the promise of massive resources in an ice-free future, producing tensions between 'environmental' and 'development' goals. Drawing on material from Siberia and Alaska we argue: (i) that extreme events in the Arctic are becoming normal; material demands are in a state of flux making it difficult to assess future material needs...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454872/effects-of-an-integrated-collision-warning-system-on-teenage-driver-behavior
#19
Jessica S Jermakian, Shan Bao, Mary Lynn Buonarosa, James R Sayer, Charles M Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Crash warning systems have been shown to provide safety benefits, but no studies have examined how teenagers respond. This study sought to find out whether young, inexperienced drivers change behavior in response to warnings. METHODS: Forty 16-17 year-olds drove an instrumented vehicle equipped with a system that warned for lane departures and potential rear-end and lane change/merge crashes. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, and their driving was monitored for 14weeks during 2011-12...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454869/hierarchical-ordered-model-for-injury-severity-of-pedestrian-crashes-in-south-korea
#20
Myeonghyeon Kim, Seung-Young Kho, Dong-Kyu Kim
INTRODUCTION: The high percentage of fatalities in pedestrian-involved crashes is a critical social problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing injury severity in pedestrian crashes by examining the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the regions where crashes occurred. METHOD: To understand the correlation between the unobserved characteristics of pedestrian crashes in a defined region, we apply a hierarchical ordered model, in which we set crash characteristics as lower-level variables and municipality characteristics as upper-level...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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