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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632768/the-cost-of-demand-creation-activities-and-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-targeting-school-going-adolescents-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#2
Gavin George, Michael Strauss, Elias Asfaw
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, there remains a limited body of economic analysis on the cost of VMMC programming, and the demand creation activities used to mobilize males, especially among adolescent boys in school. This study addresses this gap by presenting the costs of a VMMC program which adopted two demand creation strategies targeting school-going males in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631612/wtf-genes-are-prolific-dual-poison-antidote-meiotic-drivers
#3
Nicole L Nuckolls, María Angélica Bravo Núñez, Michael T Eickbush, Janet M Young, Jeffrey J Lange, Jonathan S Yu, Gerald R Smith, Sue L Jaspersen, Harmit S Malik, Sarah E Zanders
Meiotic drivers are selfish genes that bias their transmission into gametes, defying Mendelian inheritance. Despite the significant impact of these genomic parasites on evolution and infertility, few meiotic drive loci have been identified or mechanistically characterized. Here, we demonstrate a complex landscape of meiotic drive genes on chromosome 3 of the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces kambucha and S. pombe. We identify S. kambucha wtf4 as one of these genes that acts to kill gametes (known as spores in yeast) that do not inherit the gene from heterozygotes...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623914/synaptonemal-complex-protein-3-is-associated-with-lymphangiogenesis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-lymph-node-metastasis
#4
Haruhisa Kitano, Joon-Yong Chung, Kyung Hee Noh, Young-Ho Lee, Tae Woo Kim, Seok Hyung Lee, Soo-Heang Eo, Hyung Jun Cho, Chel Hun Choi, Shuhei Inoue, Jun Hanaoka, Junya Fukuoka, Stephen M Hewitt
BACKGROUND: The interaction of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)/VEGF-D/VEGF receptor-3 is considered to be a major driver of lymphangiogenesis, however the mechanism of this process remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the possible lymphangiogenic significance of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The expression of SCP3, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were measured and examined a correlation between SCP3 and VEGF-C or VEGF-D in various human lung cancer cell lines...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621227/expression-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-driver-brachyury-and-status-of-tumor-infiltrating-cd8-and-foxp3-lymphocytes-in-predicting-treatment-responses-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-of-breast-cancer
#5
Kwan Ho Lee, Eun Young Kim, Yong Lai Park, Sung-Im Do, Seoung Wan Chae, Chan Heun Park
Brachyury has been characterized as a driver of epithelial-mesenchymal transition process which is regarded as an important mechanism of cancer cell invasion and metastatic progression. The status of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has been proposed to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. We investigated the clinical significance and value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and brachyury as biomarkers to predict treatment responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. We also examined the correlation of the Neo-Bioscore with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and brachyury to indirectly predict long-term outcome...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620324/description-of-various-factors-contributing-to-traffic-accidents-in-youth-and-measures-proposed-to-alleviate-recurrence
#6
REVIEW
Ludovic Gicquel, Pauline Ordonneau, Emilie Blot, Charlotte Toillon, Pierre Ingrand, Lucia Romo
Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615044/comparison-of-transportation-related-injury-mechanisms-and-outcome-of-young-road-users-and-adult-road-users-a-retrospective-analysis-on-24-373-patients-derived-from-the-traumaregister-dgu-%C3%A2
#7
Thomas Brockamp, Uli Schmucker, Rolf Lefering, Manuel Mutschler, Arne Driessen, Christian Probst, Bertil Bouillon, Paola Koenen
BACKGROUND: Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms...
June 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611104/cisplatin-increases-sensitivity-to-fgfr-inhibition-in-patient-derived-xenograft-models-of-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Clare E Weeden, Aliaksei Z Holik, Richard J Young, Stephen B Ma, Jean-Marc Garnier, Stephen B Fox, Phillip Antippa, Louis B Irving, Daniel P Steinfort, Gavin M Wright, Prudence A Russell, Matthew E Ritchie, Christopher J Burns, Benjamin Solomon, Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is a molecularly complex and genomically unstable disease. No targeted therapy is currently approved for lung SqCC, although potential oncogenic drivers of SqCC have been identified, including amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). Reports from a recently completed clinical trial indicate low response rates in patients treated with FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting inadequacy of FGFR1 amplification as a biomarker of response, or the need for combination treatment...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604931/motor-vehicle-crash-risk-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Allison E Curry, Kristina B Metzger, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott, Flaura K Winston, Thomas J Power
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence, when motor vehicle crash risk peaks. We know little about when adolescents with ADHD get licensed and, once they do, the extent to which they have increased crash risk compared with adolescents without ADHD. Objectives: To examine the association between ADHD and both driver licensing and crash involvement and whether it varies by sex, licensing age, and/or being prescribed ADHD medication at licensure...
June 12, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592258/pathways-linking-car-transport-for-young-adults-and-the-public-health-in-northern-ireland-a-qualitative-study-to-inform-the-evaluation-of-graduated-driver-licensing
#10
Nicola Christie, Rebecca Steinbach, Judith Green, M Patricia Mullan, Lindsay Prior
BACKGROUND: Novice drivers are at relatively high risk of road traffic injury. There is good evidence that Graduated Driving Licensing (GDL) schemes reduce collisions rates, by reducing exposure to risk and by extending learning periods. Legislation for a proposed scheme in Northern Ireland was passed in 2016, providing an opportunity for future evaluation of the full public health impacts of a scheme in a European context within a natural experiment. This qualitative study was designed to inform the logic model for such an evaluation, and provide baseline qualitative data on the role of private cars in health and wellbeing...
June 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588542/prior-knowledge-of-object-associations-shapes-attentional-templates-and-information-acquisition
#11
REVIEW
Rachel Wu, Jiaying Zhao
Studies on attentional selection typically use unpredictable and meaningless stimuli, such as simple shapes and oriented lines. The assumption is that using these stimuli minimizes effects due to learning or prior knowledge, such that the task performance indexes a "pure" measure of the underlying cognitive ability. However, prior knowledge of the test stimuli and related stimuli acquired before or during the task impacts performance in meaningful ways. This mini review focuses on prior knowledge of object associations, because it is an important, yet often ignored, aspect of attentional selection...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571061/psychology-of-the-facelift-patient
#12
David Sarcu, Peter Adamson
This paper presents an extensive literature review of the psychology of facelift patients as it has evolved over the past 50 years. Earlier studies revealed significant levels of pre and perioperative depression. Facelift patients generally exhibit emotional and social concerns about facial appearance that are higher than the general population. Many are undergoing midlife situational stresses and may lack the positive characteristics to deal with them. The most common diagnoses seen include depression, impulsivity, unstable personality, and passive dependence, albeit not necessarily serious...
June 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562602/drivers-of-abundance-and-spatial-distribution-of-reef-associated-sharks-in-an-isolated-atoll-reef-system
#13
David M Tickler, Tom B Letessier, Heather J Koldewey, Jessica J Meeuwig
We investigated drivers of reef shark demography across a large and isolated marine protected area, the British Indian Ocean Territory Marine Reserve, using stereo baited remote underwater video systems. We modelled shark abundance against biotic and abiotic variables at 35 sites across the reserve and found that the biomass of low trophic order fish (specifically planktivores) had the greatest effect on shark abundance, although models also included habitat variables (depth, coral cover and site type). There was significant variation in the composition of the shark assemblage at different atolls within the reserve...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559365/-trapped-in-the-labyrinth-exploring-mental-illness-through-devised-theatrical-performance
#14
Paul Patterson, Persephone Sextou
Mental health difficulties remain a major source of burden and distress for individuals, families, health and social care providers with stigma a key target for educational campaigns attempting to improve care pathways and access to support. Stigma is a multifaceted concept having a range of drivers including shame and is thought to act as a barrier to successful help seeking and engagement with support services. The current paper explores some of the salient themes that emerged from a British university drama project on the impact of symptoms and behaviours associated with a severe mental health condition on a young couple's relationship and reflects on the opportunities for connection with an audience provided by the medium and experience...
June 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555155/review-of-factors-related-to-the-thyroid-cancer-epidemic
#15
REVIEW
Yihao Liu, Lei Su, Haipeng Xiao
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer, of which the incidence has dramatically increased worldwide in the past few decades. The reasons for the observed rapid increase still are not fully understood, but evidence suggests that overdiagnosis, with the advancement in detection methods and screening policies, is not the sole driver of the substantial increase of the incidence. However, the effect of environmental/lifestyle factors remains speculative other than that of radiation exposure at a young age...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551389/mutation-analysis-of-ctnnb1-gene-and-the-ras-pathway-genes-kras-nras-braf-and-pik3ca-in-eyelid-sebaceous-carcinomas
#16
Mi Jung Kwon, Eun Sook Nam, Seong Jin Cho, Hye-Rim Park, Soo Kee Min, Jinwon Seo, Ji-Young Choe
Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) represents a rare, aggressive eyelid malignancy with poor prognosis and is a possible component of Muir-Torre syndrome. However, genetic features as driver mutations or potential therapeutic targets are not fully elucidated. Recent a few studies have shown that SCs have concurrently multiple mutations including RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via next-generation sequencing in western population. Because we recently demonstrated absence of KRAS mutations in Korean eyelid SCs, we extended our previous study to the analysis of NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and CTNNB1 mutations, and the examination of related protein expressions in 15 eyelid SCs...
June 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550102/girls-crash-too-trends-in-single-vehicle-crash-rates-in-young-and-adult-male-and-female-drivers
#17
Sarah J Jones
Young adult drivers (YADs) are over-represented in crashes mainly because of their age and inexperience. Studying single vehicle crashes by age and sex may identify new approaches to intervention. In 2014, male YAD (17-19 years) crash casualty rates were 11.4 times higher than older drivers (30-59 years), compared with 17.6 times higher in 2005, and 1.9 times female YAD, compared with 2.5 times higher in 2005. Crash casualty rates involving male and female YADs are declining. Action is needed to address YAD crash casualties involving both males and females...
June 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548584/the-sex-disparity-in-risky-driving-a-survey-of-colombian-young-drivers
#18
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
OBJECTIVE: The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognised as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has also been recognised as a pervasive young driver problem. Whilst progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilisation and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates...
May 26, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538216/the-emerging-view-of-aging-as-a-reversible-epigenetic-process
#19
Micaela López-León, Rodolfo G Goya
The achievement of animal cloning and subsequent development of cell reprogramming technology are having a profound impact on our view of the mechanisms of aging in complex organisms. The experimental evidence showing that an adult somatic nucleus implanted into an enucleated oocyte can give rise to a whole new individual strongly suggests that the integrity of the genome of an adult nucleus is fully preserved. Here, we will review recent experimental evidence showing that pluripotency gene-based cell reprogramming can erase the epigenetic marks of aging and rejuvenate cells from old individuals reversing most signs of aging and that when induced pluripotent stem cells are differentiated back to the cell type of origin, the rejuvenated cells share many of the features of wild-type counterparts from young donors...
May 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512475/risk-factors-for-road-traffic-injuries-among-different-road-users-in-the-gambia
#20
Edrisa Sanyang, Corinne Peek-Asa, Paul Bass, Tracy L Young, Babanding Daffeh, Laurence J Fuortes
We identified risk factors for road traffic injuries among road users who received treatment at two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. The study includes pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers/passengers of cars and trucks. We examined distributions of injury by age, gender, collision vehicle types and vehicle category, and driver and environment factors. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study. Two-thirds were male and one-third female. Two-thirds (67%) of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists; and these were more common during weekdays (74%) than weekends...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
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