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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912772/food-systems-transformations-ultra-processed-food-markets-and-the-nutrition-transition-in-asia
#1
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909391/visual-behavior-differences-in-drivers-across-the-lifespan-a-digital-billboard-simulator-study
#2
Despina Stavrinos, Peyton R Mosley, Shannon M Wittig, Haley D Johnson, John S Decker, Virginia P Sisiopiku, Sharon C Welburn
Driver distraction is implicated in a significant portion of motor vehicle collisions; evidence has suggested that billboards can contribute to such distraction, but many knowledge gaps remain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various types of billboards (static, 250-foot digital transition, 500-foot digital transition, and a control [no billboard] condition) and age group (teen, middle, and older) on visual behavior through the use of a driving simulator. To address gaps in the existing literature, the effects of age group and billboard type on the following visual attention variables were considered: percent of time participants looked at billboards, average glance length, number of glances, and glance pattern activity...
August 2016: Transportation Research. Part F, Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907085/the-natural-variation-in-lifespans-of-single-yeast-cells-is-related-to-variation-in-cell-size-ribosomal-protein-and-division-time
#3
Georges E Janssens, Liesbeth M Veenhoff
There is a large variability in lifespans of individuals even if they are genetically identical and raised under the same environmental conditions. Our recent system wide study of replicative aging in baker's yeast predicts that protein biogenesis is a driver of aging. Here, we address how the natural variation in replicative lifespan within wild-type populations of yeast cells correlates to three biogenesis-related parameters, namely cell size, ribosomal protein Rpl13A-GFP levels, and division times. Imaging wild type yeast cells in microfluidic devices we observe that in all cells and at all ages, the division times as well as the increase in cell size that single yeast undergo while aging negatively correlate to their lifespan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900369/genomic-profiling-of-multiple-sequentially-acquired-tumor-metastatic-sites-from-an-exceptional-responder-lung-adenocarcinoma-patient-reveals-extensive-genomic-heterogeneity-and-novel-somatic-variants-driving-treatment-response
#4
Romi Biswas, Shaojian Gao, Constance M Cultraro, Tapan K Maity, Abhilash Venugopalan, Zied Abdullaev, Alexey K Shaytan, Corey A Carter, Anish Thomas, Arun Rajan, Young Song, Stephanie Pitts, Kevin Chen, Sara Bass, Joseph Boland, Ken-Ichi Hanada, Jinqiu Chen, Paul S Meltzer, Anna R Panchenko, James C Yang, Svetlana Pack, Giuseppe Giaccone, David S Schrump, Javed Khan, Udayan Guha
We used next-generation sequencing to identify somatic alterations in multiple metastatic sites from an "exceptional responder" lung adenocarcinoma patient during his 7-yr course of ERBB2-directed therapies. The degree of heterogeneity was unprecedented, with ∼1% similarity between somatic alterations of the lung and lymph nodes. One novel translocation, PLAG1-ACTA2, present in both sites, up-regulated ACTA2 expression. ERBB2, the predominant driver oncogene, was amplified in both sites, more pronounced in the lung, and harbored an L869R mutation in the lymph node...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894566/the-association-between-handheld-phone-bans-and-the-prevalence-of-handheld-phone-conversations-among-young-drivers-in-the-united-states
#5
Motao Zhu, Toni M Rudisill, Steven Heeringa, David Swedler, Donald A Redelmeier
PURPOSE: Fourteen US states and the District of Columbia have banned handheld phone use for all drivers. We examined whether such legislation was associated with reduced handheld phone conversations among drivers aged younger than 25 years. METHODS: Data from the 2008 to 2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' legislation. The outcome was roadside-observed handheld phone conversation at stop signs or lights. Logistic regression was used...
December 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890934/egr2-mutations-define-a-new-clinically-aggressive-subgroup-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#6
E Young, D Noerenberg, L Mansouri, V Ljungström, M Frick, L-A Sutton, S J Blakemore, J Galan-Sousa, K Plevova, P Baliakas, D Rossi, R Clifford, D Roos-Weil, V Navrkalova, B Dörken, C A Schmitt, K E Smedby, G Juliusson, B Giacopelli, J S Blachly, C Belessi, P Panagiotidis, N Chiorazzi, F Davi, A W Langerak, D Oscier, A Schuh, G Gaidano, P Ghia, W Xu, L Fan, O A Bernard, F Nguyen-Khac, L Rassenti, J Li, T J Kipps, K Stamatopoulos, S Pospisilova, T Zenz, C C Oakes, J C Strefford, R Rosenquist, F Damm
Recurrent mutations within EGR2 were recently reported in advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and associated with a worse outcome. To study their prognostic impact, 2403 CLL patients were examined for mutations in the EGR2 hotspot region including a screening (n=1283) and two validation cohorts (UK CLL4 trial patients, n=366; CLL Research Consortium (CRC) patients, n=490). Targeted deep-sequencing of 27 known/postulated CLL driver genes was also performed in 38 EGR2-mutated patients to assess concurrent mutations...
November 28, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886139/research-on-the-relationship-between-reaction-ability-and-mental-state-for-online-assessment-of-driving-fatigue
#7
Mengzhu Guo, Shiwu Li, Linhong Wang, Meng Chai, Facheng Chen, Yunong Wei
Background: Driving fatigue affects the reaction ability of a driver. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between driving fatigue, physiological signals and driver's reaction time. Methods: Twenty subjects were tested during driving. Data pertaining to reaction time and physiological signals including electroencephalograph (EEG) were collected from twenty simulation experiments. Grey correlation analysis was used to select the input variable of the classification model. A support vector machine was used to divide the mental state into three levels...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869953/profile-of-work-related-road-traffic-accident-victims-recorded-by-sentinel-health-units-in-pernambuco-brazil-2012-2014
#8
Caroline Cordeiro Souto, Flávia Karina Wanderley Reis, Raphaella Patrícia Torres Bertolini, Rosimeiry Santos de Melo Almeida Lins, Sandra Luzia Barbosa de Souza
OBJECTIVE: to describe the profile of work-related road traffic accident (RTA) victims, reported by Road Traffic Accident Information Sentinel Units in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2012-2014. METHODS: descriptive study of fatal and non-fatal work-related road traffic accident victims, reported by 21 RTA Information Sentinel Units in Pernambuco. RESULTS: 87.8% of the 10,691 cases reported occurred among males; 69.0% of all records were related to the 20-39 age group; the sectors with most injured workers were Transport (24...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865886/social-regulation-of-ageing-by-young-workers-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#9
Michael Eyer, Benjamin Dainat, Peter Neumann, Vincent Dietemann
Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865138/young-driver-risky-behaviour-and-predictors-of-crash-risk-in-australia-new-zealand-and-colombia-same-but-different
#10
Bridie Scott-Parker, Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios
Young drivers remain overrepresented in road crashes around the world, with road injury the leading cause of death among adolescents. In addition, the majority of road traffic crashes, fatalities and injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries. All young drivers are at risk due to a breadth of age- and inexperience-related factors; however it is well recognised that young drivers may also intentionally engage in risky driving behaviours which increase their crash risk. The aim of this paper is to examine the self-reported risky driving behaviour of young drivers in Australia, New Zealand (high-income countries), and Colombia (middle-income country), and to explore the utility of a crash risk assessment model in these three countries...
November 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855083/consumption-of-energy-drinks-by-children-and-young-people-a-rapid-review-examining-evidence-of-physical-effects-and-consumer-attitudes
#11
Shelina Visram, Mandy Cheetham, Deborah M Riby, Stephen J Crossley, Amelia A Lake
OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. DESIGN: Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. DATA SOURCES: 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. RESULTS: A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria...
October 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853564/bushmeat-hunting-and-extinction-risk-to-the-world-s-mammals
#12
William J Ripple, Katharine Abernethy, Matthew G Betts, Guillaume Chapron, Rodolfo Dirzo, Mauro Galetti, Taal Levi, Peter A Lindsey, David W Macdonald, Brian Machovina, Thomas M Newsome, Carlos A Peres, Arian D Wallach, Christopher Wolf, Hillary Young
Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and competition with livestock...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852708/choice-of-moisturiser-for-eczema-treatment-comet-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-trial-in-children-recruited-from-primary-care
#13
Matthew J Ridd, Kirsty Garfield, Daisy M Gaunt, Sandra Hollinghurst, Niamh M Redmond, Kingsley Powell, Victoria Wilson, Richard H Guy, Nicola Ball, Lindsay Shaw, Sarah Purdy, Chris Metcalfe
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of 'leave on' emollients for children with eczema. DESIGN: Single-centre, pragmatic, 4-arm, observer-blinded, parallel, randomised feasibility trial. SETTING: General practices in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Children with eczema aged 1 month to <5 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome-proportion of parents who reported use of the allocated study emollient every day for the duration of follow-up (12 weeks)...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847001/the-antecedents-experience-and-coping-strategies-of-driver-boredom-in-young-adult-males
#14
Fabius Steinberger, April Moeller, Ronald Schroeter
INTRODUCTION: Road crash statistics are evidence of the severe consequences resulting from human error, especially among young adult males. Drivers perform best and safest when they are adequately engaged in the driving task. Boredom and a lack of engagement in the driving task may cause risk taking and phone use. However, the antecedents to driver boredom, the subjective experience itself, as well as the coping strategies to combat boredom are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these aspects...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834690/rac2-modulates-atherosclerotic-calcification-by-regulating-macrophage-interleukin-1%C3%AE-production
#15
Nicolle Ceneri, Lina Zhao, Bryan D Young, Abigail Healy, Suleyman Coskun, Hema Vasavada, Timur O Yarovinsky, Kenneth Ike, Ruggero Pardi, Lingfen Qin, Li Qin, George Tellides, Karen Hirschi, Judith Meadows, Robert Soufer, Hyung J Chun, Mehran Sadeghi, Jeffrey R Bender, Alan R Morrison
OBJECTIVE: The calcium composition of atherosclerotic plaque is thought to be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events, but whether plaque calcium itself is predictive of worsening clinical outcomes remains highly controversial. Inflammation is likely a key mediator of vascular calcification, but immune signaling mechanisms that promote this process are minimally understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we identify Rac2 as a major inflammatory regulator of signaling that directs plaque osteogenesis...
November 10, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834181/the-epidemiology-of-fatal-road-traffic-collisions-in-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies-2000-2011
#16
Chavin D Gopaul, Aruna Singh-Gopaul, Joan M Sutherland, Luke Rostant, Kristie L Ebi, Dave D Chadee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of road traffic collisions (RTCs) in Trinidad and Tobago by characterizing RTCs in terms of number of collisions, fatalities, victim profiles, and locations for the purpose of informing accident prevention programs. Previous studies of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago were primarily concerned with patterns of drivers use of seat belts, road collisions as a cause of mortality in young men, and the economic burden of road collisions...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825590/how-can-primary-care-physicians-best-support-contraceptive-decision-making-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-perspectives-of-baltimore-latinas
#17
Diana N Carvajal, Deborah Gioia, Estefania Rivera Mudafort, Pamela Bohrer Brown, Beth Barnet
OBJECTIVES: U.S. Latinas experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and low rates of consistent contraception use. Not well known are Latinas' perspectives about how primary care physicians (PCPs) might facilitate or deter contraceptive decision making. The theory of planned behavior has been used previously to explain contraceptive behaviors. This study used the theory of planned behavior as a guide to help describe Latinas' perspectives regarding specific factors that influence their contraceptive decision making and to describe their perspectives about the role of PCPs in the decision making...
November 4, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821942/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-safe-driving-behavior-measure-and-the-driving-habits-questionnaire-for-older-self-drivers
#18
Kweon-Young Kim, Chiang-Soon Song, Hye-Sun Lee
[Purpose] To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five older participated in this study, to measure the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated along with cut-off values and overall accuracy of each measure as determined by the participants operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819528/interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-is-elevated-in-wound-exudate-from-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#19
Anirban Banerjee, Sean McNish, Victoria K Shanmugam
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease of apocrine glands which affects 1-4% of young adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate inflammatory cytokines in effluent from HS lesions and to identify potential local drivers of inflammation in HS. Wound fluid specimens from HS patients (n = 8) and age-matched chronic wound patients (n = 8) were selected for analysis. The hidradenitis suppurativa score (HSS) was used to determine the extent of HS activity. Cytokine analysis was conducted using Meso Scale Discovery cytokine and proinflammatory panels...
November 7, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819445/brief-mindfulness-meditation-training-reduces-mind-wandering-the-critical-role-of-acceptance
#20
Hayley A Rahl, Emily K Lindsay, Laura E Pacilio, Kirk W Brown, J David Creswell
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
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