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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933560/unintentional-nontraffic-injury-and-fatal-events-threats-to-children-in-and-around-vehicles
#1
Mark R Zonfrillo, Mackenzie L Ramsay, Janette E Fennell, Amber Rollins
Objective There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about nontraffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various nontraffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. Methods Instances of nontraffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 - December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication...
September 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933430/a-binary-main-belt-comet
#2
Jessica Agarwal, David Jewitt, Max Mutchler, Harold Weaver, Stephen Larson
Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei...
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931572/drosophila-neprilysin-1-rescues-memory-deficits-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#3
Oriane Turrel, Valérie Goguel, Thomas Preat
Neprilysins are type-II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides, in particular the mammalian amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In Drosophila, several neprilysins expressed in the brain are required for middle-term (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, a pair of large neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MB), the center of olfactory memory. These data indicate that one or several peptides need to be degraded for MTM and LTM. We have previously shown that the fly amyloid precursor protein (APPL) is required for memory in the MB...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928761/hormonal-regulation-in-shade-avoidance
#4
REVIEW
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925350/beliefs-in-social-inclusion-invariance-in-associations-among-hope-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-social-inclusion-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#5
Clio Berry, Kathryn Greenwood
Social disability in youth is an important precursor of long-term social and mental health problems. Social inclusion is a key policy driver and fits well within a new paradigm of health and well-being rather than illness-oriented services, yet little is known about social inclusion and its facilitators for "healthy" young people. We present a novel exploratory structural analysis of social inclusion using measures from 387 14- to 36-year-olds. Our model represents social inclusion as comprising social activity and community belonging, with both domains predicted by hopeful and dysfunctional self-beliefs but hopefulness more uniquely predicting social inclusion in adolescence...
September 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921595/the-interplay-of-type-i-and-type-ii-interferons-in-murine-autoimmune-cholangitis-as-a-basis-for-sex-biased-autoimmunity
#6
Heekyong R Bae, Deborah L Hodge, Guo-Xiang Yang, Patrick S C Leung, Sathi Babu Chodisetti, Julio C Valencia, Michael Sanford, John M Fenimore, Ziaur S M Rahman, Koichi Tsuneyama, Gary L Norman, M Eric Gershwin, Howard A Young
We have reported a murine model of autoimmune cholangitis, generated by altering the AU rich element by deletion of the IFN-γ 3'UTR region (coined ARE-Del(-/-) ), that has striking similarities to human primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with female predominance. Previously, we suggested that the gender bias of autoimmune cholangitis was secondary to intense and sustained type I and II IFN signaling. Based on this thesis, and to define the mechanisms that lead to portal inflammation, we specifically addressed the hypothesis that type I IFNs are the driver of this disease...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913764/drivers-challenges-and-opportunities-of-forage-technology-adoption-by-smallholder-cattle-households-in-cambodia
#7
K Ashley, S Wilson, J R Young, H P Chan, S Vitou, S Suon, P A Windsor, R D Bush
Forage technology has been successfully introduced into smallholder cattle systems in Cambodia as an alternative feed source to the traditional rice straw and native pastures, improving animal nutrition and reducing labour requirements of feeding cattle. Previous research has highlighted the positive impacts of forage technology including improved growth rates of cattle and household time savings. However, further research is required to understand the drivers, challenges and opportunities of forage technology for smallholder cattle households in Cambodia to facilitate widespread adoption and identify areas for further improvement...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890321/general-hospital-costs-in-england-of-medical-and-psychiatric-care-for-patients-who-self-harm-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
Apostolos Tsiachristas, David McDaid, Deborah Casey, Fiona Brand, Jose Leal, A-La Park, Galit Geulayov, Keith Hawton
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is an extremely common reason for hospital presentation. However, few estimates have been made of the hospital costs of assessing and treating self-harm. Such information is essential for planning services and to help strengthen the case for investment in actions to reduce the frequency and effects of self-harm. In this study, we aimed to calculate the costs of hospital medical care associated with a self-harm episode and the costs of psychosocial assessment, together with identification of the key drivers of these costs...
September 7, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889201/not-accounting-for-interindividual-variability-can-mask-habitat-selection-patterns-a-case-study-on-black-bears
#9
Rémi Lesmerises, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Habitat selection studies conducted at the population scale commonly aim to describe general patterns that could improve our understanding of the limiting factors in species-habitat relationships. Researchers often consider interindividual variation in selection patterns to control for its effects and avoid pseudoreplication by using mixed-effect models that include individuals as random factors. Here, we highlight common pitfalls and possible misinterpretations of this strategy by describing habitat selection of 21 black bears Ursus americanus...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884202/gcg-creert2-knockin-mice-as-a-tool-for-genetic-manipulation-in-pancreatic-alpha-cells
#10
Chiyo Shiota, Krishna Prasadan, Ping Guo, Joseph Fusco, Xiangwei Xiao, George K Gittes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Cre/loxP system, which enables tissue-specific manipulation of genes, is widely used in mice for diabetes research. Our aim was to develop a new Cre-driver mouse line for the specific and efficient manipulation of genes in pancreatic alpha cells. METHODS: A Gcg (CreERT2) knockin mouse, which expresses a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre from the endogenous preproglucagon (Gcg) gene locus, was generated by homologous recombination. The new Gcg (CreERT2) mouse line was crossed to the Rosa26 (tdTomato) (R26 (tdTomato) ) Cre reporter mouse line in order to evaluate the tissue specificity, efficiency and tamoxifen dependency of Gcg (CreERT2) -mediated recombination...
September 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882276/economic-and-statistical-perspectives-on-traffic-safety-in-louisiana-2005-2015
#11
Onyumbe Enumbe B Lukongo
INTRODUCTION: This study examine and applies recent empirical evidence from Mississippi and Alabama on fatal crashes and its relationship with gasoline prices and alcohol consumptions using the Louisiana Crash Data Reports between January 2005 and December 2015. METHOD: The negative binomial models is the preferred specification for the Louisiana Crash Data. The marginal effects and related elasticities were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the results...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881646/modeling-african-american-prostate-adenocarcinoma-by-inducing-defined-genetic-alterations-in-organoids
#12
Kenji Unno, Meejeon Roh, Young A Yoo, Yousef Al-Shraideh, Lu Wang, Larisa Nonn, Sarki A Abdulkadir
Genomic studies are rapidly identifying genetic alterations in human cancer, but functional validation of such alterations has been slow. Here, using human prostate cancer as a model, we have assessed the feasibility of engineering defined genetic alterations in well-known cancer driver genes to transform benign prostate epithelial organoids derived from African American men. Benign human prostate organoids were transduced with lentiviruses expressing MYC, shPTEN, shTP53 and AR, alone and in various combinations, to recapitulate prostate cancer development...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873240/gastric-poorly-cohesive-carcinoma-a-correlative-study-of-mutational-signatures-and-prognostic-significance-based-on-histopathologic-subtypes
#13
Chae Hwa Kwon, Young Keum Kim, Sojeong Lee, Ahrong Kim, Hye Ji Park, Yuri Choi, Yeo Jin Won, Do Youn Park, Gregory Y Lauwers
AIMS: Genome-wide next-generation sequencing has revealed several driver mutations and allows establishing a molecular taxonomy of gastric cancer. However, correlation between the broad mutational spectrum of gastric cancer and its various clinicopathological characteristics has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Herein, we analyzed the mutational pattern of 77 genes in a cohort of 91 patients with poorly cohesive carcinoma using targeted sequencing and evaluated the clinicopathological significance of the various mutations based its histologic pattern, either signet ring cell (SRC) or other types of poorly cohesive carcinoma (not otherwise specified) (PCC-NOS)...
September 5, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859144/the-effects-of-sleep-loss-on-young-drivers-performance-a-systematic-review
#14
Shamsi Shekari Soleimanloo, Melanie J White, Veronica Garcia-Hansen, Simon S Smith
Young drivers (18-24 years) are over-represented in sleep-related crashes (comprising one in five fatal crashes in developed countries) primarily due to decreased sleep opportunity, lower tolerance for sleep loss, and ongoing maturation of brain areas associated with driving-related decision making. Impaired driving performance is the proximal reason for most car crashes. There is still a limited body of evidence examining the effects of sleep loss on young drivers' performance, with discrepancies in the methodologies used, and in the definition of outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851365/primary-care-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-south-africa-qualitative-study-exploring-perspectives-of-national-stakeholders
#15
Tamara Kredo, Amber Abrams, Taryn Young, Quinette Louw, Jimmy Volmink, Karen Daniels
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are common tools in policy and clinical practice informing clinical decisions at the bedside, governance of health facilities, health insurer and government spending, and patient choices. South Africa's health sector is transitioning to a national health insurance system, aiming to build on other primary health care initiatives to transform the previously segregated, inequitable services. Within these plans CPGs are an integral tool for delivering standardised and cost effective care...
August 29, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841780/evaluating-the-mutual-pathways-among-electronic-cigarette-use-conventional-smoking-and-nicotine-dependence
#16
Arielle S Selya, Jennifer S Rose, Lisa Dierker, Donald Hedeker, Robin J Mermelstein
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The implications of the rapid rise in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use remain unknown. We examined mutual associations between e-cigarette use, conventional cigarette use, and nicotine dependence over time to 1) test the association between e-cigarette use and later conventional smoking (both direct and via nicotine dependence), 2) test the converse associations, and 3) determine the strongest pathways predicting each product's use. DESIGN: Data from 4 annual waves of a prospective cohort study were analyzed...
August 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841148/targeting-tumor-adaption-to-chronic-hypoxia-implications-for-drug-resistance-and-how-it-can-be-overcome
#17
REVIEW
Jae-Young Kim, Joo-Yong Lee
The rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of tumors limits the availability of oxygen and nutrients supplied from the tumor vasculature, thus exposing them to low oxygen environments. Thus, diminished oxygen availability, or hypoxia, is the most common microenvironment feature of nearly all solid tumors. All living cells have the ability to sense changes in oxygen tension and adapt to this stress to preserve survival. Likewise, cancer cells adapt to chronic hypoxic stress via several mechanisms, including promotion of angiogenic factor production, metabolic shift to consume less oxygen, and reduction of apoptotic potential...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840378/panel-sequencing-of-264-candidate-susceptibility-genes-and-segregation-analysis-in-a-cohort-of-non-brca1-non-brca2-breast-cancer-families
#18
Jun Li, Hongyan Li, Igor Makunin, Bryony A Thompson, Kayoko Tao, Erin L Young, Jacqueline Lopez, Nicola J Camp, Sean V Tavtigian, Esther M John, Irene L Andrulis, Kum Kum Khanna, David Goldgar, Georgia Chenevix-Trench
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to screen epigenetic modifier genes and known breast cancer driver genes for germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAx) breast cancer families in order to identify novel susceptibility genes of moderate-high penetrance. METHODS: We screened 264 candidate susceptibility genes in 656 index cases from non-BRCA1/2 families. Potentially pathogenic candidate mutations were then genotyped in all available family members for the assessment of co-segregation of the variant with disease in the family in order to estimate the breast cancer risks associated with these mutations...
August 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837359/young-females-attention-towards-road-safety-images-an-erp-study-of-the-revised-reinforcement-sensitivity-theory
#19
Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Melanie J White, Ioni Lewis
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualised by Gray and McNaughton's revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention towards a series of positive and negative anti-speeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviours which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger Behavioural Approach System (BAS; sensitive to rewards)...
August 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836343/addressing-barriers-to-maternal-nutrition-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-programme-implications
#20
REVIEW
Justine A Kavle, Megan Landry
Adequate maternal nutrition during the "first 1,000 days" window is critical from conception through the first 6 months of life to improve nutritional status and reduce the risk of poor birth outcomes, such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Unfortunately, many programmes have targeted implementation and monitoring of nutrition interventions to infants and young children, rather than to women during pregnancy or post-partum. A literature review was conducted to identify barriers to food choice and consumption during pregnancy and lactation and to examine how low- and middle-income countries have addressed maternal nutrition in programmes...
August 24, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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