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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812453/ergonomic-evaluation-of-a-new-truck-seat-design-a-field-study
#1
Michelle Cardoso, Fred Fulton, Colin McKinnon, Jack P Callaghan, Michel J Johnson, Wayne J Albert
A postural evaluation of commercial licensed truck drivers was conducted to determine the ergonomic benefits of a truck seat prototype in comparison to an Industry standard seat. Twenty commercially licensed truck drivers were recruited to perform a 90-min driving task. Postures were assessed using accelerometers and a backrest and seat pan pressure mapping system. Subjective discomfort measurements were monitored using two questionnaires: ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the automotive seating discomfort questionnaire (ASDQ)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807937/hnf1b-loss-exacerbates-the-development-of-chromophobe-renal-cell-carcinomas
#2
Eric Jonasch, Mianen Sun, Pan Tong, Wen Kong, Baijun Dong, Yiran Huang, In Young Park, Lijun Zhou, Xian-De Liu, Zhiyong Ding, Xuesong Zhang, Shanshan Bai, Peter German, Reid Powell, Quan Wang, Xuefei Tong, Nizar M Tannir, Surena F Matin, W Kimryn Rathmell, Gregory N Fuller, Ian E McCutcheon, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Jing Wang
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is characterized by major changes in chromosomal copy number (CN). No model is available to precisely elucidate the molecular drivers of this tumor type. HNF1B is a master regulator of gene expression. Here we report that the transcription factor HNF1B is downregulated in the majority of ChRCC and that the magnitude of HNF1B loss is unique to ChRCC. We also observed a strong correlation between reduced HNF1B expression and aneuploidy in ChRCC patients. In murine embryonic fibroblasts or ACHN cells, HNF1B deficiency reduced expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2L1 and BUB1B, and the cell cycle checkpoint proteins RB1 and p27...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807780/mgl-1-on-aiy-neurons-translates-starvation-to-reproductive-plasticity-via-neuropeptide-signaling-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Haelim Jeong, Young-Ki Paik
Reproductive plasticity is the ability of an animal to modulate its reproductive functions in response to environmental changes. For example, Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, can adjust the onsets of oogenesis and embryogenesis under harsh environmental conditions, including starvation. However, the molecular mechanisms used to perceive and translate environmental signals into reproductive functional adjustments remain largely uncharacterized. We discovered that in C. elegans, the glutamate receptor homolog MGL-1 initiated reproductive plasticity in response to starvation...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806950/precision-medicine-approaches-to-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-concomitant-met-and-her2-amplification
#4
Doo-Yi Oh, Kyungsoo Jung, Ji-Young Song, Seokhwi Kim, Sang Shin, Yong-Jun Kwon, Ensel Oh, Woong-Yang Park, Sang Yong Song, Yoon-La Choi
BACKGROUND: Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are important tools in precision medicine and for the development of targeted therapies to treat cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate our precision medicine strategy that integrates genomic profiling and preclinical drug-screening platforms, in order to personalize cancer treatments using PDX models. METHODS: We performed array-comparative genomic hybridization, microarray, and targeted next-generation sequencing analyses, in order to determine the oncogenic driver mutations...
August 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806009/regional-infant-and-child-mortality-review-committee-2015-final-report
#5
Ann L Wilson, Jim Sideras, Brad Randall
The Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee serves 10 counties in southeastern South Dakota and aims to use its reviews to prevent future loss of life during childhood. In 2015, the committee reviewed 24 deaths (compared to 32 cases in 2013 and 25 cases in 2014). Consistent with observations made in previous years, in 2015 all infants (n=7) who died during sleep did so with risks present in the sleep environment. Progress in decreasing these infant deaths in the region is not being observed, and in fact, may even be deteriorating...
October 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802462/driver-performance-and-attention-allocation-in-use-of-logo-signs-on-freeway-exit-ramps
#6
Maryam Zahabi, Patricia Machado, Mei Ying Lau, Yulin Deng, Carl Pankok, Joseph Hummer, William Rasdorf, David B Kaber
The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of driver age, ramp signage configuration, including number of panels, logo format and sign familiarity, on driver performance and attention allocation when exiting freeways. Sixty drivers participated in a simulator study and analysis of variance models were used to assess response effects of the controlled manipulations. Results revealed elderly drivers to demonstrate worse performance and conservative control strategies as compared to middle-aged and young drivers...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777687/gender-differences-in-deviance-and-health-risk-behaviors-among-young-adults-undergraduate-students
#7
Liat Korn, Hagit Bonny-Noach
BACKGROUND: Deviant and health risk behaviors among young-adults are associated with many adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate a broad variety of behaviors by gender differences and their contribution to predicting cannabis use in undergraduate students. METHOD: This research is based on a structured, self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to 1,432 young adult undergraduate students at an Israeli University, 533 males and 899 females (mean age 27...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776920/creating-an-innovative-youth-mental-health-service-in-the-united-kingdom-the-norfolk-youth-service
#8
Jon Wilson, Tim Clarke, Rebecca Lower, Uju Ugochukwu, Sarah Maxwell, Jo Hodgekins, Karen Wheeler, Andy Goff, Robert Mack, Rebecca Horne, David Fowler
Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service...
August 4, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#9
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770062/transgenerational-plasticity-as-an-important-mechanism-affecting-response-of-clonal-species-to-changing-climate
#10
Zuzana Münzbergová, Věroslava Hadincová
In spite of the increasing number of studies on the importance of transgenerational plasticity for species response to novel environments, its effects on species ability to respond to climate change are still largely unexplored. We study the importance of transgenerational plasticity for response of a clonal species Festuca rubra. Individuals from four natural populations representing two levels of temperature and two levels of precipitation were cultivated in four growth chambers that simulate the temperature and precipitation of origin of the populations (maternal phase)...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761723/indolent-peritoneal-mesothelioma-pi3k-mtor-inhibitors-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy
#11
Saoirse O Dolly, Cristina Migali, Nina Tunariu, Chiara Della-Pepa, Shelize Khakoo, Steve Hazell, Johann S de Bono, Stanley B Kaye, Susana Banerjee
Peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a scarce abdominal-pelvic malignancy that presents with non-specific features and exhibits a wide clinical spectrum from indolent to aggressive disease. Due to it being a rare entity, there is a lack of understanding of its molecular drivers. Most treatment data are from limited small studies or extrapolated from pleural mesothelioma. Standard treatment includes curative surgery or pemetrexed-platinum palliative chemotherapy. To date, the use of novel targeted agents has been disappointing...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757253/enhancer-reprogramming-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-metastasis
#12
Jae-Seok Roe, Chang-Il Hwang, Tim D D Somerville, Joseph P Milazzo, Eun Jung Lee, Brandon Da Silva, Laura Maiorino, Hervé Tiriac, C Megan Young, Koji Miyabayashi, Dea Filippini, Brianna Creighton, Richard A Burkhart, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Edward J Kim, Jean L Grem, Audrey J Lazenby, James A Grunkemeyer, Michael A Hollingsworth, Paul M Grandgenett, Mikala Egeblad, Youngkyu Park, David A Tuveson, Christopher R Vakoc
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, owing in part to its propensity for metastasis. Here, we used an organoid culture system to investigate how transcription and the enhancer landscape become altered during discrete stages of disease progression in a PDA mouse model. This approach revealed that the metastatic transition is accompanied by massive and recurrent alterations in enhancer activity. We implicate the pioneer factor FOXA1 as a driver of enhancer activation in this system, a mechanism that renders PDA cells more invasive and less anchorage-dependent for growth in vitro, as well as more metastatic in vivo...
July 25, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755536/using-fixed-parameter-and-random-parameter-ordered-regression-models-to-identify-significant-factors-that-affect-the-severity-of-drivers-injuries-in-vehicle-train-collisions
#13
Essam Dabbour, Said Easa, Murtaza Haider
This study attempts to identify significant factors that affect the severity of drivers' injuries when colliding with trains at railroad-grade crossings by analyzing the individual-specific heterogeneity related to those factors over a period of 15 years. Both fixed-parameter and random-parameter ordered regression models were used to analyze records of all vehicle-train collisions that occurred in the United States from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2015. For fixed-parameter ordered models, both probit and negative log-log link functions were used...
July 26, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747983/comparision-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-the-icr-mice-of-different-sources
#14
Sou Hyun Kim, Keuk-Jun Kim, Joung-Hee Kim, Jae-Hwan Kwak, HyunKeun Song, Joon Young Cho, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim, Young-Suk Jung
Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agents and is now part of standard therapeutic regimens for a variety of cancers (eg, hematopoietic malignancies and advanced solid tumors of the breast, ovary, thyroid, and bone). However, a potentially lethal and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity that appears within a short time after treatment limits the usage of doxorubicin in cancer patients. Although the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is not completely understood, it is thought that free radical-induced oxidative stress and excessive production of reactive oxygen species are primary drivers of its toxicity...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737957/investigating-factors-influencing-pedestrian-injury-severity-at-intersections
#15
Zhuanglin Ma, Xi Lu, Steven I-Jy Chien, Dawei Hu
OBJECTIVE: Vehicle crashes which involved pedestrian at intersections have been reported occasionally. The injury severity of pedestrians in these crashes seems significantly related to driver and pedestrian attributes, vehicle characteristics, and the geometry of intersections. Identifying factors associated with pedestrian injury severity (PIS) is critical for reducing crashes and improving safety. For developing the proposed probit models, drivers who involved crashes are classified into three groups: young drivers (16 ≤ age ≤ 24); middle-aged drivers (25 ≤ age ≤ 64); older drivers (age ≥ 65)...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729557/antifungal-treatment-of-wild-amphibian-populations-caused-a-transient-reduction-in-the-prevalence-of-the-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#16
Corina C Geiger, Cindy Bregnard, Elodie Maluenda, Maarten J Voordouw, Benedikt R Schmidt
Emerging infectious diseases can drive host populations to extinction and are a major driver of biodiversity loss. Controlling diseases and mitigating their impacts is therefore a priority for conservation science and practice. Chytridiomycosis is a devastating disease of amphibians that is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and for which there is an urgent need to develop mitigation methods. We treated tadpoles of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) with antifungal agents using a capture-treat-release approach in the field...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725393/water-mold-infection-but-not-paternity-induces-selective-filial-cannibalism-in-a-goby
#17
Martin Vallon, Nils Anthes, Katja U Heubel
Many animals heavily invest in parental care but still reject at least some of their offspring. Although seemingly paradoxical, selection can favor parents to neglect offspring of particularly low reproductive value, for example, because of small survival chances. We here assess whether filial cannibalism (FC), where parents routinely eat some of their own young, is selective in response to individual offspring reproductive value. We performed two independent laboratory experiments in the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) to test whether caring fathers preferentially cannibalize eggs of a given infection history and paternity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722706/sub-national-mapping-of-population-pyramids-and-dependency-ratios-in-africa-and-asia
#18
Carla Pezzulo, Graeme M Hornby, Alessandro Sorichetta, Andrea E Gaughan, Catherine Linard, Tomas J Bird, David Kerr, Christopher T Lloyd, Andrew J Tatem
The age group composition of populations varies substantially across continents and within countries, and is linked to levels of development, health status and poverty. The subnational variability in the shape of the population pyramid as well as the respective dependency ratio are reflective of the different levels of development of a country and are drivers for a country's economic prospects and health burdens. Whether measured as the ratio between those of working age and those young and old who are dependent upon them, or through separate young and old-age metrics, dependency ratios are often highly heterogeneous between and within countries...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722214/impairment-due-to-combined-sleep-restriction-and-alcohol-is-not-mitigated-by-decaying-breath-alcohol-concentration-or-rest-breaks
#19
Jessica E Manousakis, Clare Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological and laboratory-based driving simulator studies have shown the detrimental impact of moderate, legal levels of alcohol consumption on driving performance in sleepy drivers. As less is known about the time course of decaying alcohol alongside performance impairment, our study examined impairment and recovery of performance alongside decaying levels of alcohol, with and without sleep restriction. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young males (18-27 years) underwent 4 counterbalanced conditions: Baseline, Alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] < 0...
July 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719285/trial-of-a-novel-intervention-to-improve-multiple-food-hygiene-behaviors-in-nepal
#20
Om Prasad Gautam, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sandy Cairncross, Sue Cavill, Valerie Curtis
AbstractIn this study, we report on the results of a trial of an intervention to improve five food hygiene behaviors among mothers of young children in rural Nepal. This novel intervention targeted five behaviors; cleanliness of serving utensils, handwashing with soap before feeding, proper storage of cooked food, and thorough reheating and water treatment. Based on formative research and a creative process using the Behavior-Centered Design approach, an innovative intervention package was designed and delivered over a period of 3 months...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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