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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211184/night-time-pedestrian-conspicuity-effects-of-clothing-on-drivers-eye-movements
#1
Joanne M Wood, Richard A Tyrrell, Philippe Lacherez, Alex A Black
PURPOSE: Drivers' responses and eye movements were assessed as they approached pedestrians at night in order to explore the relative conspicuity benefits of different configurations of retroreflective markings. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded using an ASL Mobile Eye (Applied Science Technologies, www.asleyetracking.com) from 14 young licensed drivers (M = 24.1 ± 6.4 years) as they drove along a closed-road circuit at night. At two locations, pedestrians walked in place facing either towards or away from the road...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193794/alcohol-policies-and-alcohol-related-motor-vehicle-crash-fatalities-among-young-people-in-the-us
#2
Scott E Hadland, Ziming Xuan, Vishnudas Sarda, Jason Blanchette, Monica H Swahn, Timothy C Heeren, Robert B Voas, Timothy S Naimi
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. METHODS: We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel...
February 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192371/somatic-mutations-in-telomerase-promoter-counterbalance-germline-loss-of-function-mutations
#3
Lindley Maryoung, Yangbo Yue, Ashley Young, Chad A Newton, Cindy Barba, Nicolai S C van Oers, Richard C Wang, Christine Kim Garcia
Germline coding mutations in different telomere-related genes have been linked to autosomal-dominant familial pulmonary fibrosis. Individuals with these inherited mutations demonstrate incomplete penetrance of clinical phenotypes affecting the lung, blood, liver, skin, and other organs. Here, we describe the somatic acquisition of promoter mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in blood leukocytes of approximately 5% of individuals with inherited loss-of-function coding mutations in TERT or poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), another gene linked to telomerase function...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185792/randomized-phase-iii-study-of-docetaxel-plus-cisplatin-versus-pemetrexed-plus-cisplatin-as-first-line-treatment-of-nonsquamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-trail-trial
#4
Cheol-Kyu Park, In-Jae Oh, Kyu-Sik Kim, Yoo-Duk Choi, Tae-Won Jang, Youn-Seup Kim, Kwan-Ho Lee, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Chi Young Jung, Sei-Hoon Yang, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Seung-Hun Jang, Seung-Soo Yoo, Suk-Joong Yong, Kye Young Lee, Kwang-Ho In, Min-Ki Lee, Young-Chul Kim
INTRODUCTION: To date, no prospective phase III trials have directly compared the efficacy of pemetrexed plus cisplatin (Pem-Cis) with docetaxel plus cisplatin (Doc-Cis) in patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 148 chemotherapy-naive patients lacking driver mutations were randomized into 21-day regimens of cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) with either docetaxel 60 mg/m(2) (n = 71) or pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) (n = 77) for ≤ 4 cycles...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179026/proportion-and-clinical-features-of-never-smokers-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Jaeyoung Cho, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Dong-Wan Kim, Jae-Joon Yim, Young Tae Kim, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young Sik Park
BACKGROUND: The proportion of never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing, but that in Korea has not been well addressed in a large population. We aimed to evaluate the proportion and clinical features of never-smokers with NSCLC in a large single institution. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data of 1860 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with NSCLC between June 2011 and December 2014. RESULTS: Of the 1860 NSCLC patients, 707 (38...
February 8, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167050/changing-mutational-and-adaptive-landscapes-and-the-genesis-of-cancer
#6
L Alexander Liggett, James DeGregori
By the time the process of oncogenesis has produced an advanced cancer, tumor cells have undergone extensive evolution. The cellular phenotypes resulting from this evolution have been well studied, and include accelerated growth rates, apoptosis resistance, immortality, invasiveness, and immune evasion. Yet with all of our current knowledge of tumor biology, the details of early oncogenesis have been difficult to observe and understand. Where different oncogenic mutations may work together to enhance the survival of a tumor cell, in isolation they are often pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiative or pro-senescent, and therefore often, somewhat paradoxically, disadvantageous to a cell...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166872/investigating-the-impact-of-static-roadside-advertising-on-drivers-situation-awareness
#7
Kristie L Young, Amanda N Stephens, David B Logan, Michael G Lenné
Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163325/social-calls-provide-novel-insights-into-the-evolution-of-vocal-learning
#8
Kendra B Sewall, Anna M Young, Timothy F Wright
Learned song is among the best-studied models of animal communication. In oscine songbirds, where learned song is most prevalent, it is used primarily for intrasexual selection and mate attraction. Learning of a different class of vocal signals, known as contact calls, is found in a diverse array of species, where they are used to mediate social interactions among individuals. We argue that call learning provides a taxonomically rich system for studying testable hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of vocal learning...
October 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162916/investigation-on-occupant-injury-severity-in-rear-end-crashes-involving-trucks-as-the-front-vehicle-in-beijing-area-china
#9
Quan Yuan, Meng Lu, Athanasios Theofilatos, Yi-Bing Li
PURPOSE: Rear-end crashes attribute to a large portion of total crashes in China, which lead to many casualties and property damage, especially when involving commercial vehicles. This paper aims to investigate the critical factors for occupant injury severity in the specific rear-end crash type involving trucks as the front vehicle (FV). METHODS: This paper investigated crashes occurred from 2011 to 2013 in Beijing area, China and selected 100 qualified cases i...
November 9, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161559/commentary-driver-training-effects-of-commentary-exposure-practice-and-production-on-hazard-perception-and-eye-movements
#10
Angela H Young, David Crundall, Peter Chapman
Commentary driving typically involves being trained in how to produce a verbal running commentary about what you can see, what you are doing, what might happen and what action you will take to avoid potential hazards, while driving. Although video-based commentary training has been associated with subsequent hazard perception improvements, it can have a negative impact on hazard perception when a live commentary is produced at test (Young, Chapman, & Crundall, 2014). In the current study we use balanced training and testing blocks to isolate the effects of commentary exposure, production of a commentary with and without practice, and learning from earlier self-generation of commentary on behavioural and eye movement measures...
February 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152507/the-mutational-landscape-of-ocular-marginal-zone-lymphoma-identifies-frequent-alterations-in-tnfaip3-followed-by-mutations-in-tbl1xr1-and-crebbp
#11
Hyunchul Jung, Hae Yong Yoo, Seung Ho Lee, Sohyun Shin, Sang Cheol Kim, Sejoon Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Jae-Yong Nam, Daeun Ryu, Jae Won Yun, Jung Kyoon Choi, Ambarnil Ghosh, Kyeong Kyu Kim, Seok Jin Kim, Won Seog Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Young Hyeh Ko
Ocular marginal zone lymphoma is a common type of low-grade B-cell lymphoma. To investigate the genomic changes that occur in ocular marginal zone lymphoma, we analyzed 10 cases of ocular marginal zone lymphoma using whole-genome and RNA sequencing and an additional 38 cases using targeted sequencing. Major genetic alterations affecting genes involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway activation (60%), chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation (44%), and B-cell differentiation (23%) were identified...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152044/microbiome-sharing-between-children-livestock-and-household-surfaces-in-western-kenya
#12
Emily Mosites, Matt Sammons, Elkanah Otiang, Alexander Eng, Cecilia Noecker, Ohad Manor, Sarah Hilton, Samuel M Thumbi, Clayton Onyango, Gemina Garland-Lewis, Douglas R Call, M Kariuki Njenga, Judith N Wasserheit, Jennifer A Zambriski, Judd L Walson, Guy H Palmer, Joel Montgomery, Elhanan Borenstein, Richard Omore, Peter M Rabinowitz
The gut microbiome community structure and development are associated with several health outcomes in young children. To determine the household influences of gut microbiome structure, we assessed microbial sharing within households in western Kenya by sequencing 16S rRNA libraries of fecal samples from children and cattle, cloacal swabs from chickens, and swabs of household surfaces. Among the 156 households studied, children within the same household significantly shared their gut microbiome with each other, although we did not find significant sharing of gut microbiome across host species or household surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150059/conceptualizing-a-public-health-prevention-intervention-for-bridging-the-30-million-word-gap
#13
REVIEW
Charles R Greenwood, Judith J Carta, Dale Walker, Jomella Watson-Thompson, Jill Gilkerson, Anne L Larson, Alana Schnitz
Early childhood experience is a social determinant of children's health and well-being. The well-being of young children is founded on their relationships and interactions with parents and family members in the home, caregivers, and teachers in early education, and friends and families in the greater community. Unfortunately, the early language experience of infants and toddlers from low-income families is typically vastly different than children from middle- and higher-income families. Hart and Risley (Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146588/the-frequency-and-clinical-impact-of-her2-alterations-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Eun Kyung Kim, Kyung A Kim, Chang Young Lee, Hyo Sup Shim
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2) can be overexpressed, amplified and/or mutated in malignant tumors, and is a candidate for therapeutic targeting. However, molecular associations and clinical significances of these alterations were controversial in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the frequency and clinicopathological significance of HER2 dysregulation in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression, gene amplification, and gene mutation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), silver in situ hybridization, and direct sequencing, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119216/the-effects-of-anti-speeding-advertisements-on-the-simulated-driving-behaviour-of-young-drivers
#15
Bernice R C Plant, Julia D Irwin, Eugene Chekaluk
Recent examinations of road safety communications, including anti-speeding advertisements, have considered the differential effects of positive and negative emotional appeals on driver behaviour. However, empirical evaluations of anti-speeding messages have largely relied on measures of viewers' reported intentions to comply with speed limits and the self-reported driving behaviour of viewers post-exposure, which might not be indicative of the direct effects that these messages have on real-world driving behaviour...
March 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112544/roadside-survey-on-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-drivers-in-the-arctic-county-of-finnmark-norway
#16
Ragnhild E G Jamt, Hallvard Gjerde, Per T Normann, Stig T Bogstrand
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of alcohol and potentially impairing drugs among the general driving population in Finnmark and to compare the prevalence among Norwegian, Russian and other foreign drivers by analyzing samples of oral fluid. METHODS: In collaboration with local police, drivers were selected for a voluntary and anonymous study using a multistage cluster sampling procedure (selection of roads, time intervals, and drivers within each interval) from September 2014 to October 2015...
January 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107050/evaluation-of-a-responsible-beverage-service-and-enforcement-program-effects-on-bar-patron-intoxication-and-potential-impaired-driving-by-young-adults
#17
James C Fell, Deborah A Fisher, Jie Yao, A Scott McKnight
OBJECTIVE: Studies of alcohol-related harm (violence, injury, illness) suggest that the most significant risk factors are the amount of alcohol consumed and whether obviously intoxicated patrons continue to be served. This study's objective was to investigate the effects of a responsible beverage service (RBS)/enhanced alcohol enforcement intervention on bars, bar patrons, and impaired driving. METHOD: Two communities-Monroe County, NY, and Cleveland, OH-participated in a demonstration program and evaluation...
January 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105634/does-radiologic-response-correlate-to-pathologic-response-in-patients-undergoing-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-malignancy
#18
Brent T Xia, Baojin Fu, Jiang Wang, Young Kim, S Ameen Ahmad, Vikrom K Dhar, Nick C Levinsky, Dennis J Hanseman, David A Habib, Gregory C Wilson, Milton Smith, Olugbenga O Olowokure, Jordan Kharofa, Ali H Al Humaidi, Kyuran A Choe, Daniel E Abbott, Syed A Ahmad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with borderline resectable pancreas cancers, clinicians frequently consider radiographic response as the primary driver of whether patients should be offered surgical intervention following neoadjuvant therapy (NT). We sought to determine any correlation between radiographic and pathologic response rates following NT. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, 38 patients at a tertiary care referral center underwent NT followed by pancreaticoduodenectomy for borderline resectable pancreas cancer...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103266/adherence-to-prophylaxis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-severe-haemophilia-a-quantitative-study-with-patients
#19
Sandra B van Os, Nick A Troop, Keith R Sullivan, Daniel P Hart
INTRODUCTION: haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the blood coagulation factors. For people affected by severe haemophilia, the deficiency can cause spontaneous internal bleeding. Most young people with severe haemophilia in the UK follow a preventative treatment regimen (prophylaxis) consisting of several intravenous injections of factor concentrate each week. There is good evidence that prophylaxis reduces bleeds whilst also improving quality of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099479/social-contact-structures-and-time-use-patterns-in-the-manicaland-province-of-zimbabwe
#20
Alessia Melegaro, Emanuele Del Fava, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Constance Nyamukapa, John Williams, Simon Gregson, Piero Manfredi
BACKGROUND: Patterns of person-to-person contacts relevant for infectious diseases transmission are still poorly quantified in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where socio-demographic structures and behavioral attitudes are expected to be different from those of more developed countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a diary-based survey on daily contacts and time-use of individuals of different ages in one rural and one peri-urban site of Manicaland, Zimbabwe. A total of 2,490 diaries were collected and used to derive age-structured contact matrices, to analyze time spent by individuals in different settings, and to identify the key determinants of individuals' mixing patterns...
2017: PloS One
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