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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151242/a-qualitative-examination-of-increased-alcohol-use-after-bariatric-surgery-among-racially-ethnically-diverse-young-adults
#1
Christine E Spadola, Eric F Wagner, Leah M Varga, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Nestor F De La Cruz Munoz, Sarah E Messiah
INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence suggests that bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery (WLS), patients might be vulnerable to developing post-operative alcohol use problems. While the majority of published research offers information concerning the prevalence of problematic alcohol use post-WLS, the literature lacks comprehensive, qualitative explorations examining why alcohol misuse might emerge after WLS. Such data-driven hypotheses are needed to effectively target this emerging concern...
November 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143149/effects-of-intraspecific-and-intra-individual-differences-in-plant-quality-on-preference-and-performance-of-monophagous-aphid-species
#3
Ruth Jakobs, Caroline Müller
Plant chemistry is one of the main drivers of herbivore distribution. Monophagous herbivore species are highly specialized, but even within their only host species the chemistry varies. The herbivore's choice is initially mainly guided by volatile plant compounds. Once on the plant, particularly for aphids the phloem quality affects their performance. However, little is known about the intraspecific and intra-individual variation in phloem sap and their influences on monophagous aphids. To determine potential mechanisms involved in aphid colonization, we tested the effects of intraspecific chemical variation in Tanacetum vulgare, which produces different chemotypes, on the preference of two monophagous aphid species...
November 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140642/raising-awareness-of-farm-equipment-on-public-roadways-in-tennessee
#4
Sandy Mehlhorn, Barbara Darroch, Staci Williams Jackson
A program was developed to educate young drivers about laws and guidelines governing farm equipment on public roadways in Tennessee. The goal of the program was to make young drivers aware of their responsibilities and the responsibilities of farm equipment drivers when sharing public roadways. A presentation was developed outlining the topics and was accompanied by identical pre- and post-surveys. The material was presented to drivers' education classes and agriculture science classes at several high schools in west and middle Tennessee...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140577/herbivory-and-drought-generate-short-term-stochasticity-and-long-term-stability-in-a-savanna-understory-community
#5
Corinna Riginos, Lauren M Porensky, Kari E Veblen, Truman P Young
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle, native wild herbivores (e...
November 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138981/young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-high-risk-for-hiv-bangkok-msm-cohort-study-thailand-2006-2014
#6
Warunee Thienkrua, Frits van Griensven, Philip A Mock, Eileen F Dunne, Boonyos Raengsakulrach, Wipas Wimonsate, Nopporn Howteerakul, Chaiwat Ungsedhapand, Anupong Chiwarakorn, Timothy H Holtz
High HIV incidence has been reported in young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in North America and Western Europe, but there are limited data from Southeast Asia suggesting MSM may be the driver of the HIV epidemic in this region. We described HIV incidence and risk factors among 494 YMSM enrolled in a cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. The HIV incidence was 7.4 per 100 person-years. In multivariable analysis, reporting use of an erectile dysfunction drug in combination with club drugs, having receptive or both insertive and receptive anal intercourse with men, having hepatitis A infection, having rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, having hepatitis B infection prior to HIV seroconversion, and reporting not always using condoms with male steady partners were significantly associated with HIV incidence in YMSM...
November 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138511/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors-drive-ontogeny-of-early-life-at-sea-behaviour-in-a-marine-top-predator
#7
Matt I D Carter, Deborah J F Russell, Clare B Embling, Clint J Blight, David Thompson, Philip J Hosegood, Kimberley A Bennett
Young animals must learn to forage effectively to survive the transition from parental provisioning to independent feeding. Rapid development of successful foraging strategies is particularly important for capital breeders that do not receive parental guidance after weaning. The intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of variation in ontogeny of foraging are poorly understood for many species. Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are typical capital breeders; pups are abandoned on the natal site after a brief suckling phase, and must develop foraging skills without external input...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129451/cost-effectiveness-of-maternal-gbs-immunization-in-low-income-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Louise B Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Jennifer R Verani, Anushua Sinha
BACKGROUND: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. METHODS: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127786/development-and-initial-testing-of-the-brief-adolescent-smoking-curiosity-scale-ascos
#9
Georges E Khalil, Karen S Calabro, Alexander V Prokhorov
BACKGROUND: Although the reasons behind tobacco smoking at young age are complex, research has identified curiosity as a potent driver of smoking among adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study is to develop and provide initial evidence of reliability and validity of a short scale assessing smoking curiosity among adolescents (first measure of its kind). In particular, we developed and tested the adolescent smoking curiosity scale (ASCOS). METHODS: After scale development, 101 adolescents completed a survey on smoking-related measures, including ASCOS (June to August 2014)...
November 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126199/evolutionary-epigenomics-of-retrotransposon-mediated-methylation-spreading-in-rice-by
#10
Jae Young Choi, Michael D Purugganan
Plant genomes contain numerous transposable elements (TEs), and many hypotheses on the evolutionary drivers that restrict TE activity have been postulated. Few models, however, have focused on the evolutionary epigenomic interaction between the plant host and its TE. The host genome recruits epigenetic factors, such as methylation, to silence TEs but methylation can spread beyond the TE sequence and influence the expression of nearby host genes. In this study, we investigated this epigenetic trade-off between TE and proximal host gene silencing by studying the epigenomic regulation of repressing long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTs) in Oryza sativa...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126113/bacteria-associated-with-decomposing-dead-wood-in-a-natural-temperate-forest
#11
Vojtech Tláskal, Petra Zrustová, Tomáš Vrška, Petr Baldrian
Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content were the strongest drivers of community composition...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124393/the-systemic-environment-at-the-interface-of-aging-and-adult-neurogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Lucas K Smith, Charles W White, Saul A Villeda
Aging results in impaired neurogenesis in the two neurogenic niches of the adult mammalian brain, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle. While significant work has characterized intrinsic cellular changes that contribute to this decline, it is increasingly apparent that the systemic environment also represents a critical driver of brain aging. Indeed, emerging studies utilizing the model of heterochronic parabiosis have revealed that immune-related molecular and cellular changes in the aging systemic environment negatively regulate adult neurogenesis...
November 9, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113602/cattle-and-rainfall-affect-tick-abundance-in-central-kenya
#13
Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld, Truman P Young, Brian F Allan
East Africa is a global hot spot for the diversity of ixodid ticks. As ectoparasites and as vectors of pathogens, ticks negatively affect the well-being of humans, livestock and wildlife. To prevent tick infestations, livestock owners and managers typically treat livestock with acaricides that kill ticks when they attempt to feed on livestock hosts. Because of the costs of preventing and mitigating tick parasitism, predicting where and when ticks will be abundant is an important challenge in this region. We used a 7-year monthly record of tick abundance on large experimental plots to assess the effects of rainfall, wildlife and cattle on larvae, nymphs and adults of two common tick species, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Rhipicephalus praetextatus...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112881/safe-driving-climate-among-friends-sdcaf-a-new-scale
#14
Noga Guggenheim, Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari
Reckless driving among young people, especially young men, is a major cause of injury and fatalities the world over. Like other aspects of this age group, young drivers' driving behaviors and norms are influenced by the accepted social discourse of their peers. Yet despite extensive existing knowledge on young drivers, very few studies have dealt specifically with their characteristic friendship relations. This lacuna in the literature may reflect the absence of specific research tools for examining driving with friends...
November 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112745/drivers-of-tuberculosis-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Barun Mathema, Jason R Andrews, Ted Cohen, Martien W Borgdorff, Marcel Behr, Judith R Glynn, Roxana Rustomjee, Benjamin J Silk, Robin Wood
Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112735/whole-tree-distribution-and-temporal-variation-of-non-structural-carbohydrates-in-broadleaf-evergreen-trees
#16
Merryn G Smith, Rebecca E Miller, Stefan K Arndt, Sabine Kasel, Lauren T Bennett
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér...
November 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106558/anthropometric-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-parents-and-child-obesity-in-segamat-malaysia
#17
Uttara Partap, Elizabeth H Young, Pascale Allotey, Manjinder S Sandhu, Daniel D Reidpath
Background: There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. Methods: We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers)...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102714/graduated-driver-licensing-and-differential-deterrence-the-effect-of-license-type-on-intentions-to-violate-road-rules
#18
Brigitte Poirier, Etienne Blais, Camille Faubert
In keeping with the differential deterrence theory, this article assesses the moderating effect of license type on the relationship between social control and intention to violate road rules. More precisely, the article has two objectives: (1) to assess the effect of license type on intentions to infringe road rules; and (2) to pinpoint mechanisms of social control affecting intentions to violate road rules based on one's type of driver license (a restricted license or a full license). This effect is examined among a sample of 392 young drivers in the province of Quebec, Canada...
November 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101787/how-safe-is-tuning-a-radio-using-the-radio-tuning-task-as-a-benchmark-for-distracted-driving
#19
Ja Young Lee, John D Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task...
October 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100343/establishment-and-characterization-of-patient-derived-xenograft-models-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-resistant-to-standard-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#20
Young-Soon Na, Min-Hee Ryu, Changhoon Yoo, Ju-Kyung Lee, Jung Min Park, Chae-Won Lee, Sun Young Lee, Young-Kyoung Shin, Ja-Lok Ku, Sung-Min Ahn, Yoon-Koo Kang
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) with KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRa) oncogenic driver gene mutations, respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) including imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib. However, most patients develop TKI resistance; therefore, novel agents are required. We established three TKI-resistant GIST patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for effective drug development. These were PDX models harboring primary and secondary KIT and additional mutations; KIT exon 11 (p...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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