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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213520/cholesterol-up-regulates-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-girk-channel-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Anna N Bukiya, Serdar Durdagi, Sergei Noskov, Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210986/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Jerry Meece
: The prevalence and associated clinical burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in the USA and other countries. As a consequence, the role of the pharmacist in managing T2D is expanding, and it is becoming increasingly important for pharmacists to have a complete understanding of the disease course and treatment options. Pharmacists have a key role in the use of injectable therapies, including incretin-based treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). This article discusses the role of the pharmacist in the management of patients with T2D, particularly with respect to the use of GLP-1RAs to achieve glycemic control...
February 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203347/killing-two-birds-with-one-stone-successful-opioid-monotherapy-in-intractable-migraine-triggered-epilepsy-a-case-series
#3
REVIEW
Iraj Derakhshan
The novel concept explored in this case series is the primacy of headaches in generating seizures in those patients who suffer from migraine-triggered epilepsy. In this series, once the migraine headaches were fully suppressed, via daily scheduled opioid therapy, the seizures also stopped. Seizures returned, however, after the patients stopped the opiate regimen for any reason. The above pharmacological scenario is reminiscent of a similar but naturalistic course of events reported on the salutary effects of ketogenic diet, or changes in life style, in similar cases of migraine-triggered epilepsy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196859/dietary-nitrite-reverses-features-of-postmenopausal-metabolic-syndrome-induced-by-high-fat-diet-and-ovariectomy-in-mice
#4
Kazuo Ohtake, Nobuyuki Ehara, Hiroshige Chiba, Genya Nakano, Kunihiro Sonoda, Junta Ito, Hiroyuki Uchida, Jun Kobayashi
Menopausal women are at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Hormone replacement therapy increases eNOS activity and normalizes some characteristics of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation should have a therapeutic effect in this syndrome. We examined the effect of dietary nitrite on mice model with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome induced by ovariectomy (OVX) with high fat diet (HF). C57BL/6 female mice were divided into five groups, sham+normal fat diet (NF), sham+ HF, OVX+HF without or with sodium nitrite (50mg and 150mg/L) in drinking water...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195993/subcutaneous-testosterone-letrozole-therapy-before-and-concurrent-with-neoadjuvant-breast-chemotherapy-clinical-response-and-therapeutic-implications
#5
Rebecca L Glaser, Anne E York, Constantine Dimitrakakis
OBJECTIVE: Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers respond favorably to subcutaneous testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor. However, the effect of testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor on tumor response to chemotherapy was unknown. This study investigated the effect of testosterone-letrozole implants on breast cancer tumor response before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A 51-year-old woman on testosterone replacement therapy was diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer...
February 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192821/-eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#6
Ulrike von Arnim, S Miehlke, A Madisch, M Vieth, A Straumann, P Malfertheiner
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathological condition of the esophagus that has become increasingly recognised over the last decade. EoE represents a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. In adults dysphagia is the predominant symptom. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is required in order to take biopsies from the esophagus. The diagnose is confirmed histologically by typical eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus mucosa. Until now there is no approved therapy world-wide although we know that topic and systemic steroids are highly effective in EoE...
January 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192109/intensive-lifestyle-intervention-for-obesity-principles-practices-and-results
#7
Victoria L Webb, Thomas A Wadden
Using the Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults as a framework, this article reviews intensive lifestyle interventions for weight loss. The Guidelines recommend a minimum of 6 months of high-intensity, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, consisting of a reduced-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy. Persons with obesity typically lose about 8 kg (approximately 8% of initial weight) with this approach, accompanied by improvements in health and quality of life...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191534/the-relation-of-anthropometric-measurements-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-polycystic-kidney-disease
#8
Bennur Esen, Emel Sağlam Gokmen, Mahmut Kaya, Burak Ozkan, Ahmet Engin Atay
OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and its relation with anthropometric measurements in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nonobese 82 patients with ADPKD and 58 age matched healthy controls were enrolled into the study. None of participants were diabetic or receiving renal replacement therapies (RRT). IR was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190598/lipid-lowering-therapy-in-patients-with-high-cardiovascular-risk-dose-or-combination
#9
Leonardo Roever, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Sunil V Rao
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation, and adoption of a healthier diet, are effectively reducing cardiovascular risk in primary and secondary prevention...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186337/impaired-intestinal-cholecystokinin-secretion-a-fascinating-but-overlooked-link-between-celiac-disease-and-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#10
REVIEW
Helen H Wang, Min Liu, Xiaodan Li, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic, small intestinal, immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical studies have found that intestinal cholecystokinin secretion and gallbladder emptying in response to a fatty meal are impaired before celiac patients start the gluten-free diet (GFD). DESIGN: However, it was never really appreciated whether celiac disease is associated with gallstones because there were very few studies investigating the mechanism underlying the impact of celiac disease on the pathogenesis of gallstones...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185025/constipation-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#11
Amol Sharma, Satish Rao
Chronic constipation is a common, persistent condition affecting many patients worldwide, presenting significant economic burden and resulting in substantial healthcare utilization. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, the definition of constipation includes excessive straining, a sense of incomplete evacuation, failed or lengthy attempts to defecate, use of digital manoeuvres for evacuation of stool, abdominal bloating, and hard consistency of stools. After excluding secondary causes of constipation, chronic idiopathic or primary constipation can be classified as functional defecation disorder, slow-transit constipation (STC), and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C)...
February 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182687/lunasin-attenuates-obesity-related-inflammation-in-raw264-7-cells-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#13
Chia-Chien Hsieh, Mei-Jia Chou, Chih-Hsuan Wang
Obesity has become a major threat to public health and is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which leads to various pathological developments. Lunasin, a natural seed peptide, exhibits several biological activities, such as anti-carcinogenesis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the mechanism of action of lunasin in obesity-related inflammation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether lunasin could reduce the inflammation induced by obesity-related mediators in RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179493/nutritional-and-lipid-modulation-of-pcsk9-effects-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#14
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Krysa, Teik Chye Ooi, Spencer D Proctor, Donna F Vine
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease involved in the regulation of LDL receptor (LDLR) expression and apolipoprotein B lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. Hepatic PCSK9 protein expression, activity, and secretion have been shown to affect cholesterol homeostasis. An upregulation of hepatic PSCK9 protein leads to increased LDLR degradation, resulting in decreased uptake of apoB lipoproteins and a consequent increase in the plasma concentration of these lipoproteins, including LDL and chylomicron remnants...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173025/p484-dietary-therapy-using-the-crohn-s-disease-exclusion-diet-is-a-successful-strategy-for-induction-of-remission-in-children-and-adults-failing-biological-therapy
#15
R Sigall Boneh, C Sarbagili Shabat, M Boaz, A Levine, I Chermesh, S Ben Avraham, N Cohen Dolev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171816/the-western-disease-autism-and-somali-parents-embodied-health-movements
#16
Claire Laurier Decoteau
There is some statistical evidence indicating that Somali refugees and immigrants have high rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Somalis in North America call autism the "Western disease" because there is no word for autism in the Somali language and because many believe it does not exist in Somalia. In Toronto, Somali parents have forged an "epistemic community," united around a coherent theory of the development of autism, its defining features, and most successful therapies. They work together with researchers to support the theory that gut bacteria is a causal factor for the development of autism...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167864/ezetimibe-reduces-cholesterol-content-and-nf-kappab-activation-in-liver-but-not-in-intestinal-tissue-in-guinea-pigs
#17
Peter Fraunberger, Elisabeth Gröne, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Heinz Drexel, Autar K Walli
BACKGROUND: Statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors), in addition to reducing circulating cholesterol and incidence of coronary heart disease, also have pleiotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. Patients with chronic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C are often excluded from statin therapy because of adverse effects in a small cohort of patients despite increased cardiovascular risk cholesterol. Ezetimibe, which inhibits cholesterol absorption by inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein in the brush border of intestinal cells, has been suggested as a new therapeutic option in these patients...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166277/ketogenic-diet-improves-behaviors-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
David N Ruskin, Michelle I Murphy, Sierra L Slade, Susan A Masino
Prenatal factors influence autism spectrum disorder (ASD) incidence in children and can increase ASD symptoms in offspring of animal models. These may include maternal immune activation (MIA) due to viral or bacterial infection during the first trimesters. Unfortunately, regardless of ASD etiology, existing drugs are poorly effective against core symptoms. For nearly a century a ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to treat seizures, and recent insights into mechanisms of ASD and a growing recognition that immune/inflammatory conditions exacerbate ASD risk has increased interest in KD as a treatment for ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163851/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-dystemprament-sue-mizaj-and-treatments-and-management-of-diseases-ilaj-and-eslah-e-mizaj
#19
REVIEW
Sepide Miraj, Samira Alesaeidi, Sara Kiani
BACKGROUND: Temperament refers to four different humors differentiating in individuals and, as a result, proposes specific therapy for diseases as well as special types of management (avoidance). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to overview the relationship between dystemprament and treatment and management of diseases. METHODS: A computerized search of published articles was performed using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Medline databases as well as local sources from 1965 to 2016...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163011/aerobic-endurance-training-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-features-via-mir-33-dependent-autophagy-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#20
Parvin Ghareghani, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Saeideh Ahmadi, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Neda Rezvan, Reza Meshkani, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks...
February 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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