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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649341/costly-defense-in-a-fluctuating-environment-sensitivity-of-annual-nothobranchius-fishes-to-predator-kairomones
#1
Matej Polačik, Michal Janáč
Antipredator strategies increase the chances of survival of prey species but are subject to trade-offs and always come at a cost, one specific category being the "missed opportunity." Some animals that can modulate the timing of life-cycle events can also desynchronize this timing with the occurrence of a predator. In an unpredictable environment, such a modification may result in a mismatch with prevailing conditions, consequently leading to reproductive failure. In eastern Africa, temporary pools existing only during the rainy season are inhabited by annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637157/maximal-and-submaximal-aerobic-tests-for-wheelchair-dependent-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-to-summarize-and-identify-useful-applications-for-clinical-rehabilitation
#2
Sophia Eerden, Rienk Dekker, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To summarize the available maximal and submaximal aerobic exercise tests for wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify useful applications for clinical rehabilitation. METHOD: The databases of PubMed, CINAHL(®), EMBASE, and PsycINFO(®) were searched for English-language studies published prior to March 2015. Two independent raters identified and examined studies that reported on laboratory-based aerobic exercise tests in persons with an SCI, according to the PRISMA statement...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635362/costs-and-effectiveness-of-fingolimod-versus-alemtuzumab-in-the-treatment-of-highly-active-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-uk-retreatment-discount-and-disutility
#3
Stephen M Montgomery, Jeanette Kusel, Richard Nicholas, Nicholas Adlard
OBJECTIVE: Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with disease modifying therapies (DMTs) who continue to experience disease activity may be considered for escalation therapies such as fingolimod or may be considered for alemtuzumab. Previous economic modelling used Markov models; applying one alternative technique, discrete event simulation (DES) modelling, allows retreatment and long-term adverse events (AEs) to be included in the analysis. METHODS: A DES was adapted to model relapse-triggered retreatment with alemtuzumab and the effect of including ongoing quality-adjusted life year (QALY) decrements for AEs that extend beyond previous one year Markov cycles...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634242/type-ii-secretion-substrates-of-legionella-pneumophila-translocate-out-of-the-pathogen-occupied-vacuole-via-a-semipermeable-membrane
#4
Hilary K Truchan, Harry D Christman, Richard C White, Nakisha S Rutledge, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila replicates in macrophages in a host-derived phagosome, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). While the translocation of type IV secretion (T4S) effectors into the macrophage cytosol is well established, the location of type II secretion (T2S) substrates in the infected host cell is unknown. Here, we show that the T2S substrate ProA, a metalloprotease, translocates into the cytosol of human macrophages, where it associates with the LCV membrane (LCVM). Translocation is detected as early as 10 h postinoculation (p...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632385/fatigue-resistant-bioinspired-composite-from-synergistic-two-dimensional-nanocomponents
#5
Sijie Wan, Qi Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Dechang Li, Baohua Ji, Lei Jiang, Qunfeng Cheng
Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630895/glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla-have-a-magnetic-compass-linked-to-the-tidal-cycle
#6
Alessandro Cresci, Claire B Paris, Caroline M F Durif, Steven Shema, Reidun M Bjelland, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, Howard I Browman
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has one of the longest migrations in the animal kingdom. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean twice during its life history, migrating between the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea and Europe, where it is widely distributed. The leptocephalus larvae drift with the Gulf Stream and other currents for more than a year and metamorphose into glass eels when they arrive on the continental shelf and move toward coastal areas. The mechanisms underlying glass eel orientation toward the coast and into freshwater systems are poorly known...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625474/identifying-circumstances-under-which-high-insecticide-dose-increases-or-decreases-resistance-selection
#7
J C Helps, N D Paveley, F van den Bosch
Insect management strategies for agricultural crop pests must reduce selection for insecticide resistant mutants while providing effective control of the insect pest. One management strategy that has long been advocated is the application of insecticides at the maximum permitted dose. This has been found, under some circumstances, to be able to prevent the resistance allele frequency from increasing. However this approach may, under different circumstances, lead to rapid selection for resistance to the insecticide...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624939/additive-effect-of-calcium-depletion-and-low-resource-quality-on-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-life-history-traits
#8
Marc Rollin, Romain Coulaud, Michael Danger, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Alexandre Bec, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Vincent Felten
Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624728/nitrite-production-from-urine-for-sulfide-control-in-sewers
#9
Min Zheng, Zhiqiang Zuo, Yizhen Zhang, Yujia Cui, Qian Dong, Yanchen Liu, Xia Huang, Zhiguo Yuan
Most commonly used methods for sewer sulfide control involves dosing chemical agents to wastewater, which incurs high operational costs. Here, we propose and demonstrate a cost-effective and environmentally attractive approach to sewer sulfide control through urine separation and its subsequent conversion to nitrite prior to intermittent dosage to sewers. Urine collected from a male toilet urinal was fed to laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. The reactors stably converted roughly 50% of the nitrogen in urine to nitrite, with high abundance (at 17...
May 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623918/effects-of-herbal-medicine-for-dysmenorrhea-treatment-on-accompanied-acne-vulgaris-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Kwan-Il Kim, Hae Jeong Nam, Mia Kim, Junhee Lee, Kyuseok Kim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of preadolescent acne among women is increasing. Acne deteriorates the quality of life; conventional treatment options are limited and have not been effective against acne, particularly acne associated with menstruation. Despite evidence that acne associated with menstruation abnormalities naturally improves when menstruation recovers to normal, there have only been few studies on the effects of dysmenorrhea treatment on acne. Therefore- we designed this study to assess the effects of gyejibokryung-hwan (GBH) and dangguijagyag-san (DJS), which are widely used in dysmenorrhea treatment, on acne associated with menstruation cycle...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623503/investigating-the-suitability-of-carbon-nanotube-reinforced-polymer-in-transcatheter-valve-applications
#11
Monica M Rozeik, David J Wheatley, Terence Gourlay
The current delivery size of transcatheter aortic valves, limited by the thickness of their pericardial leaflets, correlates with a high prevalence of major vascular complications. Polyurethane valves can be developed to a fraction of the thickness of pericardial valves through the addition of carbon nanotubes to reinforce their leaflets. This study investigates the suitability of a novel carbon nanotube reinforced leaflet to reduce the delivery profile of transcatheter aortic valves. Carbon nanotube polyurethane composites were developed with thicknesses of 50 μm and their mechanical properties were determined in relation to various environmental effects...
June 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623149/subtle-effect-of-xenos-vesparum-xenidae-strepsiptera-on-the-reproductive-apparatus-of-its-male-host-parasite-or-parasitoid
#12
L Beani, D Marchini, F Cappa, I Petrocelli, M Gottardo, F Manfredini, F Giusti, R Dallai
Parasitic castration is an adaptive strategy where parasites usurp the hosts' reproductive physiology to complete their life cycle. The alterations in the host traits vary in their magnitude, from subtle changes in the host morpho-physiology and behaviour to the production of complex aberrant phenotypes, which often depend on the host gender. The strepsipteran macroparasite Xenos vesparum induces dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula, while its effect on the male phenotype is largely unknown...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622662/the-chronic-effects-of-fullerenec60-associated-sediments-in-the-midge-chironomus-riparius-responses-in-the-first-and-the-second-generation
#13
G C Waissi, K Väänänen, I Nybom, K Pakarinen, J Akkanen, M T Leppänen, J V K Kukkonen
The life cycle parameters of the benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius make it a relevant organism for use in multi-generation chronic ecotoxicology tests. Since studies on chronic exposures with fullerene carbon nanoparticles have revealed adverse effects at lower concentration ranges, it is crucial to gain understanding of the consequences in following generations. The aims of this study were to investigate whether sediment-associated fullereneC60 impacts on C. riparius emergence and breeding, thus affecting the growth of the second generation...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622660/assessing-the-effects-of-the-antidepressant-venlafaxine-to-fathead-minnows-exposed-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-over-a-full-life-cycle
#14
Joanne L Parrott, Chris D Metcalfe
Venlafaxine is an antidepressant drug that has been detected in municipal wastewater effluents at low μg/L concentrations. To assess the potential of this compound to affect the survival, development and reproductive capacity of fish, we exposed fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) over a full lifecycle in a flow-through system to nominal venlafaxine concentrations of 0.88, 8.8, and 88 μg/L. Mean measured venlafaxine concentrations in these treatments were 1.0, 9.3 and 75 μg/L. During the 167-168 d exposure, no significant changes were observed in survival, or the weights and lengths of fathead minnows...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620848/cost-effectiveness-of-pembrolizumab-vs-standard-of-care-chemotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-for-metastatic-nsclc-that-expresses-high-levels-of-pd-l1-in-the-united-states
#15
Min Huang, Yanyan Lou, James Pellissier, Thomas Burke, Frank Xiaoqing Liu, Ruifeng Xu, Vamsidhar Velcheti
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to evaluate the cost effectiveness of pembrolizumab compared with standard-of-care (SoC) platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that expresses high levels of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) [tumour proportion score (TPS) ≥50%], from a US third-party public healthcare payer perspective. METHODS: We conducted a partitioned-survival model with a cycle length of 1 week and a base-case time horizon of 20 years...
June 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620411/vicar-an-adaptive-and-landmark-free-registration-of-time-lapse-image-data-from-microfluidics-experiments
#16
Georges Hattab, Jan-Philip Schlüter, Anke Becker, Tim W Nattkemper
In order to understand gene function in bacterial life cycles, time lapse bioimaging is applied in combination with different marker protocols in so called microfluidics chambers (i.e., a multi-well plate). In one experiment, a series of T images is recorded for one visual field, with a pixel resolution of 60 nm/px. Any (semi-)automatic analysis of the data is hampered by a strong image noise, low contrast and, last but not least, considerable irregular shifts during the acquisition. Image registration corrects such shifts enabling next steps of the analysis (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620040/cell-free-synthetic-biology-for-in-vitro-prototype-engineering
#17
REVIEW
Simon J Moore, James T MacDonald, Paul S Freemont
Cell-free transcription-translation is an expanding field in synthetic biology as a rapid prototyping platform for blueprinting the design of synthetic biological devices. Exemplar efforts include translation of prototype designs into medical test kits for on-site identification of viruses (Zika and Ebola), while gene circuit cascades can be tested, debugged and re-designed within rapid turnover times. Coupled with mathematical modelling, this discipline lends itself towards the precision engineering of new synthetic life...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619047/environmental-isolation-explains-iberian-genetic-diversity-in-the-highly-homozygous-model-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#18
Isabel Marques, Valeriia Shiposha, Diana López-Alvarez, Antonio J Manzaneda, Pilar Hernandez, Marina Olonova, Pilar Catalán
BACKGROUND: Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae), an annual Mediterranean Aluminum (Al)-sensitive grass, is currently being used as a model species to provide new information on cereals and biofuel crops. The plant has a short life cycle and one of the smallest genomes in the grasses being well suited to experimental manipulation. Its genome has been fully sequenced and several genomic resources are being developed to elucidate key traits and gene functions. A reliable germplasm collection that reflects the natural diversity of this species is therefore needed for all these genomic resources...
June 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618056/improving-substance-information-in-usetox%C3%A2-part-1-discussion-on-data-and-approaches-for-estimating-freshwater-ecotoxicity-effect-factors
#19
Erwan Saouter, Karin Aschberger, Peter Fantke, Michael Z Hauschild, Stephanie K Bopp, Aude Kienzler, Alicia Paini, Rana Pant, Michela Secchi, Serenella Sala
The scientific consensus model USEtox® is recommended by the European Commission as the reference model to characterize life cycle chemical emissions in terms of their potential human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity impacts in the context of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook and the Environmental Footprint pilot phase looking at products (PEF) and organisations (OEF). Consequently, this model has been systematically used within the PEF/OEF pilot phase by 25 EU industry sectors, which manufacture a wide variety of consumer products...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613080/wetland-based-phytoremediation-of-biosolids-from-an-end-of-life-municipal-lagoon-a-microcosm-study
#20
Inoka Amarakoon, Adenike O Hassan, Francis Zvomuya
This study examined the effectiveness of a wetland system for phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. The microcosm experiment tested the effects of one vs. two harvests of cattail per growth cycle in biosolids without (PB) or with (PBS) the addition of soil on phytoremediation. Cattail (Typha latifolia)) seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 4.5 kg (dry wt.) of biosolids, above which a 10-cm deep water column was maintained. Results showed that two harvests per growth cycle significantly increased N and P phytoextraction relative to a single harvest...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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