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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#1
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#2
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
November 30, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894354/do-mosquitoes-transmit-the-avian-malaria-like-parasite-haemoproteus-an-experimental-test-of-vector-competence-using-mosquito-saliva
#3
Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Laura Gangoso, Jiayue Yan, Ramón C Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: The life-cycle of many vector-borne pathogens includes an asexual replication phase in the vertebrate host and sexual reproduction in the insect vector. However, as only a small array of parasites can successfully develop infective phases inside an insect, few insect species are competent vectors for these pathogens. Molecular approaches have identified the potential insect vectors of blood parasites under natural conditions. However, the effectiveness of this methodology for verifying mosquito competence in the transmission of avian malaria parasites and related haemosporidians is still under debate...
November 28, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888336/ocean-acidification-alters-temperature-and-salinity-preferences-in-larval-fish
#4
Jennifer C A Pistevos, Ivan Nagelkerken, Tullio Rossi, Sean D Connell
Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat...
November 25, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886272/can-long-term-dentine-bonding-created-in-real-life-be-forecasted-by-parameters-established-in-the-laboratory
#5
Heleine M C Rêgo, Thaís S Alves, Eduardo Bresciani, Li-Na Niu, Franklin R Tay, César R Pucci
Tooth-coloured plastic dental fillings secured by adhesives to tooth structures are widely used to fix decayed teeth. Whereas laboratory tests demonstrate rapid deterioration of the ability of the adhesives to stick to dentine, clinical studies show that these fillings are relatively durable. This discrepancy suggests that the parameters used for simulating bond degradation in the laboratory setting do not correlate well with clinical outcomes. The present study examined the long-term tensile bond strength of resin composite fillings performed in real life and under different laboratory-simulated bonding conditions to identify parameters that may be used to forecast the durability of adhesive bonds created in dentine...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885811/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-mainly-by-interference-with-the-release-phase-of-its-life-cycle
#6
Andrea Magri, Matteo N Barbaglia, Chiara Z Foglia, Elisa Boccato, Michela E Burlone, Sarah Cole, Paola Giarda, Elena Grossini, Arvind H Patel, Rosalba Minisini, Mario Pirisi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oestrogen and oestrogen-mediated signalling protect from hepatitis C virus through incompletely understood mechanisms. We aimed to ascertain which phase(s) of hepatitis C virus life cycle is/are affected by oestrogens. METHODS: Huh7 cells infected with the JFH1 virus (genotype 2a) were exposed to dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, progesterone and 17β-estradiol (tested with/without its receptor antagonist fulvestrant). Dose-response curves were established to calculate half maximal inhibitory concentration values...
November 7, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883962/maternal-care-and-affective-behavior-in-female-offspring-implication-of-the-neurosteroid-gabaergic-system
#7
Amanda P Borrow, Nicole M Cameron
In female rats, the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle is associated with decreased levels of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior relative to the metestrus phase. Progesterone likely modulate these behaviors, in part through the influence of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (THP) on hippocampal GABAAR subunit expression. As natural variations in maternal care have been found to influence both progesterone levels at proestrus and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring, we sought to investigate the importance of maternal care and the estrous cycle on affective behavior in female rats that had received Low or High levels of licking/grooming (LG) during early life...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883008/habitat-driven-variation-in-mycorrhizal-communities-in-the-terrestrial-orchid-genus-dactylorhiza
#8
Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Vincent S F T Merckx, Rein Brys, Daniel Tyteca, Mikael Hedrén, Bart Lievens
Orchid species are critically dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, particularly during the early stages of their development when nutritional resources are scarce. As such, orchid mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the population dynamics, abundance, and spatial distribution of orchid species. However, less is known about the ecology and distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate ecological and geographic variation in mycorrhizal associations in fourteen species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881166/using-the-social-amoeba-dictyostelium-to-study-the-functions-of-proteins-linked-to-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#9
REVIEW
Robert J Huber
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects both children and adults. Thirteen genetically distinct genes have been identified that when mutated, result in abnormal lysosomal function and an excessive accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin in neurons, as well as other cell types outside of the central nervous system. The NCL family of proteins is comprised of lysosomal enzymes (PPT1/CLN1, TPP1/CLN2, CTSD/CLN10, CTSF/CLN13), proteins that peripherally associate with membranes (DNAJC5/CLN4, KCTD7/CLN14), a soluble lysosomal protein (CLN5), a protein present in the secretory pathway (PGRN/CLN11), and several proteins that display different subcellular localizations (CLN3, CLN6, MFSD8/CLN7, CLN8, ATP13A2/CLN12)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877216/investigating-a-correlation-between-chemoradiotherapy-schedule-parameters-and-overall-survival-in-a-real-life-ld-sclc-patient-cohort
#10
Farkhad Manapov, Chukwuka Eze, Maximilian Niyazi, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Minglun Li, Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Guido Hildebrandt, Rainer Fietkau, Claus Belka
Background: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a treatment standard in limited disease (LD) small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Currently, the timing of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) remains the subject of randomised trials and meta-analyses. To investigate a correlation between CRT schedule parameters and overall survival (OS) in a real-life patient cohort, a temporal analysis was performed. Methods: 182 LD SCLC patients successfully treated with definitive CRT were retrospectively reviewed. TRT was applied concurrently or sequentially...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875595/phosphorylation-of-serine-235-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-non-structural-protein-ns5a-by-multiple-kinases
#11
Kuan-Ying Lee, Yi-Hung Chen, Shih-Chin Hsu, Ming-Jiun Yu
Phosphorylation at serine 235 (S235) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) plays a critical role in the viral life cycle. For medical and virological interests, we exploited the HEK293T kidney cells to test 3 candidate protein kinases on NS5A S235 phosphorylation. Inhibitors that inhibit casein kinase I α (CKIα), polo-like kinase I (PlKI) or calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) all reduced NS5A S235 phosphorylation. CKIα was studied previously and PlKI had severe cytotoxicity, thus CaMKII was selected for validation in the Huh7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871776/life-cycle-of-spinose-ear-tick-otobius-megnini-acari-argasidae-infesting-the-race-horses-in-nuwara-eliya-sri-lanka
#12
G C P Diyes, R S Rajakaruna
Otobius megnini infests mainly domesticated and wild animals and occasionally humans. It has been identified as an agent of human and horse otoacariasis in Sri Lanka. The number of nymphal stages in the life cycle of O. megnini varies from one to three in different geographic regions. The present study determined the life cycle of O. megnini infesting the racehorses in Nuwara Eliya. A tick colony was initiated from fully engorged nymphs collected from horses and maintained at 10°C, 22°C and 28°C. Immature stages were reared on New Zealand rabbits...
November 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870966/biochemical-effects-of-fipronil-and-its-metabolites-on-lipid-peroxidation-and-enzymatic-antioxidant-defense-in-tadpoles-eupemphix-nattereri-leiuperidae
#13
Hortênsia S Gripp, Juliane S Freitas, Eduardo A Almeida, Márcia C Bisinoti, Altair B Moreira
Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental change and pollution because they have both aquatic and terrestrial life cycle stages and high skin permeability. Particularly during the larval stages, when these animals are restricted to small, transient ponds, exposure to high concentrations of pesticides is inevitable in agricultural areas. Given that pesticide application increases during the summer, which coincides with the reproductive season and the occurrence of most neotropical tadpoles in their natural environment, strong indications exist that tadpoles are developing in contaminated ponds...
November 18, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870404/why-sex-hormones-matter-for-neuroscience-a-very-short-review-on-sex-sex-hormones-and-functional-brain-asymmetries
#14
REVIEW
Markus Hausmann
Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870079/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-second-line-chemotherapy-agents-for-advanced-gastric-cancer
#15
Simon W Lam, Maya Wai, Jessica E Lau, Michael McNamara, Marc Earl, Belinda Udeh
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Chemotherapy options for patients who fail first-line treatment are limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of second-line treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of six possible second-line treatment options for patients with advanced gastric cancer who have failed previous chemotherapy: irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, ramucirumab, paclitaxel plus ramucirumab, and palliative care...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867807/screening-for-potential-endocrine-disruptors-in-fish-evidence-from-structural-alerts-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-toxicological-assays
#16
Monika Nendza, Andrea Wenzel, Martin Müller, Geertje Lewin, Nelly Simetska, Frauke Stock, Jürgen Arning
BACKGROUND: The European chemicals' legislation REACH aims to protect man and the environment from substances of very high concern (SVHC). Chemicals like endocrine disruptors (EDs) may be subject to authorization. Identification of (potential) EDs with regard to the environment is limited because specific experimental assessments are not standard requirements under REACH. Evidence is based on a combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments (if available), expert judgement, and structural analogy with known EDs...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864849/impact-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-root-colonization-potential-and-life-cycle-of-rhizophagus-irregularis-following-co-entrapment-into-alginate-beads
#17
Paul Loján, Marion Demortier, Siva L S Velivelli, Stefan Pfeiffer, Juan Pablo Suárez, Paul de Vos, Barbara Doyle Prestwich, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Declerck
AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of seven plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on root colonization and life cycle of Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 when co-entrapped in alginate beads. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two in vitro experiments were conducted. The first consisted in the immobilization of R. irregularis and seven PGPR isolates into alginate beads to assess the effect of the bacteria on the pre-symbiotic growth of the fungus. In the second experiment, the best-performing PGPR from experiment 1 was tested on its ability to promote the symbiotic development of the AMF in potato plantlets from three cultivars...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862539/local-adaptation-of-reproductive-performance-during-thermal-stress
#18
Damiano Porcelli, Kevin J Gaston, Roger K Butlin, Rhonda R Snook
Considerable evidence exists for local adaptation of critical thermal limits in ectotherms following adult temperature stress, but fewer studies have tested for local adaptation of sub-lethal heat stress effects across life history stages. In organisms with complex life cycles, such as holometablous insects, heat stress during juvenile stages may severely impact gametogenesis, having downstream consequences on reproductive performance that may be mediated by local adaptation, although this is rarely studied...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862223/effects-of-hip-implant-modular-neck-material-and-assembly-method-on-fatigue-life-and-distraction-force
#19
Fahad Aljenaei, Isabelle Catelas, Hakim Louati, Paul E Beaulé, Michel Nganbe
There is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate in vitro test procedures to better understand, predict and prevent in vivo implant failures. This study aimed to simulate in vivo fatigue fracture and distraction of modular necks in an in vitro setting, and to assess the effects of neck material (Ti6Al4V vs. CoCrMo) and assembly method (hand vs. impact) on implant failure. Fatigue tests were performed on the PROFEMUR® Modular Neck System under two different loads and number of cycles: 2.3 kN for 5 million cycles, and 7...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861827/women-living-together-have-a-higher-frequency-of-menstrual-migraine
#20
Karen S Ferreira, Gisela Guilherme, Viviane R Faria, Larissa M Borges, Angel A T Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Menstrual migraine is a highly prevalent disorder among adult women, resulting in disability and loss of quality of life. Some studies have reported menstrual cycle synchrony among women living together. No study has reported whether there may also be a higher prevalence of menstrual migraine among these women. Thus, they reported here the prevalence of menstrual migraine in a group of women living together compared with a control group of women living alone, and discussed the possible factors involved...
November 10, 2016: Headache
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