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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244854/morphological-switch-to-a-resistant-subpopulation-in-response-to-viral-infection-in-the-bloom-forming-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#1
Miguel José Frada, Shilo Rosenwasser, Shifra Ben-Dor, Adva Shemi, Helena Sabanay, Assaf Vardi
Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242677/infection-reduces-anti-predator-behaviors-in-house-finches
#2
James S Adelman, Corinne Mayer, Dana M Hawley
Infectious diseases can cause host mortality through direct or indirect mechanisms, including altered behavior. Diminished anti-predator behavior is among the most-studied causes of indirect mortality during infection, particularly for systems in which a parasite's life-cycle requires transmission from prey to predator. Significantly less work has examined whether directly-transmitted parasites and pathogens also reduce anti-predator behaviors. Here we test whether the directly-transmitted bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), reduces responses to predation-related stimuli in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus)...
April 2017: Journal of Avian Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242287/the-local-co-existence-pattern-of-selfing-genotypes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-natural-metapopulations
#3
Aurélien Richaud, Gaotian Zhang, Daehan Lee, Junho Lee, Marie-Anne Félix
To study the interplay of rare outcrossing and metapopulation structure, we focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Its remarkably low outcrossing rate is at the extreme end of the spectrum for facultative selfing organisms. At the demographic level, C. elegans natural populations undergo boom and bust dynamics on ephemeral resources, the dauer diapause larva acting as the dispersal form. Here we investigate the small-scale genetic structure of C. elegans populations in two localities over several years, using 2b-RAD (Restriction-Associated DNA) sequencing of nearly a thousand individuals...
December 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241137/improving-post-detonation-energetics-residues-estimations-for-the-life-cycle-environmental-assessment-process-for-munitions
#4
Michael Walsh, Brian Gullett, Marianne Walsh, Matthew Bigl, Johanna Aurell
The Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) process for military munitions tracks possible environmental impacts incurred during all phases of the life of a munition. The greatest energetics-based emphasis in the current LCEA process is on manufacturing. A review of recent LCEAs indicates that energetics deposition on ranges from detonations and disposal during training is only peripherally examined through assessment of combustion products derived from closed-chamber testing or models. These assessments rarely report any measurable energetic residues...
November 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237518/can-endurance-training-improve-physical-capacity-and-quality-of-life-in-young-fontan-patients
#5
Eva R Hedlund, Bo Lundell, Liselott Söderström, Gunnar Sjöberg
OBJECTIVE: Children after Fontan palliation have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Our aim was to study whether endurance training could improve physical capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients. METHODS: Fontan patients (n=30) and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (n=25) performed a 6-minute walk test at submaximal capacity and a maximal cycle ergometer test. Quality of life was assessed with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231706/sodium-rich-ferric-pyrophosphate-cathode-for-stationary-room-temperature-sodium-ion-batteries
#6
Bolei Shen, Maowen Xu, Yubin Niu, Jin Han, Shi-Yu Lu, Jian Jiang, Yi Li, Chunlong Dai, Linyu Hu, Chang Ming Li
In this paper, carbon-coated Na3.64Fe2.18(P2O7)2 nanoparticles (~10 nm) were successfully synthesized via a facile sol-gel method and employed as cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The results show that the carbon-coated Na3.64Fe2.18(P2O7)2 cathode delivers a high reversible capacity of 99 mAhg-1 at 0.2 C, outstanding cycling life retention of 96 % and high coulomb efficiency of almost 100 % even after 1000 cycles at 10 C. Furthermore, the electrochemical performances of full batteries consisting of the carbon-coated Na3...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228091/a-randomized-phase-ii-study-evaluating-different-maintenance-schedules-of-nab-paclitaxel-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-final-results-of-the-ibcsg-42-12-big-2-12-snap-trial
#7
A Gennari, Z Sun, U Hasler-Strub, M Colleoni, M J Kennedy, R Von Moos, J Cortés, M J Vidal, B Hennessy, J Walshe, K Amillano Parraga, K Ribi, J Bernhard, S Murillo Morales, O Pagani, A Barbeaux, S Borstnar, M Rabaglio-Poretti, R Maibach, M M Regan, G Jerusalem
Background: The phase II SNAP trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of alternative chemotherapy schedules for prolonged administration in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC), after a short induction at conventional doses. Methods: Between April 2013 and August 2015, 258 women untreated with chemotherapy for MBC were randomly assigned to receive three different maintenance chemotherapy schedules after three cycles of identical induction chemotherapy: Arm A, nab-Paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 days 1,15 Q28; Arm B, nab-Paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 days 1,8,15 Q28; Arm C, nab-Paclitaxel 75 mg/m2 days 1,8,15,22 Q28...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226269/evaluating-weathering-of-food-packaging-polyethylene-nano-clay-composites-release-of-nanoparticles-and-their-impacts
#8
Changseok Han, Amy Zhao, Eunice Varughese, E Sahle-Demessie
Nano-fillers are increasingly incorporated into polymeric materials to improve the mechanical, barrier or other matrix properties of nanocomposites used for consumer and industrial applications. However, over the life cycle, these nanocomposites could degrade due to exposure to environmental conditions, resulting in the release of embedded nanomaterials from the polymer matrix into the environment. This paper presents a rigorous study on the degradation and the release of nanomaterials from food packaging composites...
January 1, 2018: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223937/echinococcosis-and-other-parasitic-infections-in-domestic-dogs-from-urban-areas-of-an-argentinean-patagonian-city
#9
Verónica Flores, Gustavo Viozzi, Gilda Garibotti, Daniela Zacharias, María Florencia Debiaggi, Surpik Kabaradjian
In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218786/how-fast-can-treatment-with-overdentures-improve-the-masticatory-function-and-ohrqol-of-atrophic-edentulous-patients-a-1-year-longitudinal-clinical-study
#10
Raissa Micaella Marcello-Machado, Fernanda Faot, Alessandra Julie Schuster, Amália Machado Bielemann, Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the masticatory function (MF) and subjective perception of patients with poor denture-bearing tissue in relation to change and the time required to identify an improvement in these parameters after rehabilitation with mandibular overdentures (MO) by two narrow-diameter two-piece implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three edentulous patients were selected for MO installation. The masticatory function (MF) was evaluated with the masticatory performance (MP) and swallowing threshold (ST) tests...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211106/trypanosoma-cruzi-strain-tciv-infects-raccoons-from-illinois
#11
Cailey Vandermark, Elliott Zieman, Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen, Cheryl Davis, Francisco Agustín Jiménez
BACKGROUND: The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES: Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60), raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3), and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes)...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209525/final-results-of-the-large-scale-multinational-trial-profile-1005-efficacy-and-safety-of-crizotinib-in-previously-treated-patients-with-advanced-metastatic-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Fiona Blackhall, D Ross Camidge, Alice T Shaw, Jean-Charles Soria, Benjamin J Solomon, Tony Mok, Vera Hirsh, Pasi A Jänne, Yuankai Shi, Pan-Chyr Yang, Tommaso De Pas, Toyoaki Hida, Javier De Castro Carpeño, Silvana Lanzalone, Anna Polli, Shrividya Iyer, Arlene Reisman, Keith D Wilner, Dong-Wan Kim
Purpose: Crizotinib is a potent, orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report final results from PROFILE 1005, the largest clinical trial to date for an ALK inhibitor in ALK-positive NSCLC. Patients and methods: PROFILE 1005 (NCT00932451) was a multicenter, single-arm phase 2 trial of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of crizotinib (250 mg twice daily; 3 week continuous treatment cycles) in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC after failure of ≥1 lines of systemic treatment for locally advanced/metastatic disease...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207556/effect-of-low-cycle-fatigue-predamage-on-very-high-cycle-fatigue-behavior-of-tc21-titanium-alloy
#13
Baohua Nie, Zihua Zhao, Yongzhong Ouyang, Dongchu Chen, Hong Chen, Haibo Sun, Shu Liu
The effect of low cycle fatigue (LCF) predamage on the subsequent very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior is investigated in TC21 titanium alloy. LCF predamage is applied under 1.8% strain amplitude up to various fractions of the expected life and subsequent VHCF properties are determined using ultrasonic fatigue tests. Results show that 5% of predamage insignificantly affects the VHCF limit due to the absence of precrack, but decreases the subsequent fatigue crack initiation life estimated by the Pairs law...
December 4, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205206/applications-of-pharmacogenomics-in-regulatory-science-a-product-life-cycle-review
#14
W C Tan-Koi, P C Leow, Y Y Teo
With rapid developments of pharmacogenomics (PGx) and regulatory science, it is important to understand the current PGx integration in product life cycle, impact on clinical practice thus far and opportunities ahead. We conducted a cross-sectional review on PGx-related regulatory documents and implementation guidelines in the United States and Europe. Our review found that although PGx-related guidance in both markets span across the entire product life cycle, the scope of implementation guidelines varies across two continents...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200969/inhibition-of-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-tumorigenesis-by-long-non-coding-rna-rpph1-down-regulation-of-mir-122-expression
#15
Yi Zhang, Lili Tang
Background: Recent studies showed that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in many life activities. RPPH1 is one of the lncRNA genes that are expressed differently between breast cancer and normal tissues by the lncRNA gene chip. Our study was conducted to examine the regulation of lncRNA RPPH1 in breast cancer. Methods: Two cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were selected to be the research objects in this study; RPPH1 overexpression and knockdown models were established by transforming vectors...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194440/attacking-the-mosquito-on-multiple-fronts-insights-from-the-vector-control-optimization-model-vcom-for-malaria-elimination
#16
Samson S Kiware, Nakul Chitnis, Allison Tatarsky, Sean Wu, Héctor Manuel Sánchez Castellanos, Roly Gosling, David Smith, John M Marshall
BACKGROUND: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194124/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#17
Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Hugo Mouquet, James P Di Santo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189763/formation-and-stability-of-prebiotically-relevant-vesicular-systems-in-terrestrial-geothermal-environments
#18
Manesh Prakash Joshi, Anupam Samanta, Gyana Ranjan Tripathy, Sudha Rajamani
Terrestrial geothermal fields and oceanic hydrothermal vents are considered as candidate environments for the emergence of life on Earth. Nevertheless, the ionic strength and salinity of oceans present serious limitations for the self-assembly of amphiphiles, a process that is fundamental for the formation of first protocells. Consequently, we systematically characterized the efficiency of amphiphile assembly, and vesicular stability, in terrestrial geothermal environments, both, under simulated laboratory conditions and in hot spring water samples (collected from Ladakh, India, an Astrobiologically relevant site)...
November 30, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183220/the-effect-of-low-volume-sprint-interval-training-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Catriona MacLean, John Dillon, John A Babraj, Niels Bj Vollaard
OBJECTIVES: Exercise is an important part of disease management in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but adherence to current exercise recommendations is poor. Novel low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) protocols with total training time commitments of ≤30 min per week have been shown to improve cardiometabolic risk and functional capacity in healthy sedentary participants, but the efficacy of such protocols in the management of NAFLD remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a low-volume SIT protocol can be used to improve liver function, insulin resistance, body composition, physical fitness, cognitive function and general well-being in patients with NAFLD...
December 1, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180782/alpha-helicoidal-heat-like-repeat-proteins-%C3%AE-rep-selected-as-interactors-of-hiv-1-nucleocapsid-negatively-interfere-with-viral-genome-packaging-and-virus-maturation
#20
Sudarat Hadpech, Sawitree Nangola, Koollawat Chupradit, Kanda Fanhchaksai, Wilhelm Furnon, Agathe Urvoas, Marie Valerio-Lepiniec, Philippe Minard, Pierre Boulanger, Saw-See Hong, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
A new generation of artificial proteins, derived from alpha-helicoidal HEAT-like repeat protein scaffolds (αRep), was previously characterized as an effective source of intracellular interfering proteins. In this work, a phage-displayed library of αRep was screened on a region of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein encompassing the C-terminal domain of the capsid, the SP1 linker and the nucleocapsid. This region is known to be essential for the late steps of HIV-1 life cycle, Gag oligomerization, viral genome packaging and the last cleavage step of Gag, leading to mature, infectious virions...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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