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life cycle testing

S Richard, J M G C F Almeida, O H Cissé, A Luraschi, O Nielsen, M Pagni, P M Hauser
Fungi of the genus Pneumocystis are obligate parasites that colonize mammals' lungs and are host species specific. Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii infect, respectively, humans and rats. They can turn into opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed hosts, causing severe pneumonia. Their cell cycle is poorly known, mainly because of the absence of an established method of culture in vitro It is thought to include both asexual and sexual phases. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that their mode of sexual reproduction is primary homothallism involving a single mating type ( MAT ) locus encompassing plus and minus genes ( matMc , matMi , and matPi ; Almeida et al...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Luciele G Minuzzi, Luís Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, João Valente Dos Santos, Richard Simpson, António Martinho, Artur Paiva, Ana M Teixeira
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ageing has profound impact on the immune system, mainly on T-cells. However, it has been suggested that chronic exercise may delay immunosenescence. Master athletes represent an interesting sub-demographic group to test this theory since they maintain a high training frequency and load throughout life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lifelong training on the senescence and mobilization of T lymphocytes in response to acute exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen athletes who regularly participated in training and competitions for more than 20 years throughout their lives and a control group of 10 healthy individuals participated in this study...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Manish Salgaonkar, Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The multi-enzyme biocatalyst allows to run in vitro multi-step cascade reactions in a single pot. An efficient combi-metal organic frameworks (combi-MOF) of α-amylase and glucoamylase for one pot starch hydrolysis was constructed by mixing zinc acetate and 2‑methylimmidazole with enzyme mixture in one pot under biocompatible conditions. The prepared combi-MOF was characterized and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yi Yang, Wesley W Ingwersen, David E Meyer
The accuracy of direct and indirect resource use and emissions of products as quantified in life cycle models depends in part upon the geographical and technological representativeness of the production models. Production conditions vary not just between nations, but also within national boundaries. Understanding the level of geographic resolution within large industrial nations needed to reach acceptable accuracy has not been well-tested across the broad spectrum of goods and services consumed. Using an aggregate 15-industryenvironmentally-extended input-output model of the US along with detailed interstate commodity flow data, we test the accuracy of regionalizing the national model into two-regions (state - rest of US) versus 51 regions (all US states + DC)...
January 1, 2018: Environmental Modelling & Software: with Environment Data News
Cynthia J Downs, Brianne V Boan, Thomas D Lohuis, Kelley M Stewart
Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep ( Ovis dalli dalli ) in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i) tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii) tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lucie Grécias, Julie Valentin, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate host's behaviour, which has been proposed to increase transmission to their definitive host. This behavioural change could result from the parasite actively manipulating its host, but could also be explained by a mechanical effect, where the parasite's physical presence affects host behaviour. We created an artificial internal parasite using silicone injections in the body cavity to test this mechanical effect hypothesis. We used the Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) system, as this cestode can reach up to 92% of its fish host mass...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
D P Benesh
When many worms co-infect the same host, their average size is often reduced. This negative density-dependent growth is called the crowding effect. Crowding has been reported many times for worms in their intermediate hosts, but rarely have the fitness consequences of crowding been examined. This study tested whether larval crowding reduces establishment success in the next host for two parasites with complex life cycles, the nematode Camallanus lacustris and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Infected copepods, the first host, were fed to sticklebacks, the second host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Annemiek Leeman, Edyta C Pirog, John Doorbar, Miekel M van de Sandt, Folkert J van Kemenade, David Jenkins, Wim G V Quint
Progression of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) involves transition from productive to transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Grading aims to distinguish productive low-grade AIN from high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) with risk of cancer. We describe immunohistochemical patterns in AIN adding a novel marker for initiation of the productive phase of the HPV life cycle (panHPVE4) to those for cell cycle activity (Ki-67) and transforming activity of HPVE7 gene (p16). We studied 67 anal biopsies for suspected anal neoplasia (17 normal, 15 AIN1, 20 AIN2, 15 AIN3) from 54 men who have sex with men at New York Presbyterian Hospital, USA...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Susan M Cormier, Lei Zheng, Colleen M Flaherty
Most water quality criteria are based on laboratory toxicity tests and usually include chronic and acute magnitudes. Field-based criteria are typically based on long-term or continuous exposures, so they are chronic. Biological responses of quantified, short-term aqueous exposures are seldom documented in the field. However, acute values may be derived by estimating an upper limit using temporal variance and chronic values. This method estimates an upper limit from the variance of pollutant measurements from stream locations that attain the chronic criterion...
February 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacopo Bacenetti, Alessia Cavaliere, Giacomo Falcone, Valentina Giovenzana, Alessandro Banterle, Riccardo Guidetti
Over the last years, increasing attention has been paid to environmental concerns related to food production and potential solutions to this issue. Among the different strategies being considered to reduce the impact food production has on the environment, only moderate has been paid to the extension of shelf life; a longer shelf life can reduce food losses as well as the economic and environmental impacts of the distribution logistics. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of whole-wheat breadsticks with extended shelf lives and to evaluate whether the shelf-life extension is an effective mitigation solution from an environmental point of view...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Venanzi, D Pezzolla, L Cecchini, M Pauselli, A Ricci, A Sordi, B Torquati, G Gigliotti
Use of agricultural and livestock by-products for anaerobic digestion (AD), in total or partial substitution of the maize silage was evaluated from an environmental and economical point of view. The evaluation process included three methodological interdependent and consequential steps: the chemical stage at laboratory and plant level, the environmental and economic steps developing the Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing jointly. The laboratory test showed that the two mixtures prepared with by-products, in partial (MIX A) and total (MIX B) substitution of maize silage, did not show differences in bio-methane production compared to a reference mixture with the 33% of maize silage...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Flavio M Shimizu, Anielli M Pasqualeti, Fagner R Todão, Jessica Fernanda Affonso de Oliveira, Luis Carlos Silveira Vieira, Suely Pc Gonçalves, Gabriela H da Silva, Mateus B Cardoso, Angelo Luiz Gobbi, Diego Stéfani Teodoro Martinez, Osvaldo Novais Oliveira, Renato Sousa Lima
Advances in nanomaterials have led to a tremendous progress in different areas with the development of high performance and multifunctional platforms. However, a relevant gap remains in providing the mass-production of these nanomaterials with reproducible surfaces. Accordingly, the monitoring of such materials across their entire life cycle becomes mandatory to both industry and academy. In this paper, we use a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) as a user-friendly and cost-effective method to classify nanomaterials according to their surface chemistry...
February 9, 2018: ACS Sensors
Kang Yao, Jim P Zheng, Zhiyong Liang
A different strategy of capacity-control cycling under fixed upper and lower capacity/voltage limits is used in an attempt to seek extended cycle life for Si nanoparticles-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Si-MW) electrodes for Li-ion batteries. For cells using Si-MW 1:1 (w/w) electrode in electrolyte of ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate-fluoroethylene carbonate (EC-DEC-FEC, 45:45:10 w/w/w) tested at a current of 1 mA, stable 326 charge-discharge cycles at designated capacity of 506 mAh g-1 are attained. The new cycling protocol allows for the observation of a self-healing phenomenon by studying the specific capacities and charge/discharge end voltages...
February 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zahra Mohebbi Dehnavi, Farzaneh Jafarnejad, Zahra Kamali
INTRODUCTION: Primary dysmenorrhea without pelvic pathology is one of the most common complaints in women's medicine. Primary dysmenorrhea can affect the quality of life of women. Aerobic exercise is one of the ways to reduce the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. METHODS: This is a clinical trial study performed on 70 students with primary dysmenorrhea in dormitories of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2015...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Shilpa Gaidhane, Wani Mittal, Nazli Khatib, Quazi Syed Zahiruddin, Pramita A Muntode, Abhay Gaidhane
Context: Health system is likely to encounter more adolescents with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a consequence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Intervention at various stages of the life cycle is needed as cumulative effect of risk factors accumulated from fetal life to adult increases risk of noncommunicable disease. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out awareness regarding T2DM and distribution of risk factor for T2DM in adolescents from the rural areas of Wardha district, India...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Shuichi P Obuchi, Shuichi Tsuchiya, Hisashi Kawai
BACKGROUND: Gait speed is useful in predicting adverse health outcomes among older adults. In previous studies, gait speed has typically been measured when subjects walk in laboratory settings, where they are able to intentionally change their gait speed. Thus, it is unclear whether the gait speed captured in a laboratory setting is representative of the subjects' actual walking pace in daily life. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study proposes using the more accurate "daily life gait speed" (DGS), measured as the subject's average gait speed over a week-long period using the global positioning system (GPS) in their smartphone...
January 30, 2018: Gait & Posture
Lauren E Boucher, Christine S Hopp, Julianne Mendi Muthinja, Friedrich Frischknecht, Jürgen Bosch
As obligate, intracellular parasites, Plasmodium spp. rely on invasion of host cells in order to replicate and continue their life cycle. The parasite needs to traverse the dermis and endothelium of blood vessels, invade hepatocytes and red blood cells, traverse the mosquito midgut, and enter the salivary glands to continue the cycle of infection and transmission. To traverse and invade cells, the parasite employs an actomyosin motor at the core of a larger invasion machinery complex known as the glideosome...
February 7, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Tania Molina-Jiménez, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Angelica Mendoza Beltran, Valentina Prado, David Font Vivanco, Patrik J G Henriksson, Jeroen B Guinée, Reinout Heijungs
Interpretation of comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results can be challenging in the presence of uncertainty. To aid in interpreting such results under the goal of any comparative LCA, we aim to provide guidance to practitioners by gaining insights into uncertainty-statistics methods (USMs). We review five USMs-discernibility analysis, impact category relevance, overlap area of probability distributions, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), and modified NHST-and provide a common notation, terminology, and calculation platform...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yusuke Takai, Misato Kawai, Tadashi Ogo, Takashi Ichinose, Shigeki Furuya, Nozomu Takaki, Yukihiro Tone, Hiroshi Udo, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shinobu Yasuo
Environmental factors during early life stages affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adulthood. We examined the effect of photoperiods during development on neurogenesis and affective behaviors during adolescence/adulthood using C57BL/6J mice. Mice were born and raised until weaning under long-day conditions (LDs) or short-day conditions (SDs), followed by a 12L12D cycle until adulthood. Adult mice born under SD showed a shorter latency to first immobility in the forced swim test when compared with the mice born under LD...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
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