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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#1
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227624/relationship-between-gait-variables-and-domains-of-neurologic-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-six-minute-walk-test
#2
Asma Qureshi, Maite Brandt-Pearce, Myla D Goldman, Asma Qureshi, Maite Brandt-Pearce, Myla D Goldman, Asma Qureshi, Myla D Goldman, Maite Brandt-Pearce
Most multiple sclerosis (MS) patients eventually suffer from mobility impairment, and thus it is critical that walking disability in MS be accurately assessed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT), a reliable MS measure, is traditionally used to determine the distance covered in six minutes using a standard protocol. With the availability of body sensor networks (BSNs), researchers are interested in leveraging BSN data for finding new gait assessment anchors for improved separability performance. Further, current methods for gait assessments are insufficient since assessments are absolute, performed by comparing outcomes to the statistical norms established from diverse patient data despite natural inter-patient variability...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218802/non-invasive-ventilation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Fidelma Moran, Judy M Bradley, Amanda J Piper
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review...
February 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216133/effects-of-copper-oxide-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-life-stage-dependent-full-life-cycle-in-enchytraeus-crypticus
#4
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuONMs) have various applications in industry and enter the terrestrial environment, e.g. via sewage sludge. The effects of CuONMs and copper chloride (CuCl2) were studied comparing the standard enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT) and the full life cycle test (FLCt) with Enchytraeus crypticus. CuONMs mainly affected growth or juveniles' development, whereas CuCl2 mainly affected embryo development and/or hatching success and adults survival. Compared to the ERT, the FLCt allowed discrimination of effects between life stages and provided indication of the underlying mechanisms; further, the FLCt showed increased sensitivity, e...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209373/cost-utility-of-first-line-disease-modifying-treatments-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Erkki Soini, Jaana Joutseno, Marja-Liisa Sumelahti
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of first-line treatments of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) (dimethyl fumarate [DMF] 240 mg PO BID, teriflunomide 14 mg once daily, glatiramer acetate 20 mg SC once daily, interferon [IFN]-β1a 44 µg TIW, IFN-β1b 250 µg EOD, and IFN-β1a 30 µg IM QW) and best supportive care (BSC) in the health care payer setting in Finland. METHODS: The primary outcome was the modeled incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; €/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained, 3%/y discounting)...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198918/artificial-diet-for-laboratory-rearing-of-condylorrhiza-vestigialis-guen%C3%A3-e-1854-lep-crambidae
#6
Lucas S Campos, Aloisio Coelho, José Roberto P Parra
The Brazilian Poplar Moth, Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Guenée), compromises the wood productivity of poplar trees (Populus sp.), mainly affecting the matchstick industry in southern Brazil. Considering the lack of information on rearing techniques for this insect, the objective of this study was to develop an artificial diet to rear C. vestigialis with biological characteristics similar to the wild insects. A properly diet will enable bio-ecological studies and biological control programs using the baculovirus Condylorrhiza vestigialis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CvMNPV)...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198039/combined-environmental-risk-assessment-for-the-antiviral-pharmaceuticals-ganciclovir-and-valganciclovir-in-europe
#7
Jürg Oliver Straub
Potential environmental risks of the old antiviral pharmaceuticals ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (VGCV) were re-assessed based on new environmental fate and chronic ecotoxicity tests and on actual use data for Europe. VGCV is hydrolyzed to GCV by intestinal and hepatic esterases, hence the new environmental tests only refer to GCV. A sorption study showed that GCV will not sorb significantly, excluding the soil as a relevant environmental compartment. Despite earlier data suggesting non-degradability, a new water/sediment fate test showed GCV to be primarily and ultimately degraded and to be non-persistent...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196254/effect-of-a-scalp-cooling-device-on-alopecia-in-women-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer-the-scalp-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Julie Nangia, Tao Wang, Cynthia Osborne, Polly Niravath, Kristen Otte, Steven Papish, Frankie Holmes, Jame Abraham, Mario Lacouture, Jay Courtright, Richard Paxman, Mari Rude, Susan Hilsenbeck, C Kent Osborne, Mothaffar Rimawi
Importance: Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. Objectives: To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy...
February 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192677/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-bacterial-communities-associated-with-i-cladophora-glomerata-i-mats-along-the-nearshore-of-lake-ontario
#9
Michael Ibsen, Dinesh Fernando, Ayush Kumar, Andrea Kirkwood
The alga <i>Cladophora glomerata</i> can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of <i>Cladophora</i>, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in <i>Cladophora</i>-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191957/towards-financially-viable-phytoextraction-and-production-of-plant-based-palladium-catalysts
#10
Zakuan Azizi Shamsul Harumain, Helen L Parker, Andrea Muñoz García, Michael J Austin, Con Robert McElroy, Andrew J Hunt, James H Clark, John A Meech, Christopher William Noel Anderson, Luca Ciacci, Thomas E Graedel, Neil C Bruce, Elizabeth L Rylott
Although a promising technique, phytoextraction has yet to see significant commercialization. Major limitations include metal uptake rates and subsequent processing costs. However, it has been shown that liquid-culture-grown Arabidopsis can take up and store palladium as nanoparticles. The processed plant biomass has catalytic activity comparable to that of commercially available catalysts, creating a product of higher value than extracted bulk metal. We demonstrate that the minimum level of palladium in Arabidopsis dried tissues for catalytic activity comparable to commercially available 3% palladium-on-carbon catalysts was achieved from dried plant biomass containing between 12 and 18 g·kg-1 Pd...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185608/effect-of-heat-waves-on-embryo-mortality-in-the-pine-processionary-moth
#11
S Rocha, C Kerdelhué, M L Ben Jamaa, S Dhahri, C Burban, M Branco
Extreme climate events such as heat waves are predicted to become more frequent with climate change, representing a challenge for many organisms. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa is a Mediterranean pine defoliator, which typically lays eggs during the summer. We evaluated the effects of heat waves on egg mortality of three populations with different phenologies: a Portuguese population with a classical life cycle (eggs laid in summer), an allochronic Portuguese population reproducing in spring, and a Tunisian population from the extreme southern limit of T...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184193/altered-functional-performance-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#12
Isis da Silva Costa, Antoni Gamundí, José G Vivas Miranda, Lucas G Souza França, Charles Novaes De Santana, Pedro Montoya
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181684/exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-atrial-fibrillation
#13
REVIEW
Signe S Risom, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Pernille P Johansen, Kirstine L Sibilitz, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Rod S Taylor, Jesper H Svendsen, Selina K Berg
BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit adults with atrial fibrillation or those who had been treated for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is caused by multiple micro re-entry circuits within the atrial tissue, which result in chaotic rapid activity in the atria. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based rehabilitation programmes, alone or with another intervention, compared with no-exercise training controls in adults who currently have AF, or have been treated for AF...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177793/biocontrol-of-i-burkholderia-cepacia-i-complex-bacteria-and-bacterial-phytopathogens-by-i-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-i
#14
Damian McNeely, Ryan M Chanyi, James S Dooley, John E Moore, Susan F Koval
<i>Bdellovibrio</i> and like organisms are predatory bacteria that have the unusual property of using the cytoplasmic constituents of other Gram-negative bacteria as nutrients. These predators may thus provide an alternative approach to the biocontrol of human and plant pathogens. Predators were isolated in enrichment cultures with soil and sewage on <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> strains K56-2 and J2315 as prey cells. Three isolates (DM7C, DM8A and DM11A) were identified as <i>Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus</i> based on morphology, a periplasmic life cycle and 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177292/intestinal-helminth-fauna-of-the-shortfin-mako-isurus-oxyrinchus-elasmobranchii-lamnidae-in-the-northeast-atlantic-ocean
#15
Jaime Penadés-Suay, Jesús Tomás, Manuel Merchán, Francisco Javier Aznar
Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169329/a-hybrid-electrochemical-device-based-on-a-synergetic-inner-combination-of-li-ion-battery-and-li-ion-capacitor-for-energy-storage
#16
Jun-Sheng Zheng, Lei Zhang, Annadanesh Shellikeri, Wanjun Cao, Qiang Wu, Jim P Zheng
Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168664/assessment-of-human-exposure-to-enms
#17
Araceli Sánchez Jiménez, Martie van Tongeren
Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167559/anti-trypanosomal-activity-of-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-cyp51-inhibitors-vni-and-vfv-in-the-swiss-mouse-models-of-chagas-disease-induced-by-the-y-strain-trypanosoma-cruzi
#18
F H Guedes-da-Silva, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, J S De Araújo, B P Pavão, M R Simões-Silva, M B Meuser, K C Demarque, O C Moreira, C Britto, G I Lepesheva, M N C Soeiro
Chagas disease is a life-threatening infection caused by a variety of genetically diverse strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi The current treatment (benznidazole and nifurtimox) is unsatisfactory, and potential alternatives include inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), the cytochrome P450 enzyme essential for biosynthesis of sterols in eukaryotes and the major target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. Here we performed a comparative investigation of two protozoa-specific CYP51 inhibitors, VNI and its CYP51 structure-based derivative VFV, in the murine models of infection caused by the Y strain T...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167205/vascular-budding-in-symplegma-brakenhielmi-and-the-evolution-of-coloniality-in-styelid-ascidians
#19
Stefania Gutierrez, Federico D Brown
Individuals of colonial animals (e.g. zooids) are in continuous turnover. In ascidians colonial or solitary species have evolved by convergence multiple times. Colonial Botryllus and Botrylloides are well-studied genera that exhibit colony-wide developmental mechanisms that regulate synchronous and orchestrated cycles of budding and turnover of zooids. The origins of modular developmental mechanisms that facilitated the evolution of coloniality in this group remain unclear. To reconstruct ancestral states of coloniality we studied Symplegma brakenhielmi, a sister taxon of the botryllids...
February 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167158/most-individuals-with-advanced-cirrhosis-have-sleep-disturbances-which-are-associated-with-poor-quality-of-life
#20
Marwan Ghabril, Mollie Jackson, Raghavender Gotur, Regina Weber, Eric Orman, Raj Vuppalanchi, Naga Chalasani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with cirrhosis, but their determinants and effects on health-related quality of life are not well understood. We investigated the prevalence of disturbed sleep in these patients, factors associated with sleep disruption, and effects on quality of life. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study of 193 stable ambulatory patients with cirrhosis (154 with decompensated cirrhosis). Participants completed the Pittsburgh sleep questionnaire index (to assess sleep quality), the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ), muscle cramp questionnaires, and underwent neurocognitive testing...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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