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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342672/an-in-vitro-larval-migration-assay-for-assessing-anthelmintic-activity-of-different-drug-classes-against-ascaris-suum
#1
Jianguo Zhao, Andrew R Williams, Tina Vicky Alstrup Hansen, Stig M Thamsborg, Jianping Cai, Shuaibao Song, Gang Chen, Ming Kang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Qun Liu, Qian Han
In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334000/temperature-and-food-quantity-effects-on-the-harpacticoid-copepod-nitocra-spinipes-combining-in-vivo-bioassays-with-population-modeling
#2
Josef Koch, Thuy T Bui, Elin Lundström Belleza, Markus Brinkmann, Henner Hollert, Magnus Breitholtz
The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 × 105 algal cells/mL) on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332819/a-path-to-impact-for-autonomous-field-deployable-chemical-sensors-a-case-study-of-in-situ-nitrite-sensors
#3
Tim M Schierenbeck, Matthew C Smith
Natural freshwater systems have been severely affected by excess loading of macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorous) from fertilizers, fossil fuels, and human and livestock waste. In the USA, impacts to drinking water quality, biogeochemical cycles, and aquatic ecosystems are estimated to cost US$210 billion annually. Field-deployable nutrient sensors (FDS) offer potential to support research and resource management efforts by acquiring higher resolution data than are currently supported by expensive conventional sampling methods...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329625/advanced-basal-cell-carcinomas-appear-preferentially-on-the-scalp-of-patients-with-basal-cell-carcinoma-nevus-syndrome
#4
Brittany Urso, Katelyn Updyke, James A Solomon
Basal Cell Carcinoma Nevus Syndrome is a rare condition in which patients need to meet certain major or minor diagnostic criteria or test positive for chromosome 9 or PTCH1 mutations to be diagnosed. The results of an internet based survey of self-identified adults with BCCNS which was launched through SurveyMonkey with access provided by the Basal Cell Carcinoma Nevus Syndrome Life Support Network (www.BCCNS.org). Of 45 respondents, 11 individuals reported having locally advanced BCCs and 6 individuals reported having both locally advanced and metastatic BCCs...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327896/a-randomised-phase-iii-study-of-72%C3%A2-hour-infusional-versus-bolus-bleomycin-in-bep-bleomycin-etoposide-and-cisplatin-chemotherapy-to-treat-igcccg-good-prognosis-metastatic-germ-cell-tumours-te-3
#5
J Shamash, S-J Sarker, R Huddart, S Harland, J K Joffe, D Mazhar, A Birtle, J White, K Chowdhury, P Wilson, M R Marshall, S Vinnicombe
Background: Bleomycin is an integral part of combination chemotherapy in germ cell tumours. Pulmonary toxicity often necessitates drug cessation and death occurs in 1-2% of patients. A continuous infusion of bleomycin might reduce lung toxicity when compared to the conventional weekly boluses given as part of standard BEP chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: A phase 3 trial was conducted based on 212 men with IGCCCG good prognosis metastatic germ cell tumours with 1:1 randomisation...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327133/improved-knee-biomechanics-among-patients-reporting-a-good-outcome-in-knee-related-quality-of-life-one-year-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Josefine E Naili, Per Wretenberg, Viktor Lindgren, Maura D Iversen, Margareta Hedström, Eva W Broström
BACKGROUND: It is not well understood why one in five patients report poor outcomes following knee arthroplasty. This study evaluated changes in knee biomechanics, and perceived pain among patients reporting either a good or a poor outcome in knee-related quality of life after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age 66 (SD 7) years) were included in this prospective study. Within one month of knee arthroplasty and one year after surgery, patients underwent three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis, completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and rated perceived pain using a visual analogue scale...
March 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324150/stress-stones-stress-recurrent-stones-a-self-propagating-cycle-difficulties-in-solving-this-dichotomy
#7
Montserrat Arzoz-Fabregas, Josep Roca-Antonio, Luis Ibarz-Servio, Dalielah Jappie-Mahomed, Allen Rodgers
Numerous studies have reported an association between stress and urolithiasis. Although urinary risk factors have been measured in several of these, compelling evidence of a causal relationship has not been established. A shortcoming is that alterations in single urinary parameters rather than ratios and quotients, which provide a more synergistic risk evaluation, have been measured. Recently, we speculated about a possible association between chronic stress and stone recurrence. This presents an intriguing dichotomy of whether stress causes stones or vice versa, or whether they are linked in a self-propagating stress-stones-stress-recurrence cycle...
March 21, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322189/toxoplasma-gondii-f-actin-forms-an-extensive-filamentous-network-required-for-material-exchange-and-parasite-maturation
#8
Javier Periz, Jamie Whitelaw, Clare Harding, Simon Gras, Mario Igor Del Rosario Minina, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Leandro Lemgruber, Madita Alice Reimer, Robert Insall, Aoife Heaslip, Markus Meissner
Apicomplexan actin is important during the parasite's life cycle. Its polymerization kinetics are unusual, permitting only short, unstable F-actin filaments. It has not been possible to study actin in vivo and so its physiological roles have remained obscure, leading to models distinct from conventional actin behaviour. Here a modified version of the commercially available Actin-Chromobody® was tested as a novel tool for visualising F-actin dynamics in Toxoplasma gondii. Cb labels filamentous actin structures within the parasite cytosol and labels an extensive F-actin network that connects parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole and allows vesicles to be exchanged between parasites...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319848/treatment-of-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-with-the-gabaa-receptor-modulating-steroid-antagonist-sepranolone-uc1010-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Marie Bixo, Karin Ekberg, Inger Sundström Poromaa, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Aino Fianu Jonasson, Lotta Andréen, Erika Timby, Marianne Wulff, Agneta Ehrenborg, Torbjörn Bäckström
CONTEXT: Allopregnanolone is a metabolite from progesterone and a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. This endogenous steroid may induce negative mood in sensitive women when present in serum levels comparable to the premenstrual phase. Its endogenous isomer, isoallopregnanolone, has been shown to antagonize allopregnanolone effects in experimental animal and human models. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test whether inhibition of allopregnanolone by treatment with the GABAA modulating steroid antagonist (GAMSA) Sepranolone (UC1010) during the premenstrual phase could reduce symptoms of the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)...
March 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317111/an-experimental-test-of-the-habitat-amount-hypothesis-for-saproxylic-beetles-in-a-forested-region
#10
Sebastian Seibold, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Lenore Fahrig, Bernhard Förster, Marco Heurich, Torsten Hothorn, Fabian Scheipl, Simon Thorn, Jörg Müller
The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302594/a-human-centered-design-methodology-to-enhance-the-usability-human-factors-and-user-experience-of-connected-health-systems-a-three-phase-methodology
#11
Richard Harte, Liam Glynn, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Paul Ma Baker, Thomas Scharf, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry...
March 16, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302059/correspondence-of-d-melanogaster-and-c-elegans-developmental-stages-revealed-by-alternative-splicing-characteristics-of-conserved-exons
#12
Ruiqi Gao, Jingyi Jessica Li
BACKGROUND: We report a statistical study to find correspondence of D. melanogaster and C. elegans developmental stages based on alternative splicing (AS) characteristics of conserved cassette exons using modENCODE RNA-seq data. We identify "stage-associated exons" to capture the AS characteristics of each stage and use these exons to map pairwise stages within and between the two species by an overlap test. RESULTS: Within fly and worm, adjacent developmental stages are mapped to each other, i...
March 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300230/unique-interconnected-graphene-sno2-nanoparticle-spherical-multilayers-for-lithium-ion-battery-applications
#13
Qingguo Shao, Jie Tang, Yige Sun, Jing Li, Kun Zhang, Jinshi Yuan, Da-Ming Zhu, Lu-Chang Qin
We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO2 composite, where SnO2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes...
March 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296913/breeding-jatropha-curcas-by-genomic-selection-a-pilot-assessment-of-the-accuracy-of-predictive-models
#14
Leonardo de Azevedo Peixoto, Bruno Galvêas Laviola, Alexandre Alonso Alves, Tatiana Barbosa Rosado, Leonardo Lopes Bhering
Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY) and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML); to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294326/investigation-of-fatigue-crack-initiation-facets-in-ti-6al-4v-using-focused-ion-beam-milling-and-electron-backscatter-diffraction
#15
J Everaerts, B Verlinden, M Wevers
In the very high cycle fatigue regime, internal crack initiation can occur in Ti-6Al-4V because of the formation of facets, which are α grains that have fractured in a transcrystalline and planar manner. Because this crack initiation phase occupies most of the fatigue life, it is essential to understand which mechanisms lead to facet formation. Fatigue tests have been performed on drawn and heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V wires, and the facets at internal crack initiation sites have been analysed in detail in terms of their appearance, their spatial orientation and their crystallographic orientation...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288810/cognitive-behavior-and-sensory-function-were-significantly-influenced-by-restoration-of-active-ovarian-function-in-postreproductive-mice
#16
Kate C Parkinson, Rhett L Peterson, Jeffrey B Mason
In mammals, the relationship between reproductive function and health has been particularly difficult to define. Previously, in old, postreproductive-aged mice, replacement of senescent ovaries with new ovaries from young, actively cycling mice increased life span. We hypothesized that the same factors that increased life span would also influence health span. In the current experiments, we tested two of the seven domains of function/health, sensory function and cognition to determine if exposure of postreproductive female mice to young transplanted ovaries influenced health span...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288758/epidemiological-patterns-of-bovine-besnoitiosis-in-an-endemic-beef-cattle-herd-reared-under-extensive-conditions
#17
A Esteban-Gil, C Calvete, I Casasús, A Sanz, J Ferrer, M P Peris, J M Marcén-Seral, J A Castillo
Bovine besnoitiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. Described many decades ago, recent epidemiological studies reveal its important spread within Europe in the last years. To date, many epidemiological aspects related to life cycle, routes of transmission, incidence rates and associated risk factors are lacking; hence, the establishment of appropriate disease control programmes poses an important challenge. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiological pattern of the disease in an endemic herd reared under extensive conditions (Spanish Pyrenees) by identifying main factors associated with infection and clinical disease dynamics...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285464/shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#18
Kathrine E Starkweather
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents...
March 11, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283383/life-stages-of-an-aphid-living-under-similar-thermal-conditions-differ-in-thermal-performance
#19
Fei Zhao, Ary A Hoffmann, Kun Xing, Chun-Sen Ma
Heat responses can vary ontogenetically in many insects with complex life cycles, reflecting differences in thermal environments they experience. Such variation has rarely been considered in insects that develop incrementally and experience common microclimates across stages. To test if there is a low level of ontogenetic variation for heat responses in one such species, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae, basal tolerance [upper lethal temperature (ULT50) and maximum critical temperature (CTmax)], hardening capacity (CTmax) and hardening costs (adult longevity and fecundity) were measured across five stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th-instar nymphs and newly moulted adults)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283289/combined-use-of-vuv-and-uvc-photoreactors-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-laundry-wastewaters-reduction-of-load-parameters-detoxification-and-life-cycle-assessment-of-different-configurations
#20
Rômulo de Oliveira Schwaickhardt, Ênio Leandro Machado, Carlos Alexandre Lutterbeck
The present research investigated the treatment of hospital laundry wastewaters by the combined use of photochemical VUV and UVC reactors. Seven different configurations were tested and the performances of each of them were evaluated based on the removal of the load parameters, detoxification and life cycle assessment (LCA). The characterization of studied wastewaters included analysis of the following parameters: COD, BOD5, TKN, total P, pH, turbidity and conductivity. Acute ecotoxicity was evaluated using Daphnia magna...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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