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Ahmed E Arafa, Amel A Mohamed, Manal M Anwar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV] pose a considerable infectious risk for nurses, resulting in unwanted health outcomes and psychological stress. AIM OF THE WORK: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of nurses and define administrative roles regarding in BBP and infection control (IC) measures in selected Beni-Suef Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Eddie T T Tan, Ken W L Yong, Siew Hoon Wong, Bruce R D'Arcy, Rafat Al Jassim, James Joseph De Voss, Mary T Fletcher
Ingestion of indospicine-contaminated camel and horse meat has caused fatal liver injury to dogs in Australia, and it is currently not known if such contaminated meat may pose a human health risk upon dietary exposure. To date, indospicine related research has tended to focus on analytical aspects, with little information on post-harvest management of indospicine-contaminated meat. In this study, indospicine degradation was investigated both in aqueous solution and also in contaminated meat, under a range of conditions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Camila Quartim de Moraes Bruna, Rafael Queiroz de Souza, Irineu Francisco Silva Massaia, Áurea Silveira Cruz, Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano
Objectives: to determine if there are differences on the safety of the preparation of clean surgical instruments using different types of gloves and bare hands and evaluate the microbiological load of these preparations without gloves. Method: laboratory procedure with a pragmatic approach, in which the samples were handled with different types of gloves and bare hands. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were carried out by means of the agar diffusion method. Further samples were subjected to microbiological analysis after being handled without gloves...
October 10, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Armelle Perrichon, Bruno Reynard, Laurent Gremillard, Jérôme Chevalier, Frédéric Farizon, Jean Geringer
Ceramics are materials of choice for hip joint implants because of their excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Wear of the bearing couple (femoral head and cup) remains one of the main concerns of hip implants. Although ceramics are known for their good tribological properties, shocks due to micro-separation, friction and hydrothermal ageing in physiological environment remain the three main sources of wear. It has been recently suggested that shock effects dominate but the three degradation mechanisms were so far simulated separately...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Márcia Borba, Maico D de Araújo, Karen A Fukushima, Humberto N Yoshimura, Jason A Griggs, Álvaro Della Bona, Paulo F Cesar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two aging methods (mechanical cycling and autoclave) on the mechanical behavior of veneer and framework ceramic specimens with different configurations (monolithic, two and three-layers). METHODS: Three ceramics used as framework for fixed dental prostheses (YZ-Vita In-Ceram YZ; IZ-Vita In-Ceram Zirconia; AL-Vita In-Ceram AL) and two veneering porcelains (VM7 and VM9) were studied. Bar-shaped specimens were produced in three different designs: monolithic, two layers (porcelain-framework) and three layers (porcelain-framework-porcelain)...
October 7, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
John W Durham, Afsaneh Rabiei
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods were coated via ion beam asssited deposition (IBAD) at room temperature. The coating consists of a two-layer design of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a heat-protection layer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a top layer to increase bioactivity. A rotating substrate holder was designed to deposit an even coating on the cylindrical surface of PEEK rods; the uniformity is verified by cross-sectional measurements using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition is followed by heat treatment of the coating using microwave annealing and autoclaving...
September 15, 2016: Surface & Coatings Technology
Mohamed AbdelRahman AbdelFatah
BACKGROUND: There is no settled standard of care or even a consensus between neurosurgeons on the replacement of bone fragments in compound depressed skull fractures (CDSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cohort study retrospectively reviewed the patients with nonmissile CDSF who were admitted to our university hospitals from January 2010 to January 2015. Patients who were managed nonoperatively, polytrauma, comatose patients, and CDSF over the air sinuses were excluded from this study...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
May S Freag, Yosra Sr Elnaggar, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Ossama Y Abdallah
Recently, research has progressively highlighted on clues from conventional use of herbal medicines to introduce new anticancer drugs. Aloe-emodin (AE) is a herbal drug with promising anticancer activity. Nevertheless, its clinical utility is handicapped by its low solubility. For the first time, this study aims to the fabrication of surface-functionalized polyethylene glycol liquid crystalline nanoparticles (PEG-LCNPs) of AE to enhance its water solubility and enable its anticancer use. Developed AE-PEG-LCNPs were optimized via particle size and zeta potential measurements...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
F C Fraser, R Corstanje, L K Deeks, J A Harris, M Pawlett, L C Todman, A P Whitmore, K Ritz
When dry soils are rewetted a pulse of CO2 is invariably released, and whilst this phenomenon has been studied for decades, the precise origins of this CO2 remain obscure. We postulate that it could be of chemical (i.e. via abiotic pathways), biochemical (via free enzymes) or biological (via intact cells) origin. To elucidate the relative contributions of the pathways, dry soils were either sterilised (double autoclaving) or treated with solutions of inhibitors (15% trichloroacetic acid or 1% silver nitrate) targeting the different modes...
October 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Liliana Werner, Nicholas Reiter, Jesus Paulo Perez, He J Li, Jia J Guan, Nick Mamalis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations in the morphology and elemental composition of reusable phacoemulsification tips after cleaning and sterilization. SETTING: John A. Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: For the main experiment, 2 types of reusable phacoemulsification needles were studied. One tip of each type underwent 1, 2, and 3 autoclave sterilizations with the use of detergents followed by thorough rinsing with sterile water between cycles...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
F S Masiero, M F K Aquino, M P Nassu, D I B Pereira, D S Leite, P J Thyssen
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) consists on the intentional and controlled application of sterilized larvae of the order Diptera on necrotic skin lesions with the purpose of cleaning necrotic tissue and removing pathogenic bacteria. During MDT, a marked antimicrobial activity has been reported in literature specially associated with antibacterial substances from Lucilia sericata (Meigen); however, regarding Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), little is known. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro inhibition of bacterial growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in contact with excretions and secretions (ES) from C...
October 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Andrew G Hughson, Brent Race, Allison Kraus, Laura R Sangaré, Lori Robins, Bradley R Groveman, Eri Saijo, Katie Phillips, Luis Contreras, Virkamal Dhaliwal, Matteo Manca, Gianluigi Zanusso, Daniel Terry, Jeffrey F Williams, Byron Caughey
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced naturally by neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can also be effective as microbial disinfectants. Here we have tested whether HOCl can also inactivate prions and other self-propagating protein amyloid seeds. Prions are deadly pathogens that are notoriously difficult to inactivate, and standard microbial disinfection protocols are often inadequate. Recommended treatments for prion decontamination include strongly basic (pH ≥~12) sodium hypochlorite bleach, ≥1 N sodium hydroxide, and/or prolonged autoclaving...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Suzanne L Ishaq, Stephen P Johnson, Zach J Miller, Erik A Lehnhoff, Sarah Olivo, Carl J Yeoman, Fabian D Menalled
Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Eirini Skourti-Stathaki, Frederik Clauson-Kaas, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Lars Holm Rasmussen, Hans Christian Bruun Hansen
Bracken ferns (Pteridium spp.) are well-known for their carcinogenic properties, which are ascribed to the content of ptaquiloside and ptaquiloside-like substances. Ptaquiloside leach from the ferns and may cause contamination of drinking water. Pterosin B is formed by hydrolysis of ptaquiloside. In soil, Pterosin B is adsorbed more strongly and it is expected to have a slower turnover than ptaquiloside. We thus hypothesized that pterosin B may serve as an indicator for any past presence of ptaquiloside. Pterosin B degradation was studied in acid forest soils from bracken-covered and bracken-free areas...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, Amna Javed, Zafar Ali, Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar, Muhammad Ali, Yasir Hussain
BACKGROUND: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds have been described as a good source of lipids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenolic compounds and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The consumption of chia seed oil helps to improve biological markers related to metabolic syndrome diseases. The oil yield and fatty acids composition of chia oil is affected by several factors such as pre-treatment method and size reduction practices. Therefore, the main mandate of present investigate was to study the effect of different seed pre-treatments on yield, fatty acids composition and sensory acceptability of chia oil at different storage intervals and conditions...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
K Sathi Reddy, M Yahya Khan, K Archana, M Gopal Reddy, Bee Hameeda
Mango kernel oil (MKO), derived from mango kernels, considered to be one of the highly generated agro-industrial waste, is assessed for its use as substrate for sustainable production of rhamnolipids. In the present study, MKO in combination with glucose gave maximum rhamnolipid yield of 2.8g/l which reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 30mN/m, holding a CMC of 80mg/l and also showed high emulsification activity (73%) with diesel. Cell free broth was found to be stable even at high temperature (autoclaved at 121°C for 30min), pH value (up to pH 12) and salinity (up to 20% NaCl)...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Mohsen Tafaghodi, Maryam Eskandari, Ali Khamesipour, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Leishmania antigens are weak immunogens and need to be potentiated by various adjuvants and delivery systems. Alginate microspheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as immunoadjuvant have been used to enhance the immune response against Autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM). Microspheres were prepared by an emulsification technique and characterized for size, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of encapsulates. BALB/c mice were immunized three times in 3-weeks intervals using ALM plus QS loaded microspheres [(ALM+QS)ALG], ALM encapsulated with alginate microspheres [(ALM)ALG], (ALM)ALG + QS, ALM + QS, ALM alone or PBS...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Maria André, Wen Kou, Göran Sjögren, Anders Sundh
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of specimen thickness, pretreatment and hydrothermal aging on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of lithium di-silicate glass (e.max Cad) and magnesia-stabilized zirconia (ZirMagnum) ceramic discs. METHODS: The e.max Cad discs was studied: i) crystallized, ii) crystallized and glazed and iii) crystallized, glazed and unglazed side etched with hydrofluoric acid. The ZirMagnum discs were studied: i) as delivered, ii) after sandblasting and iii) after heat treatment similar to veneering...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Yang Guojun, He Yuping, Jiang Yan, Lin Kaichun, Xia Haiyang
BACKGROUND: Spinosad (a mixture of spinosyns A and D) is a unique natural pesticide produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa. With regard to attempts to improve S. spinosa by classical mutagenesis, we propose that the bottleneck of screening out high-spinosad-production strains is probably caused by the fermentation media. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to identify a new medium to extensively investigate the potential of S. spinosa strains to produce spinosad...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Sindhuja Gogineni, Kiranmai Ganipineni, Suresh Babburi, Aparna Venigalla, Soujanya Pinnisetti, Ajay Benarji Kotti, Lavanya Kalapala
INTRODUCTION: In dentistry, extracted human teeth are routinely used to learn technical and preclinical skills. Since human teeth harbour many pathogens these should be disinfected before use to minimize the risk of infections. Some commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), 70% alcohol and normal saline which have their own disadvantages like carcinogenicity, toxicity, cost effectiveness etc. Many studies have been conducted using these solutions but there is no evidence to suggest a suitable alternative for disinfecting extracted teeth...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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