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Sang-Hun Yoo, Yoon Hyuk Chang
The purposes of this study were to produce polysaccharides from red pepper stems using different extraction methods and evaluate their chemical composition, in vitro biological capacities, and rheological properties. Two polysaccharides were extracted from red pepper stems using an autoclave and alkali treatments, and the extracts were named PAU and PAL, respectively. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were significantly higher in PAU than those in PAL. PAU exhibited greater scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radicals, superoxide radicals, and nitrite compared to PAL, suggesting that PAU served as better antioxidants...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Roslinda Shamsudin, Farah 'Atiqah Abdul Azam, Muhammad Azmi Abdul Hamid, Hamisah Ismail
The aim of this study was to prepare β-wollastonite using a green synthesis method (autoclaving technique) without organic solvents and to study its bioactivity. To prepare β-wollastonite, the precursor ratio of CaO:SiO₂ was set at 55:45. This mixture was autoclaved for 8 h and later sintered at 950 °C for 2 h. The chemical composition of the precursors was studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), in which rice husk ash consists of 89.5 wt % of SiO₂ in a cristobalite phase and calcined limestone contains 97...
October 17, 2017: Materials
Anteneh Worku, Omprakash Sahu
Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans have been characterized as a nearly perfect food in all around the world. It is consider functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life. Red bean contain high protein, mineral, fibres and chemically diverse micronutrient composition, which can be affected by processing. The main aim of this work is to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence- causing oligosaccharides of a domesticated bean (Anger, conscope and Loko)...
December 2017: Biotechnology Reports
Monica L Vermillion Maier, Ronald S Tjeerdema
Azithromycin (AZ) is a widely-used macrolide antibiotic that is continually deposited into natural waterways by sewage effluent. Though recognized as an emerging contaminant of concern, little is known about its fate and transport in aquatic systems. American River soils and water were used to determine degradation of AZ in microcosms simulating flooded (anaerobic) and non-flooded (aerobic) California watershed conditions. Under aerobic conditions the degradation rate constant (k=0.0084 ± 0.0039 day(-1)) and DT50 (82...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Tzu-Hsien Lin, Chih-Chieh Chen, Sheng-Hsiu Huang, Chung-Wen Kuo, Chane-Yu Lai, Wen-Yinn Lin
This study investigates the effects of five decontamination methods on the filter quality (qf) of three commercially available electret masks-N95, Gauze and Spunlace nonwoven masks. Newly developed evaluation methods, the overall filter quality (qf,o) and the qf ratio were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination methods for respirators. A scanning mobility particle sizer is utilized to measure the concentration of polydispersed particles with diameter 14.6-594 nm. The penetration of particles and pressure drop (Δp) through the mask are used to determine qf and qf,o...
2017: PloS One
Radia Belkhelfa-Slimani, Bahia Djerdjouri
BACKGROUND: Immunization with killed Leishmania promastigotes without adjuvant was considered as safe, but gave variable rates of protection. Taking advantage of the immuno-modulatory effect of caffeic acid (CA), a natural polyphenolic antioxidant, we investigated its potentiating effect in autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM)-induced protection of Leishmania major-infected BALB/c. METHODS: First, BALB/c mice were sensitized for 6 weeks either with CA, or ALM alone or combined with caffeic acid (ALM-CA) or Freund's adjuvant (ALM-FA), and subsequently infected with L...
October 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
Dustin L Williams, Nicholas B Taylor, R Tyler Epperson, David L Rothberg
Flash autoclaving is one of the most frequently utilized methods of sterilizing devices, implants or other materials. For a number of decades, it has been common practice for surgeons to remove implantable devices, flash autoclave and then reimplant them in a patient. Data have not yet indicated the potential for biofilms to survive or remain on the surface of orthopaedic-relevant materials following flash autoclave. In this study, monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms were grown on the surface of clinically-relevant titanium materials and exposed to flash autoclave settings that included varying times and temperatures...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Honghong Wu, Xiaofu Wang, Xinghu Zhou, Yihua Zhang, Ming Huang, Jian He, Wenbiao Shen
Transgenic components in genetically modified organisms consist not only of the transgenic genes, but also the transgenic protein. However, compared with transgenic DNA, less attention has been paid to the detection of expressed protein, especially those degraded from genetically modified soybean after food processing. In this study, the full length 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS, 47.6 kD) protein was probed with the SC-16 (S19-R33) and the DC-16 (D219-K233) polyclonal antibodies in immunoblots...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tao Li, Ze Z Yang, Ming Z Peng, Xiao J Zhou, Zhi Y Liu, Bi Y Rui, Qi Li, Shang C Guo, Ming Xiao, Jin W Wang
BACKGROUND: The treatment of open femur fractures with reimplantation of large extruded segments remains one of the most difficult clinical management scenarios. The situation is even complicated when the extruded segments contains a large osteoarticular segment and no consensus exist about the efficient sterilization. We successfully managed five cases of open femur fracture by reimplantation of a large osteoarticular segment. While the outcomes were favourable, we performed an in vitro investigation in a rat model to determine whether the bone segment preparation strategy was optimal...
September 25, 2017: Injury
Junichiro Futami, Ai Miyamoto, Atsushi Hagimoto, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Midori Futami, Hiroko Tada
Many extracellular globular proteins have evolved to possess disulphide bonds in their native conformations, which aids in thermodynamic stabilisation. However, disulphide bond breakage by heating leads to irreversible protein denaturation through disulphide-thiol exchange reactions. In this study, we demonstrate that methanethiosulphonate (MTS) specifically suppresses the heat-induced disulphide-thiol exchange reaction, thus improving the heat-resistance of proteins. In the presence of MTS, small globular proteins that contain disulphides can spontaneously refold from heat-denatured states, maintaining wild-type disulphide pairing...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katryn L Williams, Joshua J Gladfelder, Lindsay L Quigley, David B Ball, Ronald S Tjeerdema
The herbicide benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has recently been approved for use on California rice fields by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Hydrolysis of BZB rapidly forms the active compound, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), whose fate is currently not well understood. A model California rice soil was used to determine BH soil dissipation. The pKa and aqueous solubility were also determined, as experimental values are not currently available...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lamia Medouni-Haroune, Farid Zaidi, Sonia Medouni-Adrar, Sevastianos Roussos, Samia Azzouz, Véronique Desseaux, Mouloud Kecha
BACKGROUND: Olive pomace, as the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is recently recycled as fermentation substrate for enzyme production. OBJECTIVES: Actinobacteria isolates were separated from an Algerian soil under olive pomace cultivation and were evaluated for their lignocellulolytic enzymes production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolates of Actinobacteria were separated from soils around oil mills using four isolation media, among them three were enriched by olive pomace...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
Carmen Cuadrado, Hsiaopo Cheng, Africa Sanchiz, Isabel Ballesteros, Michael Easson, Casey C Grimm, M Carmen Dieguez, Rosario Linacero, Carmen Burbano, Soheila J Maleki
Cashew and pistachio allergies are considered a serious health problem. Previous studies have shown that thermal processing, pressurization and enzymatic hydrolysis may reduce the allergenic properties of food by changing the protein structure. This study assesses the allergenic properties of cashew and pistachio after thermal treatment (boiling and autoclaving), with or without pressure (autoclaving), and multiple enzymatic treatments under sonication, by SDS-PAGE, western blot and ELISA, with serum IgE of allergic individuals, and mass spectroscopy...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chandrasekhar Banoth, Bindu Sunkar, Pruthvi Raj Tondamanati, Bhima Bhukya
Lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural and forest residues are considered as an alternative, inexpensive, renewable, and abundant source for fuel ethanol production. In the present study, three different pretreatment methods for rice straw were carried out to investigate the maximum lignin removal for subsequent bioethanol fermentation. The chemical pretreatments of rice straw were optimized under different pretreatment severity conditions in the range of 1.79-2.26. Steam explosion of rice straw at 170 °C for 10 min, sequentially treated with 2% (w/v) KOH (SEKOH) in autoclave at 121 °C for 30 min, resulted in 85 ± 2% delignification with minimum sugar loss...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Youngsang You, Seokwon Lim, Jungwoo Hahn, Young Jin Choi, Sundaram Gunasekaran
Detection of pathogens present in food and water is essential to help ensure food safety. Among the popular methods for pathogen detection are those based on culture and colony-counting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the time-consuming nature and/or the need for sophisticated instrumentation of those methods limit their on-site applications. We have developed a rapid and highly sensitive immunosensing method for visible detection of bacteria in real matrices based on the aggregation of AuNPs without requiring any readout device...
September 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mohit Agarwal, Shrivardhan Dheeman, Ramesh Chand Dubey, Pradeep Kumar, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Vivek K Bajpai
Chitinase and surfactin-mediated biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt and root rot of Fagopyrum esculentum respectively has been studied in this communication. Bacillus pumilus MSUA3 as a potential bacterial strain strongly inhibited the growth of R. solani and F. oxysporum involving the chitinolytic enzymes and an antibiotic surfactin. Plant growth promoting attributes seem to be involved in plant growth promotion and yield attributes. The action of cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was found deleterious to F...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Isabelle M Cozzarelli, Denise M Akob, Mary Jo Baedecker, Tracey Spencer, Jeanne Jaeschke, Darren S Dunlap, Adam C Mumford, Amisha T Poret-Peterson, Douglas B Chambers
In January 2014, approximately 37 800 L of crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (crude MCHM) spilled into the Elk River, West Virginia. To understand the long-term fate of 4-MCHM, we conducted experiments under environmentally relevant conditions to assess the potential for the 2 primary compounds in crude MCHM (1) to undergo biodegradation and (2) for sediments to serve as a long-term source of 4-MCHM. We developed a solid phase microextraction (SPME) method to quantify the cis- and trans-isomers of 4-MCHM...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: British Dental Journal
Cortlandt P Thienes, Jongkit Masiri, Lora A Benoit, Brianda Barrios-Lopez, Santosh A Samuel, David P Cox, Anatoly P Dobritsa, Cesar Nadala, Mansour Samadpour
Recent news of many cases of adulteration of meats with pork has bolstered the need for a way to detect and quantify the unwanted contamination of pork in other meats. To address this need, Microbiologique, Inc. has produced a sandwich ELISA assay that can rapidly quantify the presence of pork in cooked horse, beef, chicken, goat, and lamb meats. We carried out a validation study and showed that this assay has an analytical sensitivity of 0.00014 and 0.00040% (w/v) for cooked and autoclaved pork, respectively, and an analytical range of quantitation of 0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Tanja Holland, Johannes Felix Buyel
Recombinant glycoproteins such as monoclonal antibodies have a major impact on modern healthcare systems, e.g., as the active pharmaceutical ingredients in anticancer drugs. A specific glycan profile is often necessary to achieve certain desirable activities, such as the effector functions of an antibody, receptor binding or a sufficient serum half-life. However, many expression systems produce glycan profiles that differ substantially from the preferred form (usually the form found in humans) or produce a diverse array of glycans with a range of in vivo activities, thus necessitating laborious and costly separation and purification processes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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