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calcified plaque models

Blerim Mujaj, Daniel Bos, Mariana Selwaness, Maarten J G Leening, Maryam Kavousi, Jolanda J Wentzel, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Bruno H Stricker, Meike W Vernooij, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Statins represent a key treatment for cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of statin treatment on the composition of atherosclerotic plaques remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of statin treatment with the presence of different plaque components located in the carotid arteries within a population-based setting. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 1740 participants with carotid atherosclerosis (mean age 72...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Milica Bozic, Nerea Méndez-Barbero, Carmen Gutiérrez-Muñoz, Angels Betriu, Jesús Egido, Elvira Fernández, Jose L Martín-Ventura, Jose M Valdivielso, Luis M Blanco-Colio
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vascular calcification (VC) and atherosclerosis are associated with an increased cardiovascular morbimortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteopontin (OPN) are involved in both VC and CKD. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) has been related to cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that OPG, OPN and sTWEAK levels may be associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD...
March 2018: Atherosclerosis
Rolf Symons, Younhee Choi, Tyler E Cork, Mark A Ahlman, Marissa Mallek, David A Bluemke, Veit Sandfort
BACKGROUND: To optimize spectral coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for quantification of coronary artery plaque components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one subjects were prospectively enrolled (88.2% male) (NCT02740699). Dual energy coronary CTA was performed at 90/Sn150 kVp using a 3rd generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Force, Siemens Healthcare). Dual energy images were reconstructed with a) linear mixed blending of 90 and Sn150 kVp data, b) virtual monoenergetic algorithm from 40 to 150 keV (at 10- keV intervals), and c) noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic algorithm from 40 to 150 keV...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Taylor Richards, Gregory M Sturgeon, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Giraldo, Geoffrey D Rubin, Lynne Hurwitz Koweek, William Paul Segars, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this study was to develop a dynamic physical cardiac phantom with a realistic coronary plaque to investigate stenosis measurement accuracy under clinically relevant heart-rates. The coronary plaque model (5 mm diameter, 50% stenosis, and 32 mm long) was designed and 3D-printed with tissue equivalent materials (calcified plaque with iodine-enhanced lumen). Realistic cardiac motion was modeled by converting computational cardiac motion vectors into compression and rotation profiles executed by a commercial base cardiac phantom...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Isac C Thomas, Nketi I Forbang, Michael H Criqui
Calcification of the coronary artery is a complex pathophysiologic process that is intimately associated with atherosclerosis. Extensive investigation has demonstrated the value of identifying and quantifying coronary artery calcium (CAC) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognostication. However, over the last several years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that CAC has underappreciated aspects that modulate, and at times attenuate, future CVD risk. The most commonly used measure of CAC, the Agatston unit, effectively models both higher density and higher area of CAC as risk factors for future CVD events...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Damini Dey, Sara Gaur, Kristian A Ovrehus, Piotr J Slomka, Julian Betancur, Markus Goeller, Michaela M Hell, Heidi Gransar, Daniel S Berman, Stephan Achenbach, Hans Erik Botker, Jesper Moller Jensen, Jens Flensted Lassen, Bjarne Linde Norgaard
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate if lesion-specific ischaemia by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be predicted by an integrated machine learning (ML) ischaemia risk score from quantitative plaque measures from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: In a multicentre trial of 254 patients, CTA and invasive coronary angiography were performed, with FFR in 484 vessels. CTA data sets were analysed by semi-automated software to quantify stenosis and non-calcified (NCP), low-density NCP (LD-NCP, < 30 HU), calcified and total plaque volumes, contrast density difference (CDD, maximum difference in luminal attenuation per unit area) and plaque length...
January 19, 2018: European Radiology
Daisuke Hachinohe, Yoshifumi Kashima, Daitaro Kanno, Ken Kobayashi, Takuro Sugie, Umihiko Kaneko, Yutaka Tadano, Tomohiko Watanabe, Hidemasa Shitan, Tsutomu Fujita
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of rotational atherectomy (RA) followed by new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with an extensive amount of calcified and fibrotic plaque. BACKGROUND: RA followed by new-generation DES implantation for complex lesions has not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: A total of 744 consecutive patients (770 lesions) treated with new-generation DES implantation following RA for de novo lesions between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively identified using our institutional database...
December 5, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Zhonghua Sun, Thanapong Chaichana
Background: To investigate the correlation between left coronary bifurcation angle and coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-generated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis when compared to the CCTA analysis of coronary lumen stenosis and plaque lesion length with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. Methods: Thirty patients (22 males, mean age: 59±6.9 years) with calcified plaques at the left coronary artery were included in the study with all patients undergoing CCTA and ICA examinations...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Wu-Yi Chai, Feng Yang, Shao-Feng Yuan, Shu-Jun Liang, Jing Huang
Ultrasonic image speckles result from the interference of the reflected signals by the scatters in the detected tissue. The physical characteristics of the speckles are closely correlated with the structures of the biological tissues, and the probability distribution of these speckles differs across different tissues. Based on the probability characteristics of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) speckles, a Gamma mixture model and Gaussian mixture model are proposed to describe the calcified plaque, soft plaque and normal vascular regions on IVUS images...
November 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
I A Monteiro, C Ibrahim, R Albuquerque, N Donaldson, F Salazar, L Monteiro
OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of digital panoramic radiographs as an effective means of diagnosis for atherosclerosis and as a potential aid in the early detection of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed 2014 digital panoramic radiographs taken throughout 2012 and 2013 to identify the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques of both female and male patients all aged over 18 years. In addition the medical records of these patients were reviewed in order to establish if there were any predisposing risk factors for atherosclerosis...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Gary C Chan, Jasmin Divers, Gregory B Russell, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Nicholette D Palmer, Pamela J Hicks, Donald W Bowden, Thomas C Register, Lijun Ma, J Jeffrey Carr, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular and renal complications contribute to higher mortality in patients with diabetes. We assessed novel and conventional predictors of mortality in African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) participants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Associations between mortality and subclinical atherosclerosis, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentration, African ancestry proportion, and apolipoprotein L1 genotypes (APOL1) were assessed in 513 African Americans with type 2 diabetes; analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models...
January 2018: Diabetes Care
Steven T W van Haelst, Saskia Haitjema, Wouter Derksen, Ian van Koeverden, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Frans L Moll, Hester M den Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp, Gert J de Borst
BACKGROUND: Plaque characteristics such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) have been associated with secondary cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. In addition, carotid plaques containing macrophage infiltration or a large lipid core size were associated with less restenosis. It is currently unknown whether iliofemoral plaque histopathologic characteristics are predictive for secondary CVE in patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing iliofemoral endarterectomy...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Abraham R Tzafriri, Fernando Garcia-Polite, Brett Zani, James Stanley, Benny Muraj, Jennifer Knutson, Robert Kohler, Peter Markham, Alexander Nikanorov, Elazer R Edelman
BACKGROUND: Calcific atherosclerosis is a major challenge to intraluminal drug delivery in peripheral artery disease (PAD). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of orbital atherectomy on intraluminal paclitaxel delivery to human peripheral arteries with substantial calcified plaque. METHODS: Diagnostic angiography and 3-D rotational imaging of five fresh human lower limbs revealed calcification in all main arteries. The proximal or distal segment of each artery was treated using an orbital atherectomy system (OAS) under simulated blood flow and fluoroscopy...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
H E Barrett, E M Cunnane, H Hidayat, J M O Brien, E G Kavanagh, M T Walsh
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) in calcified arteries carries a higher peri-operative risk. This study investigates the relationship between the stretching limits of carotid plaque samples and calcification in order to determine a stretch tolerance criterion for endovascular intervention. METHODS: Seventeen carotid plaque samples were acquired from standard endarterectomy procedures. The maximum stretch capability of the global plaque was determined by circumferentially extending the tissue to complete failure...
October 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Zhenmin Fan, Xiao Liu, Anqiang Sun, Nan Zhang, Zhanming Fan, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
Longitudinal anatomic mismatch (LAM) of stenting (i.e., a stenotic artery segment is not fully covered by a deployed stent) worsens the mechanical environment in the treated artery, which most likely is the cause for the associated high risks of restenosis, myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. To probe the possibility, we constructed a patient-specific carotid model with two components of plaques (lipid and calcified plaque) based on MRI images; we numerically compared three different stenting scenarios in terms of von Mises stress (VMS) distribution in the treated arteries, namely, the short stenting (LAM), the medium stenting and the long stenting...
August 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
María Luna-Luna, David Cruz-Robles, Nydia Ávila-Vanzzini, Valentín Herrera-Alarcón, Jesús Martínez-Reding, Sergio Criales-Vera, Julio Sandoval-Zárate, Jesús Vargas-Barrón, Carlos Martínez-Sánchez, Armando Roberto Tovar-Palacio, José Manuel Fragoso, Elizabeth Carreón-Torres, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Óscar Pérez-Méndez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a relationship of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with progression and calcification of the atherosclerotic plaque; however, it is unknown if this tissue expresses genes that may participate on these processes and if the expression of these genes is regulated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. METHODS: To explore this possibility, we determined the mRNA expression by qPCR of a pro-calcifying gene (osteopontin (OPN)), and two anti-calcifying genes (osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteonectin (ON)), in biopsies of EAT obtained from 15 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by angiography, and 15 patients with diagnostic of aortic valve stenosis but without CAD as control group...
August 18, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Kwang Nam Jin, Jin Wook Chung, Eun-Ah Park, Whal Lee
BACKGROUND: Material decomposition of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) enables subtraction of calcified plaque. PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of lumen area measurement in calcified plaque by subtraction of DECT and to determine the effect of contrast material concentration, lumen diameter, density, and thickness of calcified plaque for the measurement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vessel phantoms were made with six lumen diameters (5.7, 4...
July 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
Jonas Rusnak, Michael Behnes, Nadine Reckord, Ursula Hoffmann, Michèle Natale, Julia Hoffmann, Kathrin Weidner, Siegfried Lang, Agnibh Mukherji, Mathieu Kruska, Thomas Henzler, Stefan O Schoenberg, Martin Borggrefe, Thomas Bertsch, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the association between high sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) and T (hsTnT) and the morphology of coronary artery plaques detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients undergoing CCTA were prospectively enrolled. CCTA was indicated by a low to intermediate pretest probability for CAD during routine clinical care. Within 24 hours of CCTA examination, peripheral blood samples were taken to measure hsTnI, hsTnT, and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)...
2017: Disease Markers
Steven Haine, Kristien Wouters, Hielko Miljoen, Tom Vandendriessche, Marc Claeys, Johan Bosmans, Christiaan Vrints
BACKGROUND: Since neointima smooth muscle cells (SMC) mainly originate from the vessel wall, we investigated whether atherosclerotic plaque composition influences subsequent in-stent neointima proliferation and restenosis. METHODS: We performed intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) with virtual histology in 98 patients prior to elective bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in de novo coronary artery lesions. Virtual histology variables pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were related to in-stent neointima proliferation six months after implantation assessed as late luminal loss of 0...
August 11, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
Tetsumin Lee, Gary S Mintz, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Wenbin Zhang, Yang Cao, Eisuke Usui, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Tadashi Murai, Taishi Yonetsu, Tsunekazu Kakuta, Akiko Maehara
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the anatomic characteristics and clinical presentation associated with a calcified nodule (CN) as assessed by optical coherence tomography. BACKGROUND: CN is an unusual but demonstrable cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: We studied 889 de novo culprit lesions in 889 patients (48% ACS) who underwent optical coherence tomography before intervention. CN was defined as an eruptive accumulation of nodular calcification (small fractured calcifications)...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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