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calcified plaque models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882428/progression-of-noncalcified-and-calcified-coronary-plaque-by-ct-angiography-in-sle
#1
Aisha Khan, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Adnan N Kiani, Laurence S Magder, Michelle Petri
Premature coronary artery disease remains the major cause of late death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) represents an advanced stage of atherosclerosis, whereas noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque (NCP) typically is more prone to trigger acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of NCP over time and identify factors associated with changes in NCP in patients with SLE. CT coronary angiography and calcium scanning were performed at baseline and follow-up in thirty-six SLE patients...
November 23, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867142/impact-of-plaque-type-and-side-branch-geometry-on-side-branch-compromise-after-provisional-stent-implantation-a-simulation-study
#2
Francesco Iannaccone, Claudio Chiastra, Antonios Karanasos, Francesco Migliavacca, Frank J H Gijsen, Patrick Segers, Peter Mortier, Benedict Verhegghe, Gabriele Dubini, Matthieu De Beule, Evelyn Regar, Jolanda J Wentzel
AIMS: Mechanisms of lumen compromise after provisional side-branch (SB) stenting are poorly understood. In this study we investigated the impact of bifurcation angle, plaque composition, and procedural strategy on SB compromise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Computer simulations of stent implantation were performed in Medina (1,1,1) bifurcation models. Provisional SB stenting was replicated including post-dilation after main branch stenting. Two bifurcation angles (45°,70°) and four plaque types (fully lipid, fully fibrous, lipid with half and full calcified ring distal to the carina) were tested...
November 22, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835741/plaque-progression-assessed-by-a-novel-semi-automated-quantitative-plaque-software-on-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-between-diabetes-and-non-diabetes-patients-a-propensity-score-matching-study
#3
Rine Nakanishi, Indre Ceponiene, Kazuhiro Osawa, Yanting Luo, Mitsuru Kanisawa, Nichelle Megowan, Negin Nezarat, Sina Rahmani, Alexander Broersen, Pieter H Kitslaar, Christopher Dailing, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed at investigating whether diabetes is associated with progression in coronary plaque components. METHODS: We identified 142 study subjects undergoing serial coronary computed tomography angiography. The resulting propensity score was applied 1:1 to match diabetic patients to non-diabetic patients for clinical risk factors, prior coronary stenting, coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the serial scan interval, resulting in the 71 diabetes and 71 non-diabetes patients...
November 3, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609368/evaluation-of-68ga-glutamate-carboxypeptidase-ii-ligand-positron-emission-tomography-for-clinical-molecular-imaging-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-neovascularization
#4
Thorsten Derlin, Johannes Thiele, Desiree Weiberg, James T Thackeray, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Lukas Aguirre Dávila, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Günter Daum, Frank M Bengel, Udo Schumacher
OBJECTIVE: Intraplaque neovascularization contributes to the progression and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is strongly expressed by endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and plays a major role in hypoxia-induced neovascularization in rodent models of benign diseases. We hypothesized that GCPII expression may play a role in intraplaque neovascularization and may represent a target for imaging of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, pattern, and clinical correlates of vessel wall uptake of a (68)Ga-GCPII ligand for positron emission tomographic imaging...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530333/relation-of-plasma-lipoprotein-a-to-subclinical-coronary-plaque-volumes-three-vessel-and-left-main-coronary-disease-and-severe-coronary-stenoses-in-apparently-healthy-african-americans-with-a-family-history-of-early-onset-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Brian G Kral, Rita R Kalyani, Lisa R Yanek, Dhananjay Vaidya, Elliot K Fishman, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker
Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor in persons of European ancestry. Levels are twofold to threefold higher in African-Americans (AAs), but reported associations with CAD have been inconsistent. The relation of Lp(a) with the extent and severity of subclinical coronary plaque has not been described in AAs. We screened 269 apparently healthy AAs for risk factors and coronary plaque using advanced coronary computed tomographic angiography. Total coronary plaque (TCP), noncalcified coronary plaque, and calcified coronary plaque volumes (mm(3)) were quantified using a validated automated method...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502292/the-high-risk-criteria-low-attenuation-plaque-60-hu-and-the-napkin-ring-sign-are-the-most-powerful-predictors-of-mace-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#6
Gudrun Feuchtner, Johannes Kerber, Philipp Burghard, Wolfgang Dichtl, Guy Friedrich, Nikolaos Bonaros, Fabian Plank
AIMS: To assess the prognostic value of coronary CT angiography (CTA) for prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a long-term follow-up period. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1469 low-to-intermediate-risk patients (65.9 years; 44.2% females) were included in our prospective cohort study. CTA was evaluated for (i) stenosis severity (minimal <10%; mild <50%; moderate 50-70%; severe >70%), (ii) plaque types (calcified, mixed dominantly calcified, mixed dominantly non-calcified, non-calcified), and (iii) high-risk plaque criteria [low-attenuation plaque (LAP) quantified by HU, napkin-ring (NR) sign, spotty calcification <3 mm, and remodelling index (RI)]...
August 7, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429999/numerical-observer-for-atherosclerotic-plaque-classification-in-spectral-computed-tomography
#7
Auranuch Lorsakul, Georges El Fakhri, William Worstell, Jinsong Ouyang, Yothin Rakvongthai, Andrew F Laine, Quanzheng Li
Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356020/relationships-between-measures-of-adiposity-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Mingxia Yuan, Fang-Chi Hsu, Donald W Bowden, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Mary E Comeau, Jasmin Divers, Thomas C Register, J Jeffrey Carr, Carl D Langefeld, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Assess cross-sectional relationships between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), pericardial (PAT), visceral (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes with calcified plaque (CP) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Computed tomography measured PAT, VAT, SAT, and CP in coronary arteries (CAC), carotid arteries, and aorta. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to test for associations between adiposity and CP, stratified by ethnicity while accounting for familial correlations...
August 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339669/osteonectin-sparc-expression-in-vascular-calcification-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-studies
#9
Paola Ciceri, Francesca Elli, Laura Cappelletti, Delfina Tosi, Federica Savi, Gaetano Bulfamante, Mario Cozzolino
Osteonectin, also termed SPARC, is a noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Since there are controversial results regarding its role during the process of vascular calcification, we investigated osteonectin expression in our in vitro calcification model. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were challenged with high phosphate (5 mmol/L Pi) and analyzed quantifying calcium levels, through immunohistochemical studies, and studying gene expression. We detected a peak of osteonectin expression at day 7 in cell treated with high phosphate...
June 23, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318369/computational-analysis-of-mechanical-stress-strain-interaction-of-a-bioresorbable-scaffold-with-blood-vessel
#10
A Schiavone, C Abunassar, S Hossainy, L G Zhao
Crimping and deployment of bioresorbable polymeric scaffold, Absorb, were modelled using a finite element method, in direct comparison with Co-Cr alloy drug eluting stent, Xience V. Absorb scaffold has an expansion rate lower than Xience V stent, with a less outer diameter achieved after balloon deflation. Due to the difference in design and material properties, Absorb also shows a higher recoiling than Xience V, which suggests that additional post-dilatation is required to achieve effective treatment for patients with calcified plaques and stiff vessels...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298649/feasibility-study-for-removing-calcified-material-using-a-planar-rectangular-ultrasound-transducer
#11
Christakis Damianou, Andreas Couppis
BACKGROUND: The aim of the proposed study was to conduct a feasibility study using a flat rectangular (3 mm × 10 mm) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5.3 MHz for destroying calcified material in an in vitro model. The proposed method can be used in the future for treating atherosclerosis plaques of the coronary, carotid or peripheral arteries. METHODS: The system was tested initially on calcium rods. Another test was performed in a hydroxyapatite-polylactide model...
2016: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252451/machine-learning-for-prediction-of-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a-5-year-multicentre-prospective-registry-analysis
#12
Manish Motwani, Damini Dey, Daniel S Berman, Guido Germano, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin Delago, Millie Gomez, Heidi Gransar, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Niree Hindoyan, Gudrun Feuchtner, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Fay Y Lin, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Leslee J Shaw, Julia Stehli, Todd C Villines, Allison Dunning, James K Min, Piotr J Slomka
AIMS: Traditional prognostic risk assessment in patients undergoing non-invasive imaging is based upon a limited selection of clinical and imaging findings. Machine learning (ML) can consider a greater number and complexity of variables. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and accuracy of ML to predict 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), and compared the performance to existing clinical or CCTA metrics. METHODS AND RESULTS: The analysis included 10 030 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and 5-year follow-up from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter registry...
June 1, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950419/sortilin-mediates-vascular-calcification-via-its-recruitment-into-extracellular-vesicles
#13
Claudia Goettsch, Joshua D Hutcheson, Masanori Aikawa, Hiroshi Iwata, Tan Pham, Anders Nykjaer, Mads Kjolby, Maximillian Rogers, Thomas Michel, Manabu Shibasaki, Sumihiko Hagita, Rafael Kramann, Daniel J Rader, Peter Libby, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921167/aortic-arch-and-common-carotid-artery-plaques-with-soft-components-pose-a-substantial-risk-of-cerebral-embolization-during-carotid-stenting
#14
Péter Szikra, Krisztina Boda, Ferenc Rarosi, Attila Thury, Pál Barzó, Tamás Németh, Erika Vörös
OBJECTIVES: A higher rate of embolization is considered a disadvantage of carotid stenting (CAS), when compared with carotid endarterectomy. Plaques in the aortic arch (AA) and the common carotid artery (CCA) may be additional sources of embolization to stented internal carotid plaques during CAS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these plaques and intracerebral embolization. METHODS: We analyzed the occurrence and composition of plaques in the AA and CCA by computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 101 consecutive cases of CAS...
August 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837235/incremental-prognostic-value-of-quantitative-plaque-assessment-in-coronary-ct-angiography-during-5-years-of-follow-up
#15
Jonathan Nadjiri, Jörg Hausleiter, Christin Jähnichen, Albrecht Will, Eva Hendrich, Stefan Martinoff, Martin Hadamitzky
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the incremental prognostic value of quantitative plaque characterization beyond established CT risk scores. BACKGROUND: Several plaque characteristics detectable by coronary computed tomographic angiography (coronary CTA) are thought to be indicative of vulnerable plaques and subsequent cardiac events, particularly low attenuation plaque volume (LAPV), positive remodeling and the napkin-ring sign which is high density vascular adhesion with a small center of low density...
March 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811937/associations-between-tobacco-alcohol-and-drug-use-with-coronary-artery-plaque-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-men-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#16
Sean G Kelly, Michael Plankey, Wendy S Post, Xiuhong Li, Ronald Stall, Lisa P Jacobson, Mallory D Witt, Lawrence Kingsley, Christopher Cox, Matthew Budoff, Frank J Palella
BACKGROUND: We characterized associations between smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use and coronary plaque by HIV serostatus within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). METHODS: MACS participants (N = 1005, 621 HIV+ and 384 HIV-) underwent non-contrast CT scanning to measure coronary artery calcium; 764 underwent coronary CT angiograms to evaluate plaque type and extent. Self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, smoked/inhaled cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, marijuana, inhaled nitrites, and erectile dysfunction drugs was obtained at semi-annual visits beginning 10 years prior to CT scanning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600086/coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-detected-by-computed-tomographic-angiography-in-subjects-with-diabetes-compared-to-those-without-diabetes
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bahram Khazai, Yanting Luo, Steven Rosenberg, James Wingrove, Matthew J Budoff
OBJECTIVES: Little data are available regarding coronary plaque composition and semi-quantitative scores in individuals with diabetes; the extent to which diabetes may affect the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) needs more evaluation. Considering that this information may be of great value in formulating preventive interventions in this population, we compared these findings in individuals with diabetes to those without. METHODS: Multi-Detector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) images of 861 consecutive patients with diabetes who were referred to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute from January 2000 to September 2012, were evaluated using a 15-coronary segment model...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507326/the-impact-of-image-resolution-on-computation-of-fractional-flow-reserve-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-versus-3-dimensional-quantitative-coronary-angiography
#18
Lili Liu, Wenjie Yang, Yasuomi Nagahara, Yingguang Li, Saeb R Lamooki, Takashi Muramatsu, Pieter Kitslaar, Masayoshi Sarai, Yukio Ozaki, Peter Barlis, Fuhua Yan, Johan H C Reiber, Shengxian Tu
Calculation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) requires reconstruction of patient-specific coronary geometry and estimation of hyperemic flow rate. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) are two dominating imaging modalities used for the geometrical reconstruction. Our aim was to investigate the impact of image resolution as inherently associated with these two imaging modalities on geometrical reconstruction and subsequent FFR calculation...
March 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26429269/dect-evaluation-of-noncalcified-coronary-artery-plaque
#19
Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S Chatterjee, Milo Tabin, Sanjiv Sharma, Priya Jagia, Ruma Ray, Rishi P Singh, Rakesh Yadav, Munish Sharma, Karthik Krishna, V C Vani, R Lakshmi, Susama R Mandal, Pratik Kumar, Sudhir Arava
PURPOSE: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ(e)) and the effective atomic number (Z(eff)) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques...
October 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26370382/subclinical-atherosclerosis-is-inversely-associated-with-gray-matter-volume-in-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Barry I Freedman, Jasmin Divers, Christopher T Whitlow, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Thomas C Register, J Jeffrey Carr, Benjamin C Wagner, Jeff D Williamson, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian
OBJECTIVE: Relative to European Americans, African Americans manifest lower levels of computed tomography-based calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP), a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Potential relationships between CP and cerebral structure are poorly defined in the African American population. We assessed associations among glycemic control, inflammation, and CP with cerebral structure on MRI and with cognitive performance in 268 high-risk African Americans with type 2 diabetes...
November 2015: Diabetes Care
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