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calcified plaque models

Thorsten Derlin, Johannes Thiele, Desiree Weiberg, James T Thackeray, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Lukas Aguirre Dávila, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Günter Daum, Frank M Bengel, Udo Schumacher
OBJECTIVE: Intraplaque neovascularization contributes to the progression and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is strongly expressed by endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and plays a major role in hypoxia-induced neovascularization in rodent models of benign diseases. We hypothesized that GCPII expression may play a role in intraplaque neovascularization and may represent a target for imaging of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, pattern, and clinical correlates of vessel wall uptake of a (68)Ga-GCPII ligand for positron emission tomographic imaging...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Brian G Kral, Rita R Kalyani, Lisa R Yanek, Dhananjay Vaidya, Elliot K Fishman, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker
Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor in persons of European ancestry. Levels are twofold to threefold higher in African-Americans (AAs), but reported associations with CAD have been inconsistent. The relation of Lp(a) with the extent and severity of subclinical coronary plaque has not been described in AAs. We screened 269 apparently healthy AAs for risk factors and coronary plaque using advanced coronary computed tomographic angiography. Total coronary plaque (TCP), noncalcified coronary plaque, and calcified coronary plaque volumes (mm(3)) were quantified using a validated automated method...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Gudrun Feuchtner, Johannes Kerber, Philipp Burghard, Wolfgang Dichtl, Guy Friedrich, Nikolaos Bonaros, Fabian Plank
AIMS: To assess the prognostic value of coronary CT angiography (CTA) for prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a long-term follow-up period. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1469 low-to-intermediate-risk patients (65.9 years; 44.2% females) were included in our prospective cohort study. CTA was evaluated for (i) stenosis severity (minimal <10%; mild <50%; moderate 50-70%; severe >70%), (ii) plaque types (calcified, mixed dominantly calcified, mixed dominantly non-calcified, non-calcified), and (iii) high-risk plaque criteria [low-attenuation plaque (LAP) quantified by HU, napkin-ring (NR) sign, spotty calcification <3 mm, and remodelling index (RI)]...
August 7, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Auranuch Lorsakul, Georges El Fakhri, William Worstell, Jinsong Ouyang, Yothin Rakvongthai, Andrew F Laine, Quanzheng Li
Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Mingxia Yuan, Fang-Chi Hsu, Donald W Bowden, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Mary E Comeau, Jasmin Divers, Thomas C Register, J Jeffrey Carr, Carl D Langefeld, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Assess cross-sectional relationships between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), pericardial (PAT), visceral (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes with calcified plaque (CP) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Computed tomography measured PAT, VAT, SAT, and CP in coronary arteries (CAC), carotid arteries, and aorta. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to test for associations between adiposity and CP, stratified by ethnicity while accounting for familial correlations...
August 2016: Obesity
Paola Ciceri, Francesca Elli, Laura Cappelletti, Delfina Tosi, Federica Savi, Gaetano Bulfamante, Mario Cozzolino
Osteonectin, also termed SPARC, is a noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Since there are controversial results regarding its role during the process of vascular calcification, we investigated osteonectin expression in our in vitro calcification model. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were challenged with high phosphate (5 mmol/L Pi) and analyzed quantifying calcium levels, through immunohistochemical studies, and studying gene expression. We detected a peak of osteonectin expression at day 7 in cell treated with high phosphate...
June 23, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
A Schiavone, C Abunassar, S Hossainy, L G Zhao
Crimping and deployment of bioresorbable polymeric scaffold, Absorb, were modelled using a finite element method, in direct comparison with Co-Cr alloy drug eluting stent, Xience V. Absorb scaffold has an expansion rate lower than Xience V stent, with a less outer diameter achieved after balloon deflation. Due to the difference in design and material properties, Absorb also shows a higher recoiling than Xience V, which suggests that additional post-dilatation is required to achieve effective treatment for patients with calcified plaques and stiff vessels...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Christakis Damianou, Andreas Couppis
BACKGROUND: The aim of the proposed study was to conduct a feasibility study using a flat rectangular (3 mm × 10 mm) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5.3 MHz for destroying calcified material in an in vitro model. The proposed method can be used in the future for treating atherosclerosis plaques of the coronary, carotid or peripheral arteries. METHODS: The system was tested initially on calcium rods. Another test was performed in a hydroxyapatite-polylactide model...
2016: Journal of Ultrasound
Manish Motwani, Damini Dey, Daniel S Berman, Guido Germano, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin Delago, Millie Gomez, Heidi Gransar, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Niree Hindoyan, Gudrun Feuchtner, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Fay Y Lin, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Leslee J Shaw, Julia Stehli, Todd C Villines, Allison Dunning, James K Min, Piotr J Slomka
AIMS: Traditional prognostic risk assessment in patients undergoing non-invasive imaging is based upon a limited selection of clinical and imaging findings. Machine learning (ML) can consider a greater number and complexity of variables. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and accuracy of ML to predict 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), and compared the performance to existing clinical or CCTA metrics. METHODS AND RESULTS: The analysis included 10 030 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and 5-year follow-up from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter registry...
June 1, 2016: European Heart Journal
Claudia Goettsch, Joshua D Hutcheson, Masanori Aikawa, Hiroshi Iwata, Tan Pham, Anders Nykjaer, Mads Kjolby, Maximillian Rogers, Thomas Michel, Manabu Shibasaki, Sumihiko Hagita, Rafael Kramann, Daniel J Rader, Peter Libby, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Péter Szikra, Krisztina Boda, Ferenc Rarosi, Attila Thury, Pál Barzó, Tamás Németh, Erika Vörös
OBJECTIVES: A higher rate of embolization is considered a disadvantage of carotid stenting (CAS), when compared with carotid endarterectomy. Plaques in the aortic arch (AA) and the common carotid artery (CCA) may be additional sources of embolization to stented internal carotid plaques during CAS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these plaques and intracerebral embolization. METHODS: We analyzed the occurrence and composition of plaques in the AA and CCA by computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 101 consecutive cases of CAS...
August 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Jonathan Nadjiri, Jörg Hausleiter, Christin Jähnichen, Albrecht Will, Eva Hendrich, Stefan Martinoff, Martin Hadamitzky
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the incremental prognostic value of quantitative plaque characterization beyond established CT risk scores. BACKGROUND: Several plaque characteristics detectable by coronary computed tomographic angiography (coronary CTA) are thought to be indicative of vulnerable plaques and subsequent cardiac events, particularly low attenuation plaque volume (LAPV), positive remodeling and the napkin-ring sign which is high density vascular adhesion with a small center of low density...
March 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Sean G Kelly, Michael Plankey, Wendy S Post, Xiuhong Li, Ronald Stall, Lisa P Jacobson, Mallory D Witt, Lawrence Kingsley, Christopher Cox, Matthew Budoff, Frank J Palella
BACKGROUND: We characterized associations between smoking, alcohol, and recreational drug use and coronary plaque by HIV serostatus within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). METHODS: MACS participants (N = 1005, 621 HIV+ and 384 HIV-) underwent non-contrast CT scanning to measure coronary artery calcium; 764 underwent coronary CT angiograms to evaluate plaque type and extent. Self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, smoked/inhaled cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, marijuana, inhaled nitrites, and erectile dysfunction drugs was obtained at semi-annual visits beginning 10 years prior to CT scanning...
2016: PloS One
Bahram Khazai, Yanting Luo, Steven Rosenberg, James Wingrove, Matthew J Budoff
OBJECTIVES: Little data are available regarding coronary plaque composition and semi-quantitative scores in individuals with diabetes; the extent to which diabetes may affect the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) needs more evaluation. Considering that this information may be of great value in formulating preventive interventions in this population, we compared these findings in individuals with diabetes to those without. METHODS: Multi-Detector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) images of 861 consecutive patients with diabetes who were referred to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute from January 2000 to September 2012, were evaluated using a 15-coronary segment model...
2015: PloS One
Lili Liu, Wenjie Yang, Yasuomi Nagahara, Yingguang Li, Saeb R Lamooki, Takashi Muramatsu, Pieter Kitslaar, Masayoshi Sarai, Yukio Ozaki, Peter Barlis, Fuhua Yan, Johan H C Reiber, Shengxian Tu
Calculation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) requires reconstruction of patient-specific coronary geometry and estimation of hyperemic flow rate. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) are two dominating imaging modalities used for the geometrical reconstruction. Our aim was to investigate the impact of image resolution as inherently associated with these two imaging modalities on geometrical reconstruction and subsequent FFR calculation...
March 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S Chatterjee, Milo Tabin, Sanjiv Sharma, Priya Jagia, Ruma Ray, Rishi P Singh, Rakesh Yadav, Munish Sharma, Karthik Krishna, V C Vani, R Lakshmi, Susama R Mandal, Pratik Kumar, Sudhir Arava
PURPOSE: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ(e)) and the effective atomic number (Z(eff)) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques...
October 2015: Medical Physics
Barry I Freedman, Jasmin Divers, Christopher T Whitlow, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Thomas C Register, J Jeffrey Carr, Benjamin C Wagner, Jeff D Williamson, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian
OBJECTIVE: Relative to European Americans, African Americans manifest lower levels of computed tomography-based calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP), a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Potential relationships between CP and cerebral structure are poorly defined in the African American population. We assessed associations among glycemic control, inflammation, and CP with cerebral structure on MRI and with cognitive performance in 268 high-risk African Americans with type 2 diabetes...
November 2015: Diabetes Care
Bálint Szilveszter, Hesham Elzomor, Mihály Károlyi, Márton Kolossváry, Rolf Raaijmakers, Kálmán Benke, Csilla Celeng, Andrea Bartykowszki, Zsolt Bagyura, Árpád Lux, Béla Merkely, Pál Maurovich-Horvat
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring with computed tomography (CT) is an established tool for quantifying calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden. Despite the widespread use of novel image reconstruction techniques in CT, the effect of iterative model reconstruction on CAC score remains unclear. We sought to assess the impact of iterative model based reconstruction (IMR) on coronary artery calcium quantification as compared to the standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR)...
January 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Dixon Yang, Sunil Iyer, Hannah Gardener, David Della-Morte, Milita Crisby, Chuanhui Dong, Ken Cheung, Consuelo Mora-McLaughlin, Clinton B Wright, Mitchell S Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Tatjana Rundek
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the association between cigarette smoking and carotid plaque ultrasound morphology in a multiethnic cohort. METHODS: We analyzed 1,743 stroke-free participants (mean age 65.5 ± 8.9 years; 60% women; 18% white, 63% Hispanic, 19% black; 14% current and 38% former smokers, 48% never smoked) from the Northern Manhattan Study using an ultrasound index of plaque echodensity, the Gray-Scale Median (GSM). Echolucent plaque (low GSM) represents soft plaque and echodense (high GSM) more calcified plaque...
2015: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Fang-Chi Hsu, Laura M Raffield, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Amanda Cox, Jianzhao Xu, J Jeffery Carr, Barry I Freedman, Joseph A Maldjian, Jeff D Williamson, Donald W Bowden
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, and elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-MIND using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque. We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance...
2015: Neuroepidemiology
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