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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347750/connecting-proline-metabolism-and-signaling-pathways-in-plant-senescence
#1
REVIEW
Lu Zhang, Donald F Becker
The amino acid proline has a unique biological role in stress adaptation. Proline metabolism is manipulated under stress by multiple and complex regulatory pathways and can profoundly influence cell death and survival in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Though the effects of proline are mediated by diverse signaling pathways, a common theme appears to be the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to proline oxidation being coupled to the respiratory electron transport chain. Considerable research has been devoted to understand how plants exploit proline metabolism in response to abiotic and biotic stress...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26284090/p5cdh-affects-the-pathways-contributing-to-pro-synthesis-after-prodh-activation-by-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-conditions
#2
Yanina S Rizzi, Mariela I Monteoliva, Georgina Fabro, Carola L Grosso, Laura E Laróvere, María E Alvarez
Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26284079/physiological-implications-of-arginine-metabolism-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
Gudrun Winter, Christopher D Todd, Maurizio Trovato, Giuseppe Forlani, Dietmar Funck
Nitrogen is a limiting resource for plant growth in most terrestrial habitats since large amounts of nitrogen are needed to synthesize nucleic acids and proteins. Among the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, arginine has the highest nitrogen to carbon ratio, which makes it especially suitable as a storage form of organic nitrogen. Synthesis in chloroplasts via ornithine is apparently the only operational pathway to provide arginine in plants, and the rate of arginine synthesis is tightly regulated by various feedback mechanisms in accordance with the overall nutritional status...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26158616/introgression-of-the-sbasr-1-gene-cloned-from-a-halophyte-salicornia-brachiate-enhances-salinity-and-drought-endurance-in-transgenic-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-and-acts-as-a-transcription-factor-corrected
#4
Vivekanand Tiwari, Amit Kumar Chaturvedi, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26121399/overexpression-of-rat-neurons-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rice-enhances-drought-and-salt-tolerance
#5
Wei Cai, Wen Liu, Wen-Shu Wang, Zheng-Wei Fu, Tong-Tong Han, Ying-Tang Lu
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play an important role in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis mutants with lower or higher levels of endogenous NO. The exogenous application of NO donors or scavengers has also suggested an important role for NO in plant defense against environmental stress. In this study, rice plants under drought and high salinity conditions showed increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO levels. Overexpression of rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in rice increased both NOS activity and NO accumulation, resulting in improved tolerance of the transgenic plants to both drought and salt stresses...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055444/concomitant-osmotic-and-chaotropicity-induced-stresses-in-aspergillus-wentii-compatible-solutes-determine-the-biotic-window
#6
Flávia de Lima Alves, Andrew Stevenson, Esther Baxter, Jenny L M Gillion, Fakhrossadat Hejazi, Sandra Hayes, Ian E G Morrison, Bernard A Prior, Terry J McGenity, Drauzio E N Rangel, Naresh Magan, Kenneth N Timmis, John E Hallsworth
Whereas osmotic stress response induced by solutes has been well-characterized in fungi, less is known about the other activities of environmentally ubiquitous substances. The latest methodologies to define, identify and quantify chaotropicity, i.e. substance-induced destabilization of macromolecular systems, now enable new insights into microbial stress biology (Cray et al. in Curr Opin Biotechnol 33:228-259, 2015a, doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.02.010 ; Ball and Hallsworth in Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:8297-8305, 2015, doi: 10...
August 2015: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26036416/nitric-oxide-mediated-amelioration-of-arsenic-toxicity-which-alters-the-alternative-oxidase-aox1-gene-expression-in-hordeum-vulgare-l
#7
Pratiksha Shukla, Shalini Singh, Pragyan Dubey, Aradhana Singh, A K Singh
The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner...
October 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26011089/a-myo-inositol-1-phosphate-synthase-gene-ibmips1-enhances-salt-and-drought-tolerance-and-stem-nematode-resistance-in-transgenic-sweet-potato
#8
Hong Zhai, Feibing Wang, Zengzhi Si, Jinxi Huo, Lei Xing, Yanyan An, Shaozhen He, Qingchang Liu
Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) is a key rate limiting enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis. The MIPS gene has been shown to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses in several plant species. However, its role in resistance to biotic stresses has not been reported. In this study, we found that expression of the sweet potato IbMIPS1 gene was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA) and stem nematodes. Its overexpression significantly enhanced stem nematode resistance as well as salt and drought tolerance in transgenic sweet potato under field conditions...
February 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25937811/sirna-directed-dna-methylation-in-plants
#9
Meng Xie, Bin Yu
DNA cytosine methylationis an important epigenetic process that is correlated with transgene silencing, transposon suppression, and gene imprinting. In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger DNA methylation at loci containing their homolog sequences through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In canonical RdDM, 24 nucleotide (nt) siRNAs (ra-siRNAs) will be loaded into their effector protein called ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) and subsequently targeted to RdDM loci through base-pairing with the non-coding transcripts produced by DNA-directed RNA Polymerase V...
February 2015: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25935218/a-new-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-from-the-oil-plant-jatropha-curcas-confers-salt-and-drought-tolerance-to-transgenic-tobacco
#10
Xuehua Wang, Haiyang Han, Jun Yan, Fang Chen, Wei Wei
Jatropha curcas L. is a drought and salt-tolerant oil plant widely used for various purposes and has considerable potential as a diesel/kerosene substitute or extender. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlie that the response to various biotic and abiotic stresses of this plant could be important to crop improvement efforts. Here, a new AP2/ERF-type transcription factor gene, named JcERF2, was isolated from the leaves of J. curcas. Sequence analysis showed that the JcERF2 gene contains a 759-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 252 amino acids...
May 2015: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25852715/osmotin-a-plant-sentinel-and-a-possible-agonist-of-mammalian-adiponectin
#11
REVIEW
S Anil Kumar, P Hima Kumari, G Shravan Kumar, C Mohanalatha, P B Kavi Kishor
Osmotin is a stress responsive antifungal protein belonging to the pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 family that confers tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Protective efforts of osmotin in plants range from high temperature to cold and salt to drought. It lyses the plasma membrane of the pathogens. It is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25798435/the-human-neonatal-gut-microbiome-a-brief-review
#12
REVIEW
Emily C Gritz, Vineet Bhandari
The field of genomics has expanded into subspecialties such as metagenomics over the course of the last decade and a half. The development of massively parallel sequencing capabilities has allowed for increasingly detailed study of the genome of the human microbiome, the microbial super organ that resides symbiotically within the mucosal tissues and integumentary system of the human host. The gut microbiome, and particularly the study of its origins in neonates, has become subtopics of great interest within the field of genomics...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25775459/connecting-proline-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-in-stressed-plants-through-non-enzymatic-reactions
#13
Santiago Signorelli, Pablo D Dans, E Laura Coitiño, Omar Borsani, Jorge Monza
The accumulation of proline (Pro) in plants exposed to biotic/abiotic stress is a well-documented and conserved response in most vegetal species. Stress conditions induce the overproduction of reactive oxygen species which can lead to cellular damage. In vitro assays have shown that enzyme inactivation by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) can be avoided in presence of Pro, suggesting that this amino acid could act as an ·OH scavenger. We applied Density Functional Theory coupled with a polarizable continuum model to elucidate how Pro reacts with ·OH...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25771680/-competitive-intransitivity-among-species-in-biotic-communities
#14
M S Permogorskiĭ
Contemporary state of the competitive intransitivity hypothesis is considered. Intransitive competition among species occurs when, for example, species A outcompetes species B, B outcompetes C, and C out-competes A (sometimes written as A > B > C > A). In the first part of the article, a summary of the studies of competitive intransitivity is given. Examples of really existing intransitive loops are discussed, as well as simulation models that provide a theoretical explanation for these processes. Pro hac vice, sufficient potential diversity of community, species interactions carried out in relatively stable limited space that can be reclaimed, and a penalty for the acquisition of competitive ability are prerequisite...
May 2014: Zhurnal Obshcheĭ Biologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25763629/alternation-of-flavonoid-accumulation-under-drought-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Ryo Nakabayashi, Tetsuya Mori, Kazuki Saito
Plants have developed mechanisms to protect themselves against both biotic and abiotic environmental stress. Specialized/secondary metabolism is one of the stress response mechanisms. Recently, we reported that flavonoids, a class of specialized metabolites, including flavonols and anthocyanins with strong radical scavenging activity contributed to the mitigation of oxidative and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, the behavior of flavonoids during drought stress is still not well-documented...
2014: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25730809/a-plausible-mechanism-of-biosorption-in-dual-symbioses-by-vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-in-plants
#16
Rafia Azmat, Neelofer Hamid
Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants...
March 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25569758/hyper-a-hydrogen-peroxide-sensor-indicates-the-sensitivity-of-the-arabidopsis-root-elongation-zone-to-aluminum-treatment
#17
Alejandra Hernández-Barrera, Ana Velarde-Buendía, Isaac Zepeda, Federico Sanchez, Carmen Quinto, Rosana Sánchez-Lopez, Alice Y Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu, Luis Cardenas
Emerging evidence indicates that some reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are central regulators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the cellular levels of ROS are thought to be tightly regulated by an efficient and elaborate pro- and antioxidant system that modulates the production and scavenging of ROS. Until recently, studies of ROS in plant cells have been limited to biochemical assays and the use of fluorescent probes; however, the irreversible oxidation of these fluorescent probes makes it impossible to visualize dynamic changes in ROS levels...
2015: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528377/chromium-toxicity-tolerance-of-solanum-nigrum-l-and-parthenium-hysterophorus-l-plants-with-reference-to-ion-pattern-antioxidation-activity-and-root-exudation
#18
Islam UdDin, Asghari Bano, Sajid Masood
Chromium (Cr), being a highly toxic metal, adversely affects the mineral uptake and metabolic processes in plants when present in excess. The current study was aimed at investigating the Cr accumulation in various plant tissues and its relation to the antioxidation activity and root exudation. Plants were grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cr for three weeks in pots and analysed for different growth, antioxidants and ion attributes. Furthermore, plants treated with different concentrations of Cr in pots were shifted to rhizobox-like system for 48h and organic acids were monitored in the mucilage dissolved from the plant root surface, mirroring rhizospheric solution...
March 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25419675/abiotic-and-biotic-degradation-of-oxo-biodegradable-plastic-bags-by-pleurotus-ostreatus
#19
José Maria Rodrigues da Luz, Sirlaine Albino Paes, Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli, Marcos Rogério Tótola, Antônio Jacinto Demuner, Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya
In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414837/the-agr-communication-system-provides-a-benefit-to-the-populations-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-soil
#20
Anne-Laure Vivant, Dominique Garmyn, Laurent Gal, Pascal Piveteau
In this study, we investigated whether the Agr communication system of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes was involved in adaptation and competitiveness in soil. Alteration of the ability to communicate, either by deletion of the gene coding the response regulator AgrA (response-negative mutant) or the signal pro-peptide AgrD (signal-negative mutant), did not affect population dynamics in soil that had been sterilized but survival was altered in biotic soil suggesting that the Agr system of L. monocytogenes was involved to face the complex soil biotic environment...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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