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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440692/both-hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-responses-and-il28b-rs12979860-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotype-influence-antihepatitis-c-virus-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#1
José M Benito, Javier García-Samaniego, Marcial García, Antonio Madejón, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
Despite new treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, IFNα-based regimens still have clinical relevance in special populations of patients and remain the only therapeutic option for many patients. We sought to elucidate the interplay between two relevant factors (IL28B polymorphism and T cell immune responses) involved in the outcome of this therapy in HCV-infected patients. We evaluated 38 patients infected with HCV genotype 1-17 coinfected with HIV-who were undergoing a full course of pegIFNα/RBV therapy...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439064/immunotherapy-of-dual-function-vector-with-both-immunostimulatory-and-b-cell-lymphoma-2-bcl-2-silencing-effects-on-gastric-carcinoma
#2
Lanying Ma, Mei Han, Zumureti Keyoumu, Hua Wang, Saifuding Keyoumu
BACKGROUND Tumorigenesis is a kind of pathology marked by infinite proliferation and restrained apoptosis compared with normal cells. The abnormal expression of some proto-oncogenes and apoptosis inhibition are essential for tumor growth, which has been confirmed by molecular biologic and immunologic studies. The hypofunction of the host immune system also drives the development and metastasis of malignant tumors. Bcl-2, which has a critical role in regulating apoptosis, is overexpressed in several cancers...
April 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437463/relationship-of-the-crebc-two-component-regulatory-system-and-inner-membrane-protein-cred-with-swimming-motility-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#3
Hsin-Hui Huang, Wei-Ching Chen, Cheng-Wen Lin, Yi-Tsung Lin, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Yi-Chih Chang, Tsuey-Ching Yang
The CreBC two-component system (TCS) is a conserved regulatory system found in Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study, we determined how CreBC TCS regulates secreted protease activities and swimming motility using creB, creC, and creBC in-frame deletion mutants (KJΔCreB, KJΔCreC, and KJΔBC) of S. maltophilia KJ. Compared to wild-type KJ, KJΔCreB had a comparable secreted protease activity; however, the secreted protease activities were obviously reduced in KJΔCreC and KJΔBC, suggesting that CreC works together with another unidentified response regulator (not CreB) to regulate secreted protease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435472/simultaneous-targeting-of-cd44-and-epcam-with-a-bispecific-aptamer-effectively-inhibits-intraperitoneal-ovarian-cancer-growth
#4
Jingying Zheng, Shuhua Zhao, Xiaolin Yu, Shuang Huang, Hong Yan Liu
CD44 and EpCAM play crucial roles in intraperitoneal ovarian cancer development. In this study, we developed an RNA-based bispecific CD44-EpCAM aptamer that is capable of blocking CD44 and EpCAM simultaneously by fusing single CD44 and EpCAM aptamers with a double stranded RNA adaptor. With the aid of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that bispecific CD44-EpCAM aptamer was much more effective than either single CD44 or EpCAM aptamer in the ability to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434858/stem-cell-intrinsic-seven-up-triggered-temporal-factor-gradients-diversify-intermediate-neural-progenitors
#5
Qingzhong Ren, Ching-Po Yang, Zhiyong Liu, Ken Sugino, Kent Mok, Yisheng He, Masayoshi Ito, Aljoscha Nern, Hideo Otsuna, Tzumin Lee
Building a sizable, complex brain requires both cellular expansion and diversification. One mechanism to achieve these goals is production of multiple transiently amplifying intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) from a single neural stem cell. Like mammalian neural stem cells, Drosophila type II neuroblasts utilize INPs to produce neurons and glia. Within a given lineage, the consecutively born INPs produce morphologically distinct progeny, presumably due to differential inheritance of temporal factors. To uncover the underlying temporal fating mechanisms, we profiled type II neuroblasts' transcriptome across time...
April 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#6
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#7
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433606/in-silico-methods-for-co-transcriptional-rna-secondary-structure-prediction-and-for-investigating-alternative-rna-structure-expression
#8
REVIEW
Irmtraud M Meyer
RNA transcripts are the primary products of active genes in any living organism, including many viruses. Their cellular destiny not only depends on primary sequence signals, but can also be determined by RNA structure. Recent experimental evidence shows that many transcripts can be assigned more than a single functional RNA structure throughout their cellular life and that structure formation happens co-transcriptionally, i.e. as the transcript is synthesised in the cell. Moreover, functional RNA structures are not limited to non-coding transcripts, but can also feature in coding transcripts...
April 19, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433053/the-envelope-proteins-of-the-bunyavirales
#9
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A Rey
The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432927/type-2-bvdv-n-pro-suppresses-ifn-1-pathway-signaling-in-bovine-cells-and-augments-brsv-replication
#10
Abdulrahman A Alkheraif, Christina L Topliff, Jay Reddy, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Ruben O Donis, Gregor Meyers, Kent M Eskridge, Clayton L Kelling
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection induces immunosuppression and in conjunction with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine turbinate cells were single or co-infected with type 2 BVDV wild-type (BVDV2-wt), its dysfunctional N(pro) mutant (BVDV2-E), and/or BRSV. BVDV2-E significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-7, TBK-1, IRF-3, and IFN-β mRNAs based on real-time Q-RT-PCR. BRSV-infected cells expressed significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-β mRNAs, whereas BVDV2-wt, but not BVDV2-E, abolished this up-regulation in co-infection...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432352/low-cost-low-bias-and-low-input-rna-seq-with-high-experimental-verifiability-based-on-semiconductor-sequencing
#11
Zhibiao Mai, Chuanle Xiao, Jingjie Jin, Gong Zhang
Low-input RNA-seq is powerful to represent the gene expression profiles with limited number of cells, especially when single-cell variations are not the aim. However, pre-amplification-based and molecule index-based library construction methods boost bias or require higher throughput. Here we demonstrate a simple, low-cost, low-bias and low-input RNA-seq with ion torrent semiconductor sequencing (LIEA RNA-seq). We also developed highly accurate and error-tolerant spliced mapping algorithm FANSe2splice to accurately map the single-ended reads to the reference genome with better experimental verifiability than the previous spliced mappers...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431229/functional-enhancer-screening-in-single-cells
#12
Joris van Arensbergen, Bas van Steensel
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Xie et al. (2017) introduce Mosaic-seq, a powerful technology that combines CRISPRi and single-cell RNA-seq. This method enables the high-throughput assessment of contributions of enhancers to gene regulation.
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431010/clinical-trial-of-the-anti-pd-l1-antibody-bms-936559-in-hiv-1-infected-participants-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Cynthia L Gay, Ronald J Bosch, Justin Ritz, Jason M Hataye, Evgenia Aga, Randall L Tressler, Stephen W Mason, Carey K Hwang, Dennis M Grasela, Neelanjana Ray, Josh C Cyktor, John M Coffin, Edward P Acosta, Richard A Koup, John W Mellors, Joseph J Eron
Background.: Reversing immune exhaustion with an anti-PD-L1 antibody may improve HIV-1-specific immunity and increase clearance of HIV-1 expressing cells. Methods.: Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalating study of BMS-936559including HIV-1-infected adults ≥18 to ≤70 years on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ counts ≥350 cells/μL and detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA by single copy assay. Data on single infusions of BMS-936559 (0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430789/mir-9-3p-augments-apoptosis-induced-by-h2o2-through-down-regulation-of-herpud1-in-glioma
#14
Ling Yang, Yongping Mu, Hongwei Cui, Yabing Liang, Xiulan Su
MicroRNAs are short, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that function as regulators of tumor progression in various cancers, including glioma. The present study sought to investigate the biological functions of miR-9-3p in glioma progression. The results of a microRNA microarray indicated that microRNA-9-3p (miR-9-3p, miR-9*) is down-regulated in high-grade (grades III and IV) gliomas compared with non-tumor tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. The miR-9-3p expression level was associated with age and tumor grade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429755/opossum-apobec1-is-a-dna-mutator-with-retrovirus-and-retroelement-restriction-activity
#15
Terumasa Ikeda, Mayuko Shimoda, Diako Ebrahimi, John L VandeBerg, Reuben S Harris, Atsushi Koito, Kazuhiko Maeda
APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429085/the-role-of-rna-alternative-splicing-in-regulating-cancer-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Itamar Kozlovski, Zahava Siegfried, Adi Amar-Schwartz, Rotem Karni
Tumor cells alter their metabolism by a wide array of mechanisms to promote growth and proliferation. Dysregulated expression and/or somatic mutations of key components of the glycolytic pathway/TCA cycle as well as other metabolic pathways allow tumor cells to improve their ability to survive harsh conditions such as hypoxia and the presence of reactive oxygen species, as well as the ability to obtain nutrients to increase lipids, protein, and nucleic acids biogenesis. Approximately 95% of the human protein encoding genes undergo alternative splicing (AS), a regulated process of gene expression that greatly diversifies the proteome by creating multiple proteins from a single gene...
April 20, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428795/non-canonical-translation-in-plant-rna-viruses
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Miras, W Allen Miller, Verónica Truniger, Miguel A Aranda
Viral protein synthesis is completely dependent upon the host cell's translational machinery. Canonical translation of host mRNAs depends on structural elements such as the 5' cap structure and/or the 3' poly(A) tail of the mRNAs. Although many viral mRNAs are devoid of one or both of these structures, they can still translate efficiently using non-canonical mechanisms. Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis-acting sequences present in viral mRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428548/antiviral-activities-of-schizonepeta-tenuifolia-briq-against-enterovirus-71-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Sin-Guang Chen, Mei-Ling Cheng, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jim-Tong Horng, Ching-Chuan Liu, Shih-Min Wang, Hiroaki Sakurai, Yann-Lii Leu, Shulhn-Der Wang, Hung-Yao Ho
No effective drug is currently available for treatment of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (ST) has been used as a herbal constituent of traditional Chinese medicine. We studied whether the aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq (STE) has antiviral activity. STE inhibited replication of EV71, as evident by its ability to diminish plaque formation and cytopathic effect induced by EV71, and to inhibit the synthesis of viral RNA and protein. Moreover, daily single-dose STE treatment significantly improved the survival of EV71-infected mice, and ameliorated the symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428369/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-new-types-of-human-blood-dendritic-cells-monocytes-and-progenitors
#19
Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Rahul Satija, Gary Reynolds, Siranush Sarkizova, Karthik Shekhar, James Fletcher, Morgane Griesbeck, Andrew Butler, Shiwei Zheng, Suzan Lazo, Laura Jardine, David Dixon, Emily Stephenson, Emil Nilsson, Ida Grundberg, David McDonald, Andrew Filby, Weibo Li, Philip L De Jager, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Andrew A Lane, Muzlifah Haniffa, Aviv Regev, Nir Hacohen
Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes play a central role in pathogen sensing, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation and consist of multiple specialized subtypes. However, their identities and interrelationships are not fully understood. Using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of ~2400 cells, we identified six human DCs and four monocyte subtypes in human blood. Our study reveals a new DC subset that shares properties with plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) but potently activates T cells, thus redefining pDCs; a new subdivision within the CD1C(+) subset of DCs; the relationship between blastic plasmacytoid DC neoplasia cells and healthy DCs; and circulating progenitor of conventional DCs (cDCs)...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426722/interactions-between-mitoneet-and-naf-1-in-cells
#20
Ola Karmi, Sarah H Holt, Luhua Song, Sagi Tamir, Yuting Luo, Fang Bai, Ammar Adenwalla, Merav Darash-Yahana, Yang-Sung Sohn, Patricia A Jennings, Rajeev K Azad, Jose' N Onuchic, Faruck Morcos, Rachel Nechushtai, Ron Mittler
The NEET proteins mitoNEET (mNT) and nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) are required for cancer cell proliferation and resistance to oxidative stress. NAF-1 and mNT are also implicated in a number of other human pathologies including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease, as well as in development, differentiation and aging. Previous studies suggested that mNT and NAF-1 could function in the same pathway in mammalian cells, preventing the over-accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria...
2017: PloS One
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