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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923195/aplastic-anemia-and-mds-international-foundation-aamdsif-bone-marrow-failure-disease-scientific-symposium-2016
#2
Amer M Zeidan, Minoo Battiwalla, Deborah Berlyne, Thomas Winkler
Patients with acquired and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) have ineffective hematopoiesis due to impairments of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Common manifestations of BMFS include varying degrees of peripheral blood cytopenias and, sometimes, progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Research efforts have been made all over the world to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases and their clinical implications. The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDSIF) is an independent nonprofit organization whose mission is to help patients and family members cope with BMFS...
November 24, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922757/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-triggered-by-gaucher-disease-in-a-preterm-neonate
#3
Simone Schüller, Andishe Attarbaschi, Angelika Berger, Caroline Hutter, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Manuel Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To present the diagnostic workup in an extremely low birth weight infant patient with signs of both sepsis and hemophagocytosis. PARTICIPANTS: A preterm infant presented with clinical and laboratory signs of early-onset sepsis including hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, direct hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated liver enzymes. METHODS: Despite extensive septic workup, no underlying infection was detected. Additional hyperferritinemia and other elevated inflammatory parameters raised the suspicion of a primary or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922692/mir-195-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-chondrocytes-by-targeting-git1
#4
Yang-Lin Gu, Xiao-Xu Rong, Li-Ting Wen, Guo-Xing Zhu, Ming-Quan Qian
Previous studies have demonstrated that G-protein coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) serve an important role in chondrocyte proliferation and migration. However, a limited number of studies conducted thus far have investigated the association between GIT1 and miRNAs. In the present study, putative miR‑195 binding sites in the GIT1 3'‑untranslated region were identified using common bioinformatic algorithms (miRanda, TargetScan, miRBase and miRWalk), and it was demonstrated that they may be involved in regulating GIT1 expression...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922691/microarray-expression-profiles-of-genes-in-lung-tissues-of-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-induced-lung-injury-following-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Yue Hu, Liu-Lin Xiong, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Ischemia-induced stroke is the most common disease of the nervous system and is associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. Cerebral ischemia may lead to remote organ dysfunction, particular in the lungs, resulting in lung injury. Nowadays, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are widely studied in clinical trials as they may provide an effective solution to the treatment of neurological and cardiac diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia-induced lung injury was successfully established and confirmed by neurological evaluation and lung injury scores...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922432/mir-21-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#6
Xianfeng Ren, Yuqin Shen, Shuyun Zheng, JianYong Liu, Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: miR-21 has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumour progression. The aim of the present study was to analyse the correlation between miR-21 expression level and clinicopathologic features, as well as to assess the prognostic significance of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. METHODS: Eighty-four pairs of osteosarcoma and corresponding non-cancerous bone tissues were obtained, and miR-21 expression levels were detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922052/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-exert-hgf-dependent-cytoprotective-effects-in-a-human-relevant-pre-clinical-model-of-copd
#7
Helen Kennelly, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory and tissue reparative properties, which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. This study examined the mechanisms by which human MSCs protect against elastase induced emphysema. Using a novel human relevant pre-clinical model of emphysema the efficacy of human MSC therapy and optimal cell dose were investigated. Protective effects were examined in the lung through histological examination. Further in vivo experiments examined the reparative abilities of MSCs after tissue damage was established and the role played by soluble factors secreted by MSCs...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921235/transplantation-of-collagen-scaffold-with-autologous-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-promotes-functional-endometrium-reconstruction-via-downregulating-%C3%AE-np63-expression-in-asherman-s-syndrome
#8
Guangfeng Zhao, Yun Cao, Xianghong Zhu, Xiaoqiu Tang, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun, Juan Li, Xinan Li, Chenyan Dai, Tong Ru, Hui Zhu, Jingjie Lu, Caimei Lin, Jingmei Wang, Guijun Yan, Huiyan Wang, Lei Wang, Yimin Dai, Bin Wang, Ruotian Li, Jianwu Dai, Yan Zhou, Yali Hu
Asherman's syndrome (AS) is a common disease that presents endometrial regeneration disorder. However, little is known about its molecular features of this aregenerative endometrium in AS and how to reconstruct the functioning endometrium for the patients with AS. Here, we report that ΔNp63 is significantly upregulated in residual epithelial cells of the impaired endometrium in AS; the upregulated-ΔNp63 induces endometrial quiescence and alteration of stemness. Importantly, we demonstrate that engrafting high density of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) loaded in collagen scaffold onto the uterine lining of patients with AS downregulates ΔNp63 expression, reverses ΔNp63-induced pathological changes, normalizes the stemness alterations and restores endometrial regeneration...
December 1, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921145/compressive-loading-of-the-murine-tibia-reveals-site-specific-micro-scale-differences-in-adaptation-and-maturation-rates-of-bone
#9
I Bergström, J G Kerns, A E Törnqvist, C Perdikouri, N Mathavan, A Koskela, H B Henriksson, J Tuukkanen, G Andersson, H Isaksson, A E Goodship, S H Windahl
: Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921114/-postoperative-imaging-of-the-internal-auditory-canal-visualization-of-active-auditory-implants-german-version
#10
I Todt, G Rademacher, P Mittmann, S Mutze, A Ernst
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and the cochlea is of central importance in neurotology. The artefacts and visibility of the different types of active auditory implants in MRI vary, due to their specific ferromagnetic components. Knowledge of the size of MRI artefacts and the options for handling these is important for the auditory rehabilitation of specific diseases (e. g., vestibular schwannoma). METHODS: The current paper is a literature review RESULTS: MRI assessment of the IAC and cochlea after surgical placement of an active auditory implant is feasible only with a percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA, Ponto)...
December 5, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921051/systemic-mastocytosis-causing-refractory-pruritus-in-a-liver-disease-patient
#11
Naga S Addepally, Jagpal S Klair, Mohit Girotra, Johnny Jones, Farshad Aduli
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from clonal, neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells. Patients become susceptible to itching, urticaria, and anaphylactic shock, which occurs due to histamine release from mast cells. SM may coexist alongside other systemic diseases, thus confounding the overall clinical presentation. We discuss a 23-year-old woman with refractory pruritus, which was initially attributed to primary sclerosing cholangitis but had a nonresponse to antihistaminics, ursodiol, and cholestyramine...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920870/pyle-disease-metaphyseal-dysplasia-presenting-in-two-adult-sisters
#12
Diego Ximenes Soares, Amália Mapurunga Almeida, André Rodrigues Façanha Barreto, Ilze Jucá Alencar E Silva, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Francisco José Magalhães Pinto, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar
Pyle's disease is an extremely rare skeletal disorder characterized by a benign course and an autosomal recessive genetic pattern of inheritance. Its causal mutation is still unknown. In the medical literature, fewer than 30 cases have been described to date. We report the case of two female siblings, daughters of consanguineous parents, referred to the radiology department complaining of genu valgum. Laboratory tests showed no other relevant findings. Conventional radiography plain films revealed Erlenmeyer flask deformity in bilateral femorotibial metaphyses, metaphyseal flaring of long bones, and mild sclerosis of the skull base...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920812/evaluation-of-the-bone-mineral-density-of-the-subjects-with-avascular-necrosis-of-hip-joint
#13
Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Nodoshan
BACKGROUND: The head of femur is deformed in subjects with Leg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD). It may be due to an increase in loads applied on the hip, decrease in hip joint containment and decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of femur. Unfortunately there is not enough evidence regarding BMD of femur in subjects with LCPD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate BMD in subjects with Perthes disease. METHOD: Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920806/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-a-review-of-clinical-appearance-and-metabolic-pattern
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Beltrami, Gabriele Ristori, Guido Scoccianti, Angela Tamburini, Rodolfo Capanna
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an inherited genetic condition characterized by the presence of multiple exostoses (osteochondromas). MHE is a relatively rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly caused by loss of function mutations in two genes: exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2). These genes are linked to heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis, but the specific molecular mechanism leading to the disruption of the cartilage structure and the consequent exostoses formation is still not resolved. The aim of this paper is to encounter the main aspects of HME reviewing the literature, in order to improve clinical features and evolution, and the metabolic-pathogenetic mechanisms underlying...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920801/implications-of-analgesics-use-in-osteoporotic-related-pain-treatment-focus-on-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Renato Vellucci, Consalvo Mattia, Ludovica Celidonio, Rocco Domenico Mediati
Bone loss is asymptomatic and will progress without pain and other symptoms until the occurrence of a fracture. The occurrence of a breaking bone induce acute pain determined and supported by a mechanical, inflammatory and neuropathic component. Very often the acute component evolves in a chronic musculoskeletal component. Overall objectives of the analgesic therapy can be summarized in pain relief, improving sleep, improve mobility, reduce anxiety, emotional component and depression. Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, more likely to have coexisting cardiovascular disease and age-related decline in renal function, receiving treatment for one or more comorbid conditions, taking multiple medications...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920702/esophageal-cancer-with-bone-marrow-hyperplasia-mimicking-bone-metastasis-report-of-a-case
#16
Hiromi Yasuda, Tadanobu Shimura, Masato Okigami, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Masaki Ohi, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiko Mohri, Masato Kusunoki
A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920699/asymptomatic-multiple-lymphomatous-polyposis-identified-during-staging-bidirectional-endoscopy-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#17
Sonja P Dawsey, Jason A Gregory, Alexander W Brown, Frances J Jones
Multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) as an extranodal manifestation of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in the gastrointestinal tract is rare and not often reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with asymptomatic MLP found during staging bidirectional endoscopy of MCL. The patient presented only with dyspnea, but was found on physical exam to have diffuse lymphadenopathy, and subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) CT showed extensive lymph node adenopathy consistent with lymphoma...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920680/mucocutaneous-ulcerations-and-pancytopenia-due-to-methotrexate-overdose
#18
Katharina Knoll, Florian Anzengruber, Antonio Cozzio, Lars E French, Carla Murer, Alexander A Navarini
Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolic drug used in the treatment of immune-mediated and neoplastic diseases. Initiation or dosage changes in MTX therapy can cause mucositis and bone marrow suppression. Skin lesions due to acute MTX toxicity are rare, but they serve as a herald for later-onset pancytopenia. Therefore, identification of those cutaneous lesions might help to initiate rescue strategies at an early stage. Here we describe a case with mucocutaneous ulcerations and pancytopenia due to overdosed MTX.
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920397/optimizing-combination-therapy-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-using-a-phenotypic-personalized-medicine-digital-health-platform-retrospective-optimization-individualizes-patient-regimens-to-maximize-efficacy-and-safety
#19
Dong-Keun Lee, Vivian Y Chang, Theodore Kee, Chih-Ming Ho, Dean Ho
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer that is characterized by the overproduction of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow. Treatment for pediatric ALL typically uses combination chemotherapy in phases, including a prolonged maintenance phase with oral methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine, which often requires dose adjustment to balance side effects and efficacy. However, a major challenge confronting combination therapy for virtually every disease indication is the inability to pinpoint drug doses that are optimized for each patient, and the ability to adaptively and continuously optimize these doses to address comorbidities and other patient-specific physiological changes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919908/targeting-the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis-in-multiple-myeloma-a-dream-or-a-reality
#20
Jacalyn Rosenblatt, David Avigan
PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is a negative regulator of immune activation that is up-regulated in multiple myeloma and is a critical component of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Expression is increased in advanced disease and in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade is associated with tumor regression in several malignancies but single agent activity is limited in myeloma patients. Combination therapy involving strategies to expand myeloma specific T cells and T cell activation via PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are currently being explored...
December 5, 2016: Blood
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