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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#1
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283598/leptomeningeal-gadolinium-enhancement-across-the-spectrum-of-chronic-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#2
Martina Absinta, Irene C M Cortese, Luisa Vuolo, Govind Nair, Manori P de Alwis, Joan Ohayon, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Andrea Falini, Bryan R Smith, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson, Massimo Filippi, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) on postcontrast T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory neurologic conditions assessed in 2 academic research hospitals. METHODS: On 3T postcontrast T2-FLAIR images, the presence of focal gadolinium enhancement was evaluated in the leptomeningeal compartment in 254 people with non-MS neurologic conditions or neurotropic viral infections...
March 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218748/hiv-tat-protein-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-form-multifibrillar-structures-that-cause-neurotoxicity
#3
Alina Hategan, Mario A Bianchet, Joseph Steiner, Elena Karnaukhova, Eliezer Masliah, Adam Fields, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Alex M Dickens, Norman Haughey, Emilios K Dimitriadis, Avindra Nath
Deposition of amyloid-β plaques is increased in the brains of HIV-infected individuals, and the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein affects amyloidogenesis through several indirect mechanisms. Here, we investigated direct interactions between Tat and amyloid-β peptide. Our in vitro studies showed that in the presence of Tat, uniform amyloid fibrils become double twisted fibrils and further form populations of thick unstructured filaments and aggregates. Specifically, Tat binding to the exterior surfaces of the Aβ fibrils increases β-sheet formation and lateral aggregation into thick multifibrillar structures, thus producing fibers with increased rigidity and mechanical resistance...
February 20, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202777/nodding-syndrome-may-be-an-autoimmune-reaction-to-the-parasitic-worm-onchocerca-volvulus
#4
Tory P Johnson, Richa Tyagi, Paul R Lee, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Kory R Johnson, Jeffrey Kowalak, Abdel Elkahloun, Marie Medynets, Alina Hategan, Joseph Kubofcik, James Sejvar, Jeffrey Ratto, Sudhir Bunga, Issa Makumbi, Jane R Aceng, Thomas B Nutman, Scott F Dowell, Avindra Nath
Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Using protein chip methodology, we detected autoantibodies to leiomodin-1 more abundantly in patients with nodding syndrome compared to unaffected controls from the same village...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108876/concordance-between-self-report-and-performance-based-measures-of-everyday-functioning-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#5
Talia N Shirazi, Angela C Summers, Bryan R Smith, Sally R Steinbach, Suad Kapetanovic, Avindra Nath, Joseph Snow
Self-report is typically used to differentiate between asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Yet, it is unclear whether the lack of self-reported functional impairments in individuals with ANI is indicative of a genuine absence of functional impairment, or of inaccurate self-reports. In the present study, we examined the relationship between previously validated self-report (patient's assessment of own functioning inventory; instrumental activities of daily living inventory) and performance-based (the Texas Functional Living Scale) measures of functional abilities in 112 virologically-controlled HIV-infected, and 40 well-matched, HIV-uninfected participants...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033311/cdc-grand-rounds-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-advancing-research-and-clinical-education
#6
Elizabeth R Unger, Jin-Mann Sally Lin, Dana J Brimmer, Charles W Lapp, Anthony L Komaroff, Avindra Nath, Susan Laird, John Iskander
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex and serious illness that is often misunderstood. Experts have noted that the terminology "chronic fatigue syndrome" can trivialize this illness and stigmatize persons who experience its symptoms (1). The name was coined by a group of clinicians convened by CDC in the late 1980s to develop a research case definition for the illness, which, at the time, was called chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome. The name CFS was suggested because of the characteristic persistent fatigue experienced by all those affected and the evidence that acute or reactivated Epstein-Barr virus infection was not associated with many cases (2)...
December 30, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786246/hiv-associated-opportunistic-cns-infections-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Lauren N Bowen, Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Quezado, Avindra Nath
Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781109/highlights-of-the-global-hiv-1-csf-escape-consortium-meeting-9-june-2016-bethesda-md-usa
#8
EDITORIAL
Jeymohan Joseph, Paola Cinque, Deborah Colosi, Ameet Dravid, Luminita Ene, Howard Fox, Dana Gabuzda, Magnus Gisslen, Sarah Beth Joseph, Scott Letendre, Shibani S Mukerji, Avindra Nath, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Deborah Persaud, Richard W Price, Vasudev R Rao, Ned Sacktor, Ronald Swanstrom, Alan Winston, Valerie Wojna, Edwina Wright, Serena Spudich
CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734166/the-emergence-of-neuroepidemiology-neurovirology-and-neuroimmunology-the-legacies-of-john-f-kurtzke-and-richard-dick-t-johnson
#9
Eric J Kildebeck, Ram Narayan, Avindra Nath, Howard Weiner, Shin Beh, Peter A Calabresi, Lawrence Steinman, Eugene O Major, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719663/astrocytes-as-an-hiv-reservoir-mechanism-of-hiv-infection
#10
Guan-Han Li, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4...
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664983/hiv-associated-motor-neuron-disease-herv-k-activation-and-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Lauren N Bowen, Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Tariq Alfahad, Bryan Smith, Mary Wright, Elyse J Singer, Avindra Nath
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in HIV infection and whether it might respond to treatment with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: In this case series, we present 5 patients with HIV infection who subsequently developed motor neuron disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons. We monitored HERV-K levels in plasma of 4 of these patients. RESULTS: Three patients who received antiretroviral therapy had reversal of symptoms within 6 months of onset of neurologic symptoms and the other 2 had slow neurologic progression over several years...
October 25, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412684/neurological-complications-of-ebola-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux, Bryan Smith, Avindra Nath
Ebola virus disease is one of the deadliest pathogens known to man, with a mortality rate between 25-90% depending on the species and outbreak of Ebola. Typically, it presents with fever, headache, voluminous vomiting and diarrhea, and can progress to a hemorrhagic illness; neurologic symptoms, including meningoencephalitis, seizures, and coma, can also occur. Recently, an outbreak occurred in West Africa, affecting > 28,000 people, and killing > 11,000. Owing to the magnitude of this outbreak, and the large number (>17,000) of Ebola survivors, the medical and scientific communities are learning much more about the acute manifestations and sequelae of Ebola...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388287/editorial
#13
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386505/arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-hiv-defining-and-classifying-etiology-for-research-studies
#14
Laura A Benjamin, Alan Bryer, Sebastian Lucas, Alan Stanley, Theresa J Allain, Elizabeth Joekes, Hedley Emsley, Ian Turnbull, Colin Downey, Cheng-Hock Toh, Kevin Brown, David Brown, Catherine Ison, Colin Smith, Elizabeth L Corbett, Avindra Nath, Robert S Heyderman, Myles D Connor, Tom Solomon
HIV infection, and potentially its treatment, increases the risk of an arterial ischemic stroke. Multiple etiologies and lack of clear case definitions inhibit progress in this field. Several etiologies, many treatable, are relevant to HIV-related stroke. To fully understand the mechanisms and the terminology used, a robust classification algorithm to help ascribe the various etiologies is needed. This consensus paper considers the strengths and limitations of current case definitions in the context of HIV infection...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365084/dedication-to-dr-richard-t-johnson
#15
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath, Diane E Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213175/a-link-between-long-term-natalizumab-dosing-in-ms-and-pml-putting-the-puzzle-together
#16
Eugene O Major, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095586/the-association-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-markers-of-inflammation-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-controlled-viremia
#17
Peter Siyahhan Julnes, Sungyoung Auh, Rebecca Krakora, Keenan Withers, Diana Nora, Lindsay Matthews, Sally Steinbach, Joseph Snow, Bryan Smith, Avindra Nath, Caryn Morse, Suad Kapetanovic
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with chronic immune dysregulation and a proinflammatory state. Among HIV-infected individuals, PTSD is associated with greater morbidity and mortality, but the association with immune dysfunction has not been evaluated. This study explores the association between PTSD and selected markers of inflammation and immune activation in a cohort of HIV-infected, virally-suppressed individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected adults who were virologically controlled on antiretroviral medications were recruited through a screening protocol for studies of HIV-related neurocognitive disorders...
July 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043004/severe-meningoencephalitis-in-a-case-of-ebola-virus-disease-a-case-report
#18
Daniel S Chertow, Avindra Nath, Anthony F Suffredini, Robert L Danner, Daniel S Reich, Rachel J Bishop, Richard W Childs, Andrew E Arai, Tara N Palmore, H Clifford Lane, Anthony S Fauci, Richard T Davey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714723/protocol-for-detection-of-hiv-tat-protein-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-a-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#19
Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transactivator of transcription (Tat) is a virally produced protein that is required for efficient viral replication. Once formed inside an infected cell, Tat is secreted into the extracellular space where it has pathophysiological consequences on cells it interacts with. Tat has been demonstrated to be neurotoxic and is produced even under the pressures of anti-retroviral therapy; therefore Tat is suspected to contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700901/cns-infections-in-2015-emerging-catastrophic-infections-and-new-insights-into-neuroimmunological-host-damage
#20
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Theodore E Nash, Kim C Williamson, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Lancet Neurology
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