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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786246/hiv-associated-opportunistic-cns-infections-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Lauren N Bowen, Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Quezado, Avindra Nath
Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781109/highlights-of-the-global-hiv-1-csf-escape-consortium-meeting-9-june-2016-bethesda-md-usa
#2
EDITORIAL
Jeymohan Joseph, Paola Cinque, Deborah Colosi, Ameet Dravid, Luminita Ene, Howard Fox, Dana Gabuzda, Magnus Gisslen, Sarah Beth Joseph, Scott Letendre, Shibani S Mukerji, Avindra Nath, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Deborah Persaud, Richard W Price, Vasudev R Rao, Ned Sacktor, Ronald Swanstrom, Alan Winston, Valerie Wojna, Edwina Wright, Serena Spudich
CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734166/the-emergence-of-neuroepidemiology-neurovirology-and-neuroimmunology-the-legacies-of-john-f-kurtzke-and-richard-dick-t-johnson
#3
Eric J Kildebeck, Ram Narayan, Avindra Nath, Howard Weiner, Shin Beh, Peter A Calabresi, Lawrence Steinman, Eugene O Major, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719663/astrocytes-as-an-hiv-reservoir-mechanism-of-hiv-infection
#4
Guan-Han Li, Lisa Henderson, Avindra Nath
If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4...
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664983/hiv-associated-motor-neuron-disease-herv-k-activation-and-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Lauren N Bowen, Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Tariq Alfahad, Bryan Smith, Mary Wright, Elyse J Singer, Avindra Nath
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in HIV infection and whether it might respond to treatment with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: In this case series, we present 5 patients with HIV infection who subsequently developed motor neuron disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons. We monitored HERV-K levels in plasma of 4 of these patients. RESULTS: Three patients who received antiretroviral therapy had reversal of symptoms within 6 months of onset of neurologic symptoms and the other 2 had slow neurologic progression over several years...
September 24, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412684/neurological-complications-of-ebola-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux, Bryan Smith, Avindra Nath
Ebola virus disease is one of the deadliest pathogens known to man, with a mortality rate between 25-90% depending on the species and outbreak of Ebola. Typically, it presents with fever, headache, voluminous vomiting and diarrhea, and can progress to a hemorrhagic illness; neurologic symptoms, including meningoencephalitis, seizures, and coma, can also occur. Recently, an outbreak occurred in West Africa, affecting > 28,000 people, and killing > 11,000. Owing to the magnitude of this outbreak, and the large number (>17,000) of Ebola survivors, the medical and scientific communities are learning much more about the acute manifestations and sequelae of Ebola...
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388287/editorial
#7
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386505/arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-hiv-defining-and-classifying-etiology-for-research-studies
#8
Laura A Benjamin, Alan Bryer, Sebastian Lucas, Alan Stanley, Theresa J Allain, Elizabeth Joekes, Hedley Emsley, Ian Turnbull, Colin Downey, Cheng-Hock Toh, Kevin Brown, David Brown, Catherine Ison, Colin Smith, Elizabeth L Corbett, Avindra Nath, Robert S Heyderman, Myles D Connor, Tom Solomon
HIV infection, and potentially its treatment, increases the risk of an arterial ischemic stroke. Multiple etiologies and lack of clear case definitions inhibit progress in this field. Several etiologies, many treatable, are relevant to HIV-related stroke. To fully understand the mechanisms and the terminology used, a robust classification algorithm to help ascribe the various etiologies is needed. This consensus paper considers the strengths and limitations of current case definitions in the context of HIV infection...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365084/dedication-to-dr-richard-t-johnson
#9
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath, Diane E Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213175/a-link-between-long-term-natalizumab-dosing-in-ms-and-pml-putting-the-puzzle-together
#10
Eugene O Major, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095586/the-association-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-markers-of-inflammation-and-immune-activation-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-controlled-viremia
#11
Peter Siyahhan Julnes, Sungyoung Auh, Rebecca Krakora, Keenan Withers, Diana Nora, Lindsay Matthews, Sally Steinbach, Joseph Snow, Bryan Smith, Avindra Nath, Caryn Morse, Suad Kapetanovic
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with chronic immune dysregulation and a proinflammatory state. Among HIV-infected individuals, PTSD is associated with greater morbidity and mortality, but the association with immune dysfunction has not been evaluated. This study explores the association between PTSD and selected markers of inflammation and immune activation in a cohort of HIV-infected, virally-suppressed individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected adults who were virologically controlled on antiretroviral medications were recruited through a screening protocol for studies of HIV-related neurocognitive disorders...
July 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043004/severe-meningoencephalitis-in-a-case-of-ebola-virus-disease-a-case-report
#12
Daniel S Chertow, Avindra Nath, Anthony F Suffredini, Robert L Danner, Daniel S Reich, Rachel J Bishop, Richard W Childs, Andrew E Arai, Tara N Palmore, H Clifford Lane, Anthony S Fauci, Richard T Davey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714723/protocol-for-detection-of-hiv-tat-protein-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-a-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#13
Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transactivator of transcription (Tat) is a virally produced protein that is required for efficient viral replication. Once formed inside an infected cell, Tat is secreted into the extracellular space where it has pathophysiological consequences on cells it interacts with. Tat has been demonstrated to be neurotoxic and is produced even under the pressures of anti-retroviral therapy; therefore Tat is suspected to contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700901/cns-infections-in-2015-emerging-catastrophic-infections-and-new-insights-into-neuroimmunological-host-damage
#14
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Theodore E Nash, Kim C Williamson, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692391/erratum-to-interaction-of-paroxetine-with-mitochondrial-proteins-mediates-neuroprotection
#15
Joseph P Steiner, Muznabanu Bachani, Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Tongguang Wang, Guanhan Li, Wenxue Li, David Strayer, Norman J Haughey, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26633776/neurologic-complications-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Avindra Nath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain common, despite effective antiretroviral treatment (ART). Neurologic manifestations may be due to opportunistic infection, immune reconstitution, or the virus itself, posing diagnostic challenges for the neurologist. Neurologists are also asked to comment on the use of immunomodulatory agents in these patients and to manage long-term complications, such as neurocognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathy or the associated comorbidities...
December 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26187022/central-nervous-system-infections-in-childhood
#17
Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26033855/mass-spectrometric-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-hiv-infected-brain-reveals-novel-phosphorylation-sites-and-differential-phosphorylation-patterns
#18
Lerna Uzasci, Sungyoung Auh, Robert J Cotter, Avindra Nath
PURPOSE: To map the phosphoproteome and identify changes in the phosphorylation patterns in the HIV-infected and uninfected brain. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Parietal cortex from individuals with and without HIV infection were lysed and trypsinized. The peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents, combined, phospho-enriched by titanium dioxide chromatography, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with high resolution. RESULTS: Our phosphoproteomic workflow resulted in the identification of 112 phosphorylated proteins and 17 novel phosphorylation sites in all the samples that were analyzed...
February 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25985398/cell-to-cell-contact-facilitates-hiv-transmission-from-lymphocytes-to-astrocytes-via-cxcr4
#19
Guan-Han Li, Caroline Anderson, Laura Jaeger, Thao Do, Eugene O Major, Avindra Nath
OBJECTIVES: HIV reservoir in the brain represents a major barrier for curing HIV infection. As the most abundant, long-lived cell type, astrocytes play a critical role in maintaining the reservoir; however, the mechanism of infection remains unknown. Here, we determine how viral transmission occurs from HIV-infected lymphocytes to astrocytes by cell-to-cell contact. DESIGN AND METHODS: Human astrocytes were exposed to HIV-infected lymphocytes and monitored by live-imaging, confocal microscopy, transmission and three-dimensional electron microscopy...
April 24, 2015: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25650990/direct-induction-of-human-neural-stem-cells-from-peripheral-blood-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells
#20
Tongguang Wang, Elliot Choi, Maria Chiara G Monaco, Eugene O Major, Marie Medynets, Avindra Nath
Human disease specific neuronal cultures are essential for generating in vitro models for human neurological diseases. However, the lack of access to primary human adult neural cultures raises unique challenges. Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an alternative approach to derive neural cultures from skin fibroblasts through patient specific iPSC, but this process is labor intensive, requires special expertise and large amounts of resources, and can take several months. This prevents the wide application of this technology to the study of neurological diseases...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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