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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709026/immunophenotypic-characterization-of-csf-b-cells-in-virus-associated-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#1
Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Shila Azodi, Bryan R Smith, Bridgette Jeanne Billioux, Ashley Vellucci, Nyater Ngouth, Yuetsu Tanaka, Joan Ohayon, Irene Cortese, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson
Intrathecal antibody synthesis is a well-documented phenomenon in infectious neurological diseases as well as in demyelinating diseases, but little is known about the role of B cells in the central nervous systems. We examined B cell and T cell immunophenotypes in CSF of patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) compared to healthy normal donors and subjects with the other chronic virus infection and/or neuroinflammatory diseases including HIV infection, multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604974/cns-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#2
Lauren Bowen, Avindra Nath, Bryan Smith
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) describes a syndrome of aberrant reconstituted immunity, often in association with HIV infection, beginning with a normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts resulting in a dysregulated immune response against an infecting opportunistic pathogen and the host. In this chapter, we discuss the unique nature of IRIS when present in the central nervous system (CNS IRIS) and the changes experienced with each host pathogen and its unique influence on the immune system. Consensus on the mechanism of action of the immune system in IRIS pathology is less clear and multiple theories have been proposed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582402/association-of-herpes-viral-infections-antiherpetic-therapy-and-dementia-real-or-alternative-fact
#3
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551251/human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-neurological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Patrick Küry, Avindra Nath, Alain Créange, Antonina Dolei, Patrice Marche, Julian Gold, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Hervé Perron
The causes of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have long remained elusive. A new category of pathogenic components, normally dormant within human genomes, has been identified: human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). These represent ∼8% of the human genome, and environmental factors have reproducibly been shown to trigger their expression. The resulting production of envelope (Env) proteins from HERV-W and HERV-K appears to engage pathophysiological pathways leading to the pathognomonic features of MS and ALS, respectively...
April 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547402/neurological-syndromes-driven-by-postinfectious-processes-or-unrecognized-persistent-infections
#5
Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system serves a critical role in protecting the host against various pathogens. However, under circumstances, once triggered by the infectious process, it may be detrimental to the host. This may be as a result of nonspecific immune activation or due to a targeted immune response to a specific host antigen. In this opinion piece, we discuss the underlying mechanisms that lead to such an inflammatory or autoimmune syndrome affecting the nervous system. We examine these hypotheses in the context of recent emerging infections to provide mechanistic insight into the clinical manifestations and rationale for immunomodulatory therapy...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075249/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-tdp-43-expression-bridges-als-and-hiv-neuropathology
#6
Renée N Douville, Avindra Nath
Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063516/paroxetine-and-fluconazole-therapy-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Ned Sacktor, Richard L Skolasky, Richard Moxley, Sheng Wang, Michelle M Mielke, Cynthia Munro, Joseph Steiner, Avindra Nath, Norman Haughey, Justin McArthur
Paroxetine and fluconazole have neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model of HIV protein-mediated neuronal injury. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of both paroxetine and fluconazole for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). A 24-week randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design study was used. HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment were enrolled in the 24-week trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) paroxetine 20 mg/day, (2) fluconazole 100 mg every 12 h, (3) paroxetine and fluconazole, or (4) placebo...
February 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959232/grand-challenges-in-neuroinfectious-diseases
#8
EDITORIAL
Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952036/therapeutic-approaches-for-zika-virus-infection-of-the-nervous-system
#9
Rachel P M Abrams, Jamie Solis, Avindra Nath
Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas and has caused devastation of human populations affected in these regions. The virus causes teratogenic effects involving the nervous system, and in adults and children can cause a neuropathy similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, an anterior myelitis, or, rarely, an encephalitis. While major efforts have been undertaken to control mosquito populations that spread the virus and to develop a vaccine, drug development that directly targets the virus in an infected individual to prevent or treat the neurological manifestations is necessary...
October 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715541/cerebrospinal-fluid-examination-in-survivors-of-ebola-virus-disease
#10
Bridgette Jeanne Billioux, Avindra Nath, Eric J Stavale, Joseph Dorbor, Mosoka P Fallah, Michael C Sneller, Bryan R Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655310/protease-activated-receptor-1-activation-by-granzyme-b-causes-neurotoxicity-that-is-augmented-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#11
Paul R Lee, Tory P Johnson, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Gavin Giovannoni, Tongguang Wang, Joseph P Steiner, Marie Medynets, Mark J Vaal, Valerie Gartner, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: The cause of neurodegeneration in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis is unknown. We investigated the impact of specific neuroinflammatory markers on human neurons to identify potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection against chronic inflammation. METHODS: Surface immunocytochemistry directly visualized protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptors on neurons in human postmortem cortex in patients with and without neuroinflammatory lesions...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641767/prehistoric-enemies-within-the-contribution-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-to-neurological-diseases-meeting-report-second-international-workshop-on-human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-disease-washington-dc-march-13th-and-14th-2017
#12
David Kremer, Robert Glanzman, Anthony Traboulsee, Avindra Nath, Laurent Groc, Marc Horwitz, Peter Göttle, Hervé Perron, Julian Gold, Hans-Peter Hartung, Patrick Küry
The Second International Workshop on Human Endogenous Retroviruses and Disease, Washington DC, March 13-14 2017 brought together international basic and clinical scientists investigating the involvement of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in complex human diseases.
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615427/acute-flaccid-myelitis-and-enterovirus-d68-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-all-over-again
#13
EDITORIAL
Max Wiznitzer, Avindra Nath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#14
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283598/leptomeningeal-gadolinium-enhancement-across-the-spectrum-of-chronic-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Martina Absinta, Irene C M Cortese, Luisa Vuolo, Govind Nair, Manori P de Alwis, Joan Ohayon, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Andrea Falini, Bryan R Smith, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson, Massimo Filippi, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) on postcontrast T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory neurologic conditions assessed in 2 academic research hospitals. METHODS: On 3T postcontrast T2-FLAIR images, the presence of focal gadolinium enhancement was evaluated in the leptomeningeal compartment in 254 people with non-MS neurologic conditions or neurotropic viral infections...
April 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218748/hiv-tat-protein-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-form-multifibrillar-structures-that-cause-neurotoxicity
#16
Alina Hategan, Mario A Bianchet, Joseph Steiner, Elena Karnaukhova, Eliezer Masliah, Adam Fields, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Alex M Dickens, Norman Haughey, Emilios K Dimitriadis, Avindra Nath
Deposition of amyloid-β plaques is increased in the brains of HIV-infected individuals, and the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein affects amyloidogenesis through several indirect mechanisms. Here, we investigated direct interactions between Tat and amyloid-β peptide. Our in vitro studies showed that in the presence of Tat, uniform amyloid fibrils become double twisted fibrils and further form populations of thick unstructured filaments and aggregates. Specifically, Tat binding to the exterior surfaces of the Aβ fibrils increases β-sheet formation and lateral aggregation into thick multifibrillar structures, thus producing fibers with increased rigidity and mechanical resistance...
April 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202777/nodding-syndrome-may-be-an-autoimmune-reaction-to-the-parasitic-worm-onchocerca-volvulus
#17
Tory P Johnson, Richa Tyagi, Paul R Lee, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Kory R Johnson, Jeffrey Kowalak, Abdel Elkahloun, Marie Medynets, Alina Hategan, Joseph Kubofcik, James Sejvar, Jeffrey Ratto, Sudhir Bunga, Issa Makumbi, Jane R Aceng, Thomas B Nutman, Scott F Dowell, Avindra Nath
Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Using protein chip methodology, we detected autoantibodies to leiomodin-1 more abundantly in patients with nodding syndrome compared to unaffected controls from the same village...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108876/concordance-between-self-report-and-performance-based-measures-of-everyday-functioning-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
Talia N Shirazi, Angela C Summers, Bryan R Smith, Sally R Steinbach, Suad Kapetanovic, Avindra Nath, Joseph Snow
Self-report is typically used to differentiate between asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Yet, it is unclear whether the lack of self-reported functional impairments in individuals with ANI is indicative of a genuine absence of functional impairment, or of inaccurate self-reports. In the present study, we examined the relationship between previously validated self-report (patient's assessment of own functioning inventory; instrumental activities of daily living inventory) and performance-based (the Texas Functional Living Scale) measures of functional abilities in 112 virologically-controlled HIV-infected, and 40 well-matched, HIV-uninfected participants...
July 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033311/cdc-grand-rounds-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-advancing-research-and-clinical-education
#19
Elizabeth R Unger, Jin-Mann Sally Lin, Dana J Brimmer, Charles W Lapp, Anthony L Komaroff, Avindra Nath, Susan Laird, John Iskander
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex and serious illness that is often misunderstood. Experts have noted that the terminology "chronic fatigue syndrome" can trivialize this illness and stigmatize persons who experience its symptoms (1). The name was coined by a group of clinicians convened by CDC in the late 1980s to develop a research case definition for the illness, which, at the time, was called chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome. The name CFS was suggested because of the characteristic persistent fatigue experienced by all those affected and the evidence that acute or reactivated Epstein-Barr virus infection was not associated with many cases (2)...
December 30, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786246/hiv-associated-opportunistic-cns-infections-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Lauren N Bowen, Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Quezado, Avindra Nath
Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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