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Hippocampal neurogenesis

Bing Chun Yan, Dan Jiang, Jie Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Pei Xu, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Aging is an inevitable process which results in many changes. These changes are closely related to the hippocampus which is in charge of long-term learning and episodic memory. AIM: This study was to investigate age-related changes of the cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and Akt/mTOR signaling in the hippocampal alveus of aged mice. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the differences of neurogenesis in the hippocampal alveus between adult (postnatal month 6) and aged (postnatal month 24) mice using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
October 13, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Bhavana Muralidharan, Marc Keruzore, Saurabh J Pradhan, Basabdatta Roy, Ashwin S Shetty, Veena Kinare, Leora D'Souza, Upasana Maheshwari, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Agasthya Suresh, Sanjeev Galande, Eric J Bellefroid, Shubha Tole
Regulation of the neuron-glia cell fate switch is a critical step in the development of the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bing Chun Yan, Hui Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Jie Wang, Pei Xu, Dan Jiang, Xing Yu
Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed to treat certain types of seizures. Few studies have investigated the effects of LEV on hippocampal neurogenesis and its related mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LEV on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We here demonstrate a dose-dependent increase in Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the DG in LEV-treated mice, and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were also significantly increased in the hippocampal DG of mice treated with LEV...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Atsushi Sawamoto, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Takashi Yamada, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
We previously reported that the subcutaneous administration of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxyflavone, attenuated depressive-like behavior and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a corticosterone-induced depression-like mouse model. We herein demonstrated that (1) HMF was detectable in the brain 10 and 30 min after its oral administration, (2) orally administered HMF improved chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced pathological conditions, including body weight loss and depressive-like behavior, and CUMS-induced neurochemical changes, such as reduction in BDNF expression, decrease in neurogenesis, and decreased level of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus, and (3) these effects of HMF were inhibited by the pre-administration of U0126, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hai-Hui Zhou, Li Zhang, Hai-Xia Zhang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Wei-Hong Ge
Transient global ischemia (TGI) is a major public health problem, and it heightens the need of effective treatments. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether recombinant polypeptide Tat-HA-NR2B9c improves spatial learning and memory deficits in rats after TGI. Rats were subjected to 20-min ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method and daily injected with Tat-HA-NR2B9c (1.12 mg/kg) for 1 week. Tat-HA-NR2B9c increased CREB activity, upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression after treated for 24 h...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
M Bolós, J R Perea, J Terreros-Roncal, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Microglia are immune cells that play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis. Among the mechanisms of communication between microglia and neurons, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis exerts a central modulatory role. Animals lacking CX3CR1 microglial receptor (CX3CR1-/- mice) exhibit marked alterations not only in microglia but also in neurons located in various regions of the brain. Here we show that microglial depletion of CX3CR1 leads to the deficient synaptic integration of adult-born granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), both at the afferent and efferent level...
October 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Dong Li, Shu-Zhuo Zhang, Yu-Hong Yao, Yun Xiang, Xiao-Yun Ma, Xiao-Li Wei, Hai-Tao Yan, Xiao-Yan Liu
INTRODUCTION: Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) are unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that have been implicated in both neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Sig-1R plays a role in neuroprotection and axon outgrowth. The underlying mechanisms of Sig-1R-mediated neuroprotection have been well elucidated. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of Sig-1R on axon outgrowth are not fully understood. METHODS: To clarify this issue, we utilized immunofluorescence to compare the axon lengths of cultured naïve hippocampal neurons before and after the application of the Sig-1R agonist, SA4503...
October 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Alireza Komaki, Sara Soleimani Asl, Siamak Shahidi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving synaptic loss and impairments in learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic function is a model of learning- and memory-related neural plasticity, of which serotonin (5-HT) is a key modulator in the hippocampus. As the 5-HT7 receptor subtype is implicated in hippocampal neuronal function, dendritic rearrangement, and neurogenesis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 5-HT7 receptor activation on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in a rat model of AD...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Biao Li, Amanda Sierra, Juan Jose Deudero, Fatih Semerci, Andrew Laitman, Marek Kimmel, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the process of formation of new neurons, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus. New neurons have been associated with learning and memory as well as mood control, and impaired neurogenesis has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and cognitive decline during aging. Thus, understanding the biological properties of adult neurogenesis has important implications for human health. Computational models of neurogenesis have attempted to derive biologically relevant knowledge, hard to achieve using experimentation...
October 3, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Brashket Seth, Anuradha Yadav, Swati Agarwal, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi
The widely used carbamate pesticide carbofuran causes neurophysiological and neurobehavioral deficits in rodents and humans and therefore poses serious health hazards around the world. Previously, we reported that gestational carbofuran exposure has detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from neural stem cells (NSC), in offspring. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for carbofuran-impaired neurogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we observed that chronic carbofuran exposure from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21 altered expression of genes and transcription factors and levels of proteins involved in neurogenesis and the TGF-β pathway (i...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Danka A Kozareva, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan, Yvonne M Nolan
Adolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences and the surrounding environment can have profound effects on the brain. Neurogenesis is a neurodevelopmental process of generating functional neurons from neural stem cells. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain...
October 3, 2017: Hippocampus
Timal S Kannangara, Marc A Vani
Neurogenesis, a process through which new neurons are generated from neural stem cells (NSCs), occurs in two regions in the adult brain: the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Ciarán S Ó'Léime, Danka A Kozareva, Alan E Hoban, Caitriona M Long-Smith, John F Cryan, Yvonne M Nolan
Hippocampal neurogenesis is a lifelong process whereby new neurons are produced and integrate into the host circuitry within the hippocampus. It is regulated by a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic regulators and is believed to contribute to certain hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks. Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognition have been demonstrated to be impaired after increases in the levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus, such as that which occurs in various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders...
September 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Anna K Engstrom, Zhengui Xia
Lead is a neurotoxicant of immense public health importance. Epidemiology studies suggest that heavy metal exposure may be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, yet few studies to date have assessed the effect of adult lead exposure on cognitive behavior in animal models. Here, we exposed 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice to 0.2% lead acetate via drinking water for 12 weeks starting at 6 weeks of age and then assessed for deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Fabio Gualtieri, Catherine Brégère, Grace C Laws, Elena A Armstrong, Nicholas J Wylie, Theo T Moxham, Raphael Guzman, Timothy Boswell, Tom V Smulders
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chong Gao, Xingmiao Chen, Aimin Xu, Kenneth Cheng, Jiangang Shen
Adaptor proteins containing the pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPLs) are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in regulating many biological activities and processes. The newly identified metabolic factor APPL2 showed the potentials to modulate cell growth, but whether APPL2 could affect adult neurogenesis and animal mood behaviors remains unknown. In the present study, APPL2 transgenic (Tg) mice and wild-type littermates were used for testing our hypothesis that APPL2 could affect glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling and modulate hippocampal neurogenesis, which contributes to depressive and anxiety behaviors...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Aarthi R Gobinath, Robin J Richardson, Carmen Chow, Joanna L Workman, Stephanie E Lieblich, Alasdair M Barr, Liisa A M Galea
Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers. Unfortunately, treatment options for postpartum depression are limited. Pharmacological antidepressants such as fluoxetine (FLX) can be controversial due to inconclusive evidence of efficacy during the postpartum and concerns of neonatal exposure to antidepressants. Alternatively, non-pharmacological antidepressants such as exercise may be less controversial but its efficacy in postpartum depression is unclear. To investigate this, we treated rat dams daily with high levels of corticosterone (CORT; 40 mg/kg), to induce a depressive-like phenotype, or oil (vehicle for CORT) during the postpartum period...
September 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Kaori Yagishita, Ritsuko Suzuki, Shota Mizuno, Ritsuko Katoh-Semba, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi, Yo Shinoda
Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is observed in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), and is associated with hippocampal memory formation and several psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a candidate gene related to ASD, and is highly expressed in the hippocampal DG region, with Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibiting ASD-like behavior. Accordingly, CAPS2 is potentially associated with hippocampal adult neurogenesis, the relationship between CAPS2 and adult neurogenesis has not yet been investigated...
September 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Molly M Hyer, Sabina Khantsis, Andrew C Venezia, Farrah N Madison, Luke Hallgarth, Enoch Adekola, Erica R Glasper
In many biparental species, mothers and fathers experience similar modifications to circulating hormones. With these modifications come alterations in neural structure and function suggesting that neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie postpartum plasticity in both males and females. In the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), adult neurogenesis is maintained and anxiety-like behavior is attenuated in fathers during the mid-postpartum period. Given a causal relationship between estrogen and regulation of both adult neurogenesis and anxiety, we aimed to elucidate the role of estrogen-dependent mechanisms in paternal experience-related modifications to hippocampal neuroplasticity in California mice...
September 30, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Ada Maria Krzak, Jenny Jia Ling Cao, Mark Agius, Cyril Hoschl
Depression is characterized by atrophy in several brain structures, with the hippocampus seemingly particularly affected. A wide variety of cellular mechanisms have been proposed for these structural modifications, including the regression of dendritic branching. While neurogenesis alone appears inadequate to produce such marked changes, an altered rate is likely to affect hippocampal function. There is also strong evidence for neurotransmitter and glucocorticoid-mediated effects on neurogenesis, providing routes for the action of antidepressants...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
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