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Hippocampal neurogenesis

Josh Allen, Raquel Romay-Tallon, Kyle J Brymer, Hector J Caruncho, Lisa E Kalynchuk
Human and animal studies suggest an intriguing link between mitochondrial diseases and depression. Although depression has historically been linked to alterations in monoaminergic pharmacology and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new data increasingly implicate broader forms of dampened plasticity, including plasticity within the cell. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, and they also regulate brain function through oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this paper, we make the case that mitochondrial dysfunction could play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Pedro Baptista, José P Andrade
The formation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as one of the major findings in neuroanatomical research. The hippocampal formation (HF), one of the main targets of these investigations, holds a neurogenic niche widely recognized among several mammalian species and whose existence in the human brain has sparked controversy and extensive debate. Many cellular features from this region emphasize that hippocampal neurogenesis suffers changes with normal aging and, among regulatory factors, physical exercise and chronic stress provoke opposite effects on cell proliferation, maturation and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tomás Armenteros, Zoraida Andreu, Rafael Hortigüela, D Chichung Lie, Helena Mira
Neuronal production from neural stem cells persists during adulthood in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Extracellular signals provided by the hippocampal microenvironment regulate the neuronal fate commitment of the stem cell progeny. To date, the identity of those signals and their crosstalk has been only partially resolved. Here we show that adult rat hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cells (AH-NSPCs) express receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and that the BMP/P-Smad pathway is active in AH-NSPCs undergoing differentiation towards the neuronal lineage...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bryon M Smith, Xinyue Yao, Kelly S Chen, Elizabeth D Kirby
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuka Koyama, Takao Mukuda, Sawako Hamasaki, Hironobu Nakane, Toshiyuki Kaidoh
Angiotensin II (Ang II) synthesized in response to body fluid loss caused by actions such as sweating and breathing is today considered as one of the essential factors for promoting hippocamal neurogenesis. Because heat-stimuli, along with exercise, increases systemic levels of Ang II, the effects of short-term heat exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis were examined in adult male rats. When rats were exposed daily to a 1 h heat treatment (36.0 ± 0.1°C) during a 7 d experimental period, the number of doublecortin-immunoreactive newborn cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased approximately 1...
June 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Diana M Sama, Shaun W Carlson, Binoy Joseph, Stefanie Saenger, Friedrich Metzger, Kathryn E Saatman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury can result in lasting cognitive dysfunction due to degeneration of mature hippocampal neurons as well as the loss of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus. While endogenous neurogenesis affords a partial recovery of the immature neuron population, hippocampal neurogenesis may be enhanced through therapeutic intervention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has the potential to improve cognitive function and promote neurogenesis after TBI, but its short half-life in the systemic circulation makes it difficult to maintain a therapeutic concentration...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Jeremy D Hill, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Sachin Gajghate, Malika Winfield, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2 R). The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Vinay Lanke, S T R Moolamalla, Dipanjan Roy, P K Vinod
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder contributing to rapid decline in cognitive function and ultimately dementia. Most cases of AD occur in elderly and later years. There is a growing need for understanding the relationship between aging and AD to identify shared and unique hallmarks associated with the disease in a region and cell-type specific manner. Although genomic studies on AD have been performed extensively, the molecular mechanism of disease progression is still not clear. The major objective of our study is to obtain a higher-order network-level understanding of aging and AD, and their relationship using the hippocampal gene expression profiles of young (20-50 years), aging (70-99 years), and AD (70-99 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Neurosurgery
Joana Figueiro-Silva, Desireé Antequera, Consuelo Pascual, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Huayqui Volt, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Eva Carro
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a unique process in neurobiology that requires functional integration of newly generated neurons, which may disrupt existing hippocampal network connections and consequently loss of established memories. As neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal neurogenesis and memory dysfunctions are increasing, the identification of new anti-aging drugs is required. In adult mice, we found that melatonin, a well-established neurogenic hormone, and the melatonin analog 2-(2-(5-methoxy-1 H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (IQM316) were able to induce hippocampal neurogenesis, measured by neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
S Ray, M J Corenblum, A Anandhan, A Reed, F O Ortiz, D D Zhang, C A Barnes, L Madhavan
Redox mechanisms are emerging as essential to stem cell function given their capacity to influence a number of important signaling pathways governing stem cell survival and regenerative activity. In this context, our recent work identified the reduced expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, or Nrf2, in mediating the decline in subventricular zone neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) regeneration during aging. Since Nrf2 is a major transcription factor at the heart of cellular redox regulation and homeostasis, the current study investigates the role that it may play in the aging of NSPCs that reside within the other major mammalian germinal niche located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Ping Sun, Gabriela Ortega, Yan Tan, Qian Hua, Peter F Riederer, Jürgen Deckert, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer
Rats intracerebroventricularily (icv) treated with streptozotocin (STZ), shown to generate an insulin resistant brain state, were used as an animal model for the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Previously, we showed in an in vivo study that 3 months after STZ icv treatment hippocampal adult neurogenesis (AN) is impaired. In the present study, we examined the effects of STZ on isolated adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) using an in vitro approach. We revealed that 2.5 mM STZ inhibits the proliferation of NSCs as indicated by reduced number and size of neurospheres as well as by less BrdU-immunoreactive NSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Han Yin, Sai Tian, Rong Huang, Rongrong Cai, Dan Guo, Hongyan Lin, Jiaqi Wang, Shaohua Wang
Background: Metabolic disturbances, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, are thought to be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether adipokine leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR) levels are correlated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic status of the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Total of 169 T2DM patients were recruited and divided according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Their cognition and metabolic parameters were extensively assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Farah Chamaa, Hisham F Bahmad, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Reda M Chalhoub, Elie D Al-Chaer, George B Bikhazi, Ziad Nahas, Wassim Abou-Kheir
The identification of distinct and more efficacious antidepressant treatments is highly needed. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist that has been reported to exhibit antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) patients. Yet, no studies have investigated the effects of sub-anesthetic dosages of N2 O on hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult brain rats. In our study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to single or multiple exposures to mixtures of 70% N2 O and 30% oxygen (O2 )...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jennifer Stefani, Olga Tschesnokowa, Marta Parrilla, Bernard Robaye, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Amparo Acker-Palmer, Herbert Zimmermann, Kristine Gampe
In mammalian species, including humans, the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a primary region of adult neurogenesis. Aberrant adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with neurological pathologies. Understanding the cellular mechanisms controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to open new therapeutic strategies for mental disorders. Microglia is intimately associated with neural progenitor cells in the hippocampal DG and has been implicated, under varying experimental conditions, in the control of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural precursor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Verónica López-Virgen, Nereida Ibarra-Castaneda
Facial vibrissae, commonly known as whiskers, are the main sensitive tactile system in rodents. Whisker stimulation triggers neuronal activity that promotes neural plasticity in the barrel cortex (BC) and helps create spatial maps in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, activity-dependent inputs and calcium homeostasis modulate adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the neuronal activity of the BC possibly regulates hippocampal functions and neurogenesis. To assess whether tactile information from facial whiskers may modulate hippocampal functions and neurogenesis, we permanently eliminated whiskers in CD1 male mice and analyzed the effects in cellular composition, molecular expression and memory processing in the adult hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hai-Xia Jiang, Bo-Wen Ke, Jin Liu, Gang Ma, Ke-Rong Hai, De-Ying Gong, Zheng Yang, Cheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is often associated with depression. Enhancing endocannabinoids by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors relieves neuropathic pain and stress-induced depressive-like behaviors in animal models. However, it is unclear whether FAAH inhibitor can relieve neuropathic pain-induced depression by or not by its antinociceptive effects. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve were treated with the systemic FAAH inhibitor URB597 (5...
May 31, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hiroshi Tawarayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Lars Karlsson, María Nazareth González-Alvarado, Mar Larrosa-Flor, Ahmed Osman, Mats Börjesson, Klas Blomgren, Hans Georg Kuhn
Physical exercise can improve morphological outcomes after ischemic stroke and ameliorate irradiation-induced reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. The transcription factor PGC-1α is considered to be one of the central factors responsible for exercise-induced benefits in skeletal muscle, including the release of neurotrophic factors into the circulation. In order to test if PGC-1α overexpression in skeletal muscle could simulate the exercise-induced effects on recovery after cranial irradiation and stroke, we used male adult transgenic mice overexpressing murine PGC-1α under the control of muscle creatinine kinase promoter and subjected them to either whole brain irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy or photothrombotic stroke to the sensory motor cortex...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience
Naoya Murao, Shuzo Matsubara, Taito Matsuda, Hirofumi Noguchi, Tetsuji Mutoh, Masahiro Mutoh, Haruhiko Koseki, Masakazu Namihira, Kinichi Nakashima
Adult neurogenesis is a process of generating new neurons from neural stem/precursor cells (NS/PCs) in restricted adult brain regions throughout life. It is now generally known that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone participates in various higher brain functions, such as learning and memory formation, olfactory discrimination and repair after brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully understood. Here, we show that Nuclear protein 95 KDa (Np95, also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90), which is an essential protein for maintaining DNA methylation during cell division, is involved in multiple processes of adult neurogenesis...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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