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Hippocampal neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#1
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734998/oxidative-stress-with-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-memory-impaired-1-2-diacetylbenzene-treated-mice
#2
Sin-Woo Kang, Sung Jin Kim, Min-Sun Kim
Long-term exposure to organic solvent may be related to the incidence of neuronal diseases, such as, Alzheimer's disease, depression, multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinson's disease. Previously, the authors reported 1,2-diacetylbenzene (DAB; a neurotoxic metabolite of 1,2-diethylbenzene) causes central and peripheral neuropathies that lead to motor neuronal deficits. Furthermore, it is known DAB increases oxidative stress and protein adduct levels and impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. The authors examined the relevance of oxidative stress and tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730838/adult-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-from-a-perspective-of-discrimination-and-generalization-a-hypothesis
#3
A Pistikova, H Brozka, A Stuchlik
The function of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is not yet completely understood, though many competing theories have attempted to explain the function of these newly-generated neurons. Most theories give adult neurogenesis a role in aiding known hippocampal/dentate gyrus functions. Other theories offer a novel role for these new cells based on their unique physiological qualities, such as their low excitability threshold. Many behavioral tests have been used to test these theories, but results have been inconsistent and often contradictory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730828/the-effect-of-hypertension-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-young-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-and-dahl-rats
#4
A Pistikova, H Brozka, M Bencze, D Radostova, K Vales, A Stuchlik
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few places in the brain where neurogenesis occurs in adulthood. Nowadays, an increasing number of children and young adults are affected by hypertension, one of the factors in the development of cerebrovascular diseases and age-related cognitive deficits. Since these cognitive deficits are often hippocampus-dependent, it is possible that hypertension exerts this effect via decreasing adult neurogenesis which has been shown to be essential for a range of cognitive tasks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715454/reduction-of-cav1-3-channels-in-dorsal-hippocampus-impairs-the-development-of-dentate-gyrus-newborn-neurons-and-hippocampal-dependent-memory-tasks
#5
Su-Hyun Kim, Ye-Ryoung Park, Boyoung Lee, Byungil Choi, Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim
Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO) of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB) filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714403/gsk3-inhibitors-in-the-therapeutic-development-of-diabetes-cancer-and-neurodegeneration-past-present-and-future
#6
Mudasir Maqbool, Nasimul Hoda
GSK3 has gained a considerable attention of researchers in the late 1970s as an inevitable drug target to treat diabetes. Furthermore, it was found to have a key role in the development of diseases like cancer and neurodegeneration (ND). A broad spectrum of GSK3 inhibitors have been discovered from time to time in order to curb these diseases. Inhibition of GSK3 by insulin boosts the dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase, hence its activation to convert UDP glucose into glycogen. Lack of insulin and insulin-resistance is supposed to be the cause of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes mellitus)...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713955/altered-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-newborn-neurons-associated-with-recurrence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-rats
#7
Tian-Tian Liu, Li Feng, Heng-Fang Liu, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao
Hippocampal neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may result in alteration of the excitability of neurons, which contributes to spontaneous recurrent seizures. Axon initial segment (AIS) structural and functional plasticity is important in the control of neuronal excitability. It remains to be elucidated whether the plasticity of AIS occurs in hippocampal newly‑generated neurons that are involved in recurrent seizures following pilocarpine‑induced status epilepticus (SE). The present study first established a pilocarpine‑induced TLE rat model to assess the features of newborn neurons and AIS plasticity alterations using double immunofluorescence staining of Ankyrin G and doublecortin (DCX)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713248/deep-brain-magnetic-stimulation-promotes-neurogenesis-and-restores-cholinergic-activity-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Jian Fu, Ruijun Su, Haiting An, Wei Wang, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline of memory and cognitive functions. Deep magnetic stimulation (DMS), a noninvasive and nonpharmacological brain stimulation, has been reported to alleviate stress-related cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Our previous study also discovered the preventive effect of DMS on cognitive decline in an AD mouse model. However, the underlying mechanism must be explored further. In this study, we investigated the effect of DMS on spatial learning and memory functions, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as expression and activity of the cholinergic system in a transgenic mouse model of AD (5XFAD)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713247/divergent-roles-of-central-serotonin-in-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Ning-Ning Song, Ying Huang, Xin Yu, Bing Lang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lei Zhang
The central serotonin (5-HT) system is the main target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line antidepressants widely used in current general practice. One of the prominent features of chronic SSRI treatment in rodents is the enhanced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which has been proposed to contribute to antidepressant effects. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to decipher how central 5-HT regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review how changes in the central serotonergic system alter adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#10
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#11
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700628/asiatic-acid-protects-against-cognitive-deficits-and-reductions-in-cell-proliferation-and-survival-in-the-rat-hippocampus-caused-by-5-fluorouracil-chemotherapy
#12
Pornthip Chaisawang, Apiwat Sirichoat, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai, Peter Wigmore, Jariya Umka Welbat
The chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in cancer patients. The drug also reduces cell proliferation and survival in the brain. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene compound found in Centella asiatica that can protect against reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus and memory deficits induced by valproic acid (VPA). In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of AA on the deficits in spatial working memory and cell proliferation and survival caused by 5-FU chemotherapy in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699310/the-effects-of-seh-inhibitor-on-depression-like-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-male-mice
#13
Qiong Wu, Hongyang Cai, Jingfang Song, Quanzhong Chang
Currently antidepressants take several weeks to be effective, which is one of the main reasons why patients with depression quit therapy. In the present study, we examine the acute and subacute effects of soluble epoxide hydolase (sEH) inhibitor (sEHI), a compound shown to have antidepressant effects, on mice. We found that acute administration of sEHI TPPU decreases immobility time in the forced swimming test and reduces latency to feed in the novelty suppressed-feeding test in adult male mice. Intraperitoneal administration of TPPU for seven days also increased interaction time of socially defeated mice in the social defeat test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#14
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690140/new-neurons-in-adult-brain-distribution-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Annachiara Pino, Guido Fumagalli, Francesco Bifari, Ilaria Decimo
"Are new neurons added in the adult mammalian brain?" "Do neural stem cells activate following CNS diseases?" "How can we modulate their activation to promote recovery?" Recent findings in the field provide novel insights for addressing these questions from a new perspective. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell niches in healthy and pathological conditions. We will first overview the milestones that have led to the discovery of the classical ventricular and hippocampal neural stem cell niches...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690138/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-evidence-and-possible-mechanism-of-neurogenesis
#16
Wen-Ting Yang, Xia-Wei Zheng, Shuang Chen, Chun-Shuo Shan, Qing-Qing Xu, Jia-Zhen Zhu, Xiao-Yi Bao, Yan Lin, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Wang
Currently, there is lack of cure or disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is purported to ameliorate AD progression, perhaps by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for AD based on high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviewed its possible mechanisms of neurogenesis according to animal-based researches. Twenty eligible studies with 1,767 subjects were identified in eight database searches from inception to February 2017...
July 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688903/differential-effects-between-developmental-and-postpubertal-exposure-to-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-on-progenitor-cell-proliferation-of-rat-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-relation-to-cox2-expression-in-granule-cells
#17
Yousuke Watanabe, Kota Nakajima, Sayaka Mizukami, Yumi Akahori, Nobuya Imatanaka, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
This study was performed to compare the exposure effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a cytocidal agent of proliferating cells, on rat hippocampal neurogenesis between developmental and postpubertal periods. Developmental exposure through maternal drinking water from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery on weaning decreased GFAP-immunoreactive ((+)) stem cells and increased immunoreactive cells indicative of subsequent progenitor and postmitotic immature neuronal populations, TUNEL(+) or p21(Cip1/Waf1+) stem/progenitor cells and COX2(+) granule cells, on postnatal day (PND) 21...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687505/xiaochaihutang-attenuates-depressive-anxiety-like-behaviors-of-social-isolation-reared-mice-by-regulating-monoaminergic-system-neurogenesis-and-bdnf-expression
#18
Jie Ma, Fang Wang, Jingyu Yang, Yingxu Dong, Guangyue Su, Kuo Zhang, Xing Pan, Ping Ma, Tingshuo Zhou, Chunfu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686814/early-survival-and-delayed-death-of-developmentally-born-dentate-gyrus-neurons
#19
Shaina P Cahill, Ru Qi Yu, Dylan Green, Evgenia V Todorova, Jason S Snyder
The storage and persistence of memories depends on plasticity in the hippocampus. Adult neurogenesis produces new neurons that mature through critical periods for plasticity and cellular survival, which determine their contributions to learning and memory. However, most granule neurons are generated prior to adulthood; the maturational timecourse of these neurons is poorly understood compared to adult-born neurons, but is essential to identify how the dentate gyrus, as a whole, contributes to behavior. To characterize neurons born in the early postnatal period, we labeled dentate gyrus neurons born on postnatal day 6 (P6) with BrdU and quantified maturation and survival across early (1 hour to 8 weeks old) and late (2-6 months old) cell ages...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685906/a-morphology-independent-approach-for-identifying-dividing-adult-neural-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#20
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Sabrina Oishi, Thomas H Burne, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, Michael Piper
Background Type 1 adult hippocampal neural stem cells (AH-NSCs) continue to generate neurons throughout life, albeit at a very low rate. The relative quiescence of this population of cells has led to many studies investigating factors that may increase their division. Current methods of identifying dividing AH-NSCs in vivo require the identification and tracing of radial processes back to nuclei within the subgranular zone. However, caveats to this approach include the time-intensive nature of identifying AH-NSCs with such a process, as well as the fact that this approach ignores the relatively more active population of horizontally oriented AH-NSCs that also reside in the subgranular zone...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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