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Hippocampal neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811227/the-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-selectively-impairs-reversal-learning-while-sparing-prior-learning-new-learning-and-episodic-memory
#1
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Lawrence M Carey, Alexandra E Smith, Meredith Gentry, Christina M Sluka, Hannah E Corbin, Jie-En Wu, Andrea G Hohmann, Jonathon D Crystal
Chemotherapy is widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of cancer therapies is frequently undermined by adverse side effects that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment across a variety of domains including memory, learning, and attention. In the current study, the impact of paclitaxel, a taxane derived chemotherapeutic agent, on episodic memory, prior learning, new learning, and reversal learning were evaluated in rats...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808237/coding-and-small-non-coding-transcriptional-landscape-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-cortical-tubers-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#2
James D Mills, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anika Bongaarts, Jasper J Anink, Bart Janssen, Till S Zimmer, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Floor E Jansen, Martha Feucht, Johannes A Hainfellner, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Katarzyna Kotulska, Sergiusz Jozwiak, Anna Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Paolo Curatolo, David J Kwiatkowski, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Lars von Oerthel, Marco F Hoekman, Jan A Gorter, Peter B Crino, Angelika Mühlebner, Brendon P Scicluna, Eleonora Aronica
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that results from a mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes leading to constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC is associated with autism, intellectual disability and severe epilepsy. Cortical tubers are believed to represent the neuropathological substrates of these disabling manifestations in TSC. In the presented study we used high-throughput RNA sequencing in combination with systems-based computational approaches to investigate the complexity of the TSC molecular network...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804449/loss-of-leptin-induced-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-trasmission-and-signal-transduction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Marco Mainardi, Matteo Spinelli, Federico Scala, Andrea Mattera, Salvatore Fusco, Marcello D'Ascenzo, Claudio Grassi
Hippocampal plasticity is triggered by a variety of stimuli including sensory inputs, neurotrophins and inflammation. Leptin, whose primary function is to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, has been recently shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Interestingly, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibit impaired hippocampal function, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we compared leptin responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in control and HFD-fed mice by combining single-cell electrophysiology and biochemical assays...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801114/effects-of-curcumin-on-short-term-spatial-and-recognition-memory-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#4
Taysa B Bassani, Joelle M Turnes, Eric L R Moura, Jéssica M Bonato, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with evidence of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Recent evidence also suggests that curcumin increases cognitive performance in animal models of dementia, and this effect would be related to its capacity to enhance adult neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that curcumin treatment would be able to preserve cognition by increasing neurogenesis and decreasing neuroinflammation in the model of dementia of Alzheimer's type induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in Wistar rats...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800956/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-is-it-the-alpha-and-omega-of-antidepressant-action
#5
REVIEW
Hoda Eliwa, Catherine Belzung, Alexandre Surget
It is now well established that all clinically available antidepressants share a common aptitude: they increase the production of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This was first observed in animal models and subsequently in human populations, highlighting the clinical relevance of this finding. Later, it was suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis was not an epiphenomenal correlate of antidepressant action but was causally involved. Indeed, when neurogenesis is suppressed, antidepressant compounds can no longer achieve remission...
August 8, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#6
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800076/human-dental-pulp-cells-differentiate-toward-neuronal-cells-and-promote-neuroregeneration-in-adult-organotypic-hippocampal-slices-in-vitro
#7
Li Xiao, Ryoji Ide, Chikako Saiki, Yasuo Kumazawa, Hisashi Okamura
The adult mammalian central nerve system has fundamental difficulties regarding effective neuroregeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether human dental pulp cells (DPCs) can promote neuroregeneration by (i) being differentiated toward neuronal cells and/or (ii) stimulating local neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that adult human dental pulp contains multipotent DPCs, including STRO-1, CD146 and P75-positive stem cells. DPC-formed spheroids were able to differentiate into neuronal, vascular, osteogenic and cartilaginous lineages under osteogenic induction...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798684/differential-roles-of-environmental-enrichment-in-alzheimer-s-type-of-neurodegeneration-and-physiological-aging
#8
Vladimir V Salmin, Yulia K Komleva, Natalia V Kuvacheva, Andrey V Morgun, Elena D Khilazheva, Olga L Lopatina, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Konstantin A Shapovalov, Yulia A Uspenskaya, Alla B Salmina
Impairment of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in aging or degenerating brain is a well-known phenomenon caused by the shortage of brain stem cell pool, alterations in the local microenvironment within the neurogenic niches, or deregulation of stem cell development. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been proposed as a potent tool to restore brain functions, to prevent aging-associated neurodegeneration, and to cure neuronal deficits seen in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report our data on the effects of environmental enrichment on hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and neurosphere-forming capacity of hippocampal stem/progenitor cells in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796260/clinical-grade-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverse-cognitive-aging-via-improving-synaptic-plasticity-and-endogenous-neurogenesis
#9
Ning Cao, Tuling Liao, Jiajing Liu, Zeng Fan, Quan Zeng, Junnian Zhou, Haiyun Pei, Jiafei Xi, Lijuan He, Lin Chen, Xue Nan, Yali Jia, Wen Yue, Xuetao Pei
Cognitive aging is a leading public health concern with the increasing aging population, but there is still lack of specific interventions directed against it. Recent studies have shown that cognitive function is intimately affected by systemic milieu in aging brain, and improvement of systemic environment in aging brain may be a promising approach for rejuvenating cognitive aging. Here, we sought to study the intervention effects of clinical-grade human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on cognitive aging in a murine model of aging...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794184/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mouse-neurogenesis-by-pumilio-proteins
#10
Meng Zhang, Dong Chen, Jing Xia, Wenqi Han, Xiekui Cui, Nils Neuenkirchen, Gretchen Hermes, Nenad Sestan, Haifan Lin
Despite extensive studies on mammalian neurogenesis, its post-transcriptional regulation remains under-explored. Here we report that neural-specific inactivation of two murine post-transcriptional regulators, Pumilio 1 (Pum1) and Pum2, severely reduced the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the postnatal dentate gyrus (DG), drastically increased perinatal apoptosis, altered DG cell composition, and impaired learning and memory. Consistently, the mutant DG neurospheres generated fewer NSCs with defects in proliferation, survival, and differentiation, supporting a major role of Pum1 and Pum2 in hippocampal neurogenesis and function...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790020/prenatal-choline-supplementation-attenuates-mk-801-induced-deficits-in-memory-motor-function-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-adult-male-rats
#11
Chelsea A Nickerson, Alexandra L Brown, Waylin Yu, Yoona Chun, Melissa J Glenn
Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782255/pou3f2-participates-in-cognitive-function-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-mammalian-characteristic-amino-acid-repeats
#12
Koichi Hashizume, Masashi Yamanaka, Shintaroh Ueda
POU3F2/BRN-2 is a transcription factor that is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and plays an important role in brain development. The transactivation domain of POU3F2 includes multiple mammalian-characteristic tandem amino acid repeats (homopolymeric amino acid repeats). We previously generated knock-in mice (Pou3f2(Δ)(/Δ) mice) in which all three homopolymeric amino acid repeats were deleted from the Pou3f2 transactivation domain and identified phenotypic impairments in maternal behavior and pup recognition...
August 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781028/hypoplastic-hippocampus-in-atypical-rett-syndrome-with-a-novel-foxg1-mutation
#13
Kotoha Harada, Mayumi Yamamoto, Yukihiko Konishi, Kaori Koyano, Satoru Takahashi, Masanori Namba, Takashi Kusaka
The forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene encodes a brain-specific transcription factor and is associated with a congenital variant of atypical Rett syndrome (RTT); several FOXG1 mutations have been identified. The congenital variant of RTT shows a hypoplastic corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and frontal and temporal atrophy. Although no report has described a hippocampal abnormality in humans, the current study suggests that FOXG1 also regulates neurogenesis in the postnatal hippocampus. In the present case, severe developmental delay was observed in a patient with a congenital variant of RTT from about 4months, in conjunction with acquired microcephaly, hypotonia, limited motor function, absent purposeful hand use, and repetitive jerky movements of the upper limbs...
August 3, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780644/immunopotentiator-thymosin-alpha-1-promotes-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-the-developing-mouse-via-a-systemic-th1-bias
#14
Ge Wang, Fen He, Yunlong Xu, Yuwei Zhang, Xiao Wang, Chunhua Zhou, Yihong Huang, Juntao Zou
In early life, the immune system plays an essential role in brain development. In our study, the immunopotentiator thymosin alpha-1 (Ta1) was peripherally administered to neonatal mice to explore whether the peripheral immunopotentiator affects neurodevelopment and cognition, and to further investigate the relevant mechanism. Compared with the control group, the Ta1 mice displayed better cognitive abilities in early life. The numbers of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+, nestin+, T-box transcription factor 2 (Tbr2)+, BrdU+/doublecortin (DCX)+, BrdU+/ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)+, and BrdU+/neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells in the hippocampus were increased in the Ta1 group, accompanied by increased interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as decreased IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769796/s-47445-produces-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-through-neurogenesis-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#15
Indira Mendez-David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux, Mariusz Papp, Laurent Tritschler, Elisabeth Mocaer, Alain M Gardier, Sylvie Bretin, Denis J David
Glutamatergic dysfunctions are observed in the pathophysiology of depression. The glutamatergic synapse as well as the AMPA receptor's (AMPAR) activation may represent new potential targets for therapeutic intervention in the context of major depressive disorders. S 47445 is a novel AMPARs positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM) possessing procognitive, neurotrophic properties and enhancing synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects of S 47445 in a mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration (CORT) and in the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768549/intranasal-insulin-reverts-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-diabetic-mother-offspring
#16
Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Daniel Sanchez-Sotano, Alberto Doblas-Marquez, Carmen Infante-Garcia, Simon Lubian-Lopez, Monica Garcia-Alloza
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects in diabetic mothers offspring (DMO) are a major concern of increasing incidence. Among these, chronic central complications in DMO remain poorly understood, and in extreme cases, diabetes can essentially function as a gestational brain insult. Nevertheless, therapeutic alternatives for DMO are limited. METHODS: Therefore, we have analyzed the central long-term complications in the offspring from CD1 diabetic mothers treated with streptozotozin, as well as the possible reversion of these alterations by insulin administration to neonates...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767193/decreased-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-impaired-cognitive-function-by-hypoglossal-nerve-transection-in-rats
#17
Doyun Kim, Sena Chung, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Soung-Min Kim, JaeHyung Koo, Jong-Ho Lee, Jeong Won Jahng
The hypoglossal nerve controls tongue movements, and damages of it result in difficulty in mastication and food intake. Mastication has been reported to maintain hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. This study was conducted to examine the effect of tongue motor loss on the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function and its underlying mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the initial training of Morris water maze task before or after the bilateral transection of hypoglossal nerves (Hx). When the initial training was given before the surgery, the target quadrant dwelling time during the probe test performed at a week after the surgery was significantly reduced in Hx rats relative to sham-operated controls...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766905/evidence-for-reduced-neurogenesis-in-the-aging-human-hippocampus-despite-stable-stem-cell-markers
#18
Kathryn J Mathews, Katherine M Allen, Danny Boerrigter, Helen Ball, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Kay L Double
Reduced neurogenesis in the aging mammalian hippocampus has been linked to cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia. We utilized postmortem human hippocampal tissue from 26 subjects aged 18-88 years to investigate changes in expression of six genes representing different stages of neurogenesis across the healthy adult lifespan. Progressive and significant decreases in mRNA levels of the proliferation marker Ki67 (MKI67) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) were found in the healthy human hippocampus over the lifespan...
August 1, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763060/bace1-inhibition-by-microdose-lithium-formulation-np03-rescues-memory-loss-and-early-stage-amyloid-neuropathology
#19
E N Wilson, S Do Carmo, M F Iulita, H Hall, A Ducatenzeiler, A R Marks, S Allard, D T Jia, J Windheim, A C Cuello
Lithium is first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder and has recently been shown to have protective effects in populations at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying this protection is poorly understood and consequently limits its possible therapeutic application in AD. Moreover, conventional lithium formulations have a narrow therapeutic window and are associated with a severe side effect profile. Here we evaluated a novel microdose formulation of lithium, coded NP03, in a well-characterized rat model of progressive AD-like amyloid pathology...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763058/a-novel-preventive-therapy-for-paclitaxel-induced-cognitive-deficits-preclinical-evidence-from-c57bl-6-mice
#20
P Huehnchen, W Boehmerle, A Springer, D Freyer, M Endres
Chemotherapy-induced central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity presents an unmet medical need. Patients often report a cognitive decline in temporal correlation to chemotherapy, particularly for hippocampus-dependent verbal and visuo-spatial abilities. We treated adult C57Bl/6 mice with 12 × 20 mg kg(-1) paclitaxel (PTX), mimicking clinical conditions of dose-dense chemotherapy, followed by a pulse of bromodesoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. In this model, mice developed visuo-spatial memory impairments, and we measured peak PTX concentrations in the hippocampus of 230 nm l(-1), which was sevenfold higher compared with the neocortex...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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