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Hippocampal neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324844/serotonin-transporter-and-receptor-ligands-with-antidepressant-activity-as-neuroprotective-and-proapoptotic-agents
#1
REVIEW
Zdzislaw Chilmonczyk, Andrzej J Bojarski, Andrzej Pilc, Ingebrigt Sylte
Serotonin exhibits multiple non-neural functions involved in essential hypertension, early embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behaviour. The growth stimulatory effects of the neurotransmitter have been described for a variety of cell types. 5-HT was found to induce migration of the human prostate cancer cell lines - PC-3 and Du145 - and several 5-HT1A antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors were reported to inhibit the growth of different tumour cell lines in vitro. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis is involved in the action of antidepressants and an involvement of antidepressants in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been demonstrated...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315273/stimulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-effects-on-neurogenesis-and-depressive-behaviors-in-mice
#2
Kohji Fukunaga, Shigeki Moriguchi
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is molecular chaperone regulating calcium efflux from the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria. Recent studies show that Sig-1R stimulation antagonizes depressive-like behaviors in animal models, but molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Here, we focus on the effects of Sig-1R ligands on hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors. Sig-1R stimulation also enhances CaMKII /CaMKIV and protein kinase B (Akt) activities in hippocampus. Therefore, we discuss the fundamental roles of Sig-1R, CaMKII /CaMKIV and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling in amelioration of depressive-like behaviors following Sig-1R stimulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298884/physical-exercise-restores-the-generation-of-newborn-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#3
Fabricio N Mendonça, Luiz E C Santos, Antônio M Rodrigues, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Ricardo M Arida, Gilcélio A da Silveira, Fulvio A Scorza, Antônio-Carlos G Almeida
Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298883/increased-testosterone-decreases-medial-cortical-volume-and-neurogenesis-in-territorial-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#4
Lara D LaDage, Timothy C Roth, Cynthia J Downs, Barry Sinervo, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Variation in an animal's spatial environment can induce variation in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial cognitive processing. Specifically, increased spatial area use is correlated with increased hippocampal attributes, such as volume and neurogenesis. In the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), males demonstrate alternative reproductive tactics and are either territorial-defending large, clearly defined spatial boundaries-or non-territorial-traversing home ranges that are smaller than the territorial males' territories...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292830/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-along-the-dorsoventral-axis-contributes-differentially-to-environmental-enrichment-combined-with-voluntary-exercise-in-alleviating-chronic-inflammatory-pain-in-mice
#5
Jie Zheng, Ying-Ying Jiang, Ling-Chi Xu, Long-Yu Ma, Feng-Yu Liu, Shuang Cui, Jie Cai, Fei-Fei Liao, You Wan, Ming Yi
Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291258/adult-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-triggers-susceptibility-to-recurrent-depression
#6
N D Alves, J S Correia, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, A R Machado-Santos, E Loureiro-Campos, M Morais, J M Bessa, N Sousa, L Pinto
Depression is a highly prevalent and recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in emotional and cognitive domains. Neuroplastic phenomena are increasingly considered central to the etiopathogenesis of and recovery from depression. Nevertheless, a high number of remitted patients experience recurrent episodes of depression, remaining unclear how previous episodes impact on behavior and neuroplasticity and/or whether modulation of neuroplasticity is important to prevent recurrent depression...
March 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290135/spinal-cord-injury-impairs-neurogenesis-and-induces-glial-reactivity-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Ignacio Jure, Luciana Pietranera, Alejandro F De Nicola, Florencia Labombarda
The incorporation of newborn neurons with increased synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity in the dentate gyrus enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Astrocytes and microglial cells are components of the neurogenic niche and regulate neurogenesis under normal and neurophatological conditions leading to functional consequences for learning and memory. Although cognitive impairments were reported in patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), only few studies have considered remote changes in brain structures which are not related with sensory and motor cortex...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287792/chronic-corticosterone-administration-effects-on-behavioral-emotionality-in-female-c57bl6-mice
#8
Maryam Mekiri, Alain M Gardier, Denis J David, Jean-Philippe Guilloux
Understanding the pathophysiology of affective disorders and their treatment relies on the availability of experimental models that mimic aspects of the disease. Most of the studies on depressive disorders are conducted with male rodents, mostly because including females in protocols is more difficult. Indeed, there is a complex series of changes in the brain of females due to the estrous cycle, adding an important variability factor to the disease. However, twice as many women as men have a lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), so we need to develop reliable female models of depression to improve our understanding of this disease...
March 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287464/neuropeptide-vgf-promotes-maturation-of-hippocampal-dendrites-that-is-reduced-by-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#9
Joseph Behnke, Aneesha Cheedalla, Vatsal Bhatt, Maysa Bhat, Shavonne Teng, Alicia Palmieri, Charles Christian Windon, Smita Thakker-Varia, Janet Alder
The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic) is induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as synaptic activity. However, morphological changes induced by VGF have not been elucidated. Developing hippocampal neurons were exposed to VGF through bath application or virus-mediated expression in vitro. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-62, enhanced dendritic branching, and outgrowth. Furthermore, VGF increased dendritic spine density and the proportion of immature spines. Spine formation was associated with increased synaptic protein expression and co-localization of pre- and postsynaptic markers...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286181/amplifying-mitochondrial-function-rescues-adult-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Kevin Richetin, Manon Moulis, Aurélie Millet, Macarena S Arràzola, Trinovita Andraini, Jennifer Hua, Noélie Davezac, Laurent Roybon, Pascale Belenguer, Marie-Christine Miquel, Claire Rampon
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is strongly impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In several mouse models of AD, it was shown that adult-born neurons exhibit reduced survival and altered synaptic integration due to a severe lack of dendritic spines. In the present work, using the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD, we reveal that this reduced number of spines is concomitant of a marked deficit in their neuronal mitochondrial content. Remarkably, we show that targeting the overexpression of the pro-neural transcription factor Neurod1 into APPxPS1 adult-born neurons restores not only their dendritic spine density, but also their mitochondrial content and the proportion of spines associated with mitochondria...
March 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286179/formation-of-hippocampal-mhtt-aggregates-leads-to-impaired-spatial-memory-hippocampal-activation-and-adult-neurogenesis
#11
L C Schwab, K Richetin, R A Barker, N Déglon
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of motor, psychiatric and cognitive deficits with the latter classically attributed to disruption of fronto-striatal circuits. However, emerging evidence suggests that some of the cognitive deficits in HD may have their origin in other structures including the hippocampus. Hippocampal abnormalities have been reported in HD mouse models particularly in terms of performance on the Morris Water Maze. However, in these animals, it is difficult to be certain whether the spatial memory deficits are due to local pathology within this structure or their poor mobility and motivation...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284897/dietary-restriction-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-granule-cell-neuron-density-without-affecting-the-density-of-mossy-fibers
#12
Miranda C Staples, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Karthik K Mysore, Rahul R Dutta, Alexandria T Ongjoco, Leon W Quach, Khush M Kharidia, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
The hippocampal formation undergoes significant morphological and functional changes after prolonged caloric and dietary restriction (DR). In this study we tested whether prolonged DR results in deleterious alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, density of granule cell neurons and mossy fibers, all of which support plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Young adult animals either experienced free access to food (control condition), or every-other-day feeding regimen (DR condition) for 3 months. The number of Ki-67 cells and 28-day old 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cells were quantified in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus to determine the effect of DR on cellular proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells in the anatomically defined regions of the dentate gyrus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282857/neurogenic-effects-of-ghrelin-on-the-hippocampus
#13
REVIEW
Chanyang Kim, Sehee Kim, Seungjoon Park
Mammalian neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. It is well known that hippocampal neurogenesis is essential in mediating hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Ghrelin, a peptide hormone mainly synthesized in the stomach, has been shown to play a major role in the regulation of energy metabolism. A plethora of evidence indicates that ghrelin can also exert important effects on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the adult brain...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281529/stage-specific-functions-of-semaphorin7a-during-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-rely-on-distinct-receptors
#14
Bart C Jongbloets, Suzanne Lemstra, Roberta Schellino, Mark H Broekhoven, Jyoti Parkash, Anita J C G M Hellemons, Tianyi Mao, Paolo Giacobini, Henriette van Praag, Silvia De Marchis, Geert M J Ramakers, R Jeroen Pasterkamp
The guidance protein Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) is required for the proper development of the immune and nervous systems. Despite strong expression in the mature brain, the role of Sema7A in the adult remains poorly defined. Here we show that Sema7A utilizes different cell surface receptors to control the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), one of the select regions of the mature brain where neurogenesis occurs. PlexinC1 is selectively expressed in early neural progenitors in the adult mouse DG and mediates the inhibitory effects of Sema7A on progenitor proliferation...
March 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272323/neurotoxic%C3%A2-doses%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-chronic%C3%A2-methamphetamine%C3%A2-trigger%C3%A2-retrotransposition%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-identifier%C3%A2-element%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-rat%C3%A2-dorsal%C3%A2-dentate%C3%A2-gyrus
#15
Anna Moszczynska, Kyle J Burghardt, Dongyue Yu
Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are typically silenced by DNA hypermethylation in somatic cells, but can retrotranspose in proliferating cells during adult neurogenesis. Hypomethylation caused by disease pathology or genotoxic stress leads to genomic instability of SINEs. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether neurotoxic doses of binge or chronic methamphetamine (METH) trigger retrotransposition of the identifier (ID) element, a member of the rat SINE family, in the dentate gyrus genomic DNA...
March 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270754/interaction-effect-of-social-isolation-and-high-dose-corticosteroid-on-neurogenesis-and-emotional-behavior
#16
Jackie N-M Chan, Jada C-D Lee, Sylvia S P Lee, Katy K Y Hui, Alan H L Chan, Timothy K-H Fung, Dalinda I Sánchez-Vidaña, Benson W-M Lau, Shirley P-C Ngai
Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265586/forced-neuronal-interactions-cause-poor-communication
#17
Marine Krzisch, Nicolas Toni
Post-natal hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in hippocampal function, and neurons born post-natally participate to spatial memory and mood control. However, a great proportion of granule neurons generated in the post-natal hippocampus are eliminated during the first 3 weeks of their maturation, a mechanism that depends on their synaptic integration. In a recent study, we examined the possibility of enhancing the synaptic integration of neurons born post-natally, by specifically overexpressing synaptic cell adhesion molecules in these cells...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261108/exercise-influence-on-hippocampal-function-possible-involvement-of-orexin-a
#18
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Maria Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Teresa Esposito, Marco Carotenuto, Andrea Viggiano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda
In the present article, we provide a brief review of current knowledge regarding the effects induced by physical exercise on hippocampus. Research involving animals and humans supports the view that physical exercise, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis and function, improves cognition, and regulates mood. These beneficial effects depend on the contribute of more factors including the enhancement of vascularization and upregulation of growth factors. Among these, the BDNF seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the orexin-A...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256620/time-lapse-imaging-reveals-highly-dynamic-structural-maturation-of-postnatally-born-dentate-granule-cells-in-organotypic-entorhino-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#19
Tijana Radic, Tassilo Jungenitz, Mathias Singer, Marcel Beining, Hermann Cuntz, Andreas Vlachos, Thomas Deller, Stephan W Schwarzacher
Neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells (GCs) persists throughout mammalian life and is important for learning and memory. How newborn GCs differentiate and mature into an existing circuit during this time period is not yet fully understood. We established a method to visualize postnatally generated GCs in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OTCs) using retroviral (RV) GFP-labeling and performed time-lapse imaging to study their morphological development in vitro. Using anterograde tracing we could, furthermore, demonstrate that the postnatally generated GCs in OTCs, similar to adult born GCs, grow into an existing entorhino-dentate circuitry...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254502/maternal-exposure-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-alters-offspring-hippocampal-mrna-bax-and-bcl-2-levels-induces-apoptosis-and-decreases-neurogenesis
#20
Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Abbas Mohammadipour, Alireza Fazel, Hossein Haghir, Houshang Rafatpanah, Mahmoud Hosseini, Aliakbar Rajabzadeh
INTRODUCTION: The usage of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) covers a vast area in different fields ranging from cosmetics and food to the production of drugs. Maternal exposure to TiO2-NPs during developmental period has been associated with hippocampal injury and with a decrease in learning and memory status of the offspring. However, little is known about its injury mechanism. This paper describes the in vivo neurotoxic effects of TiO2-NPs on rat offspring hippocampus during developmental period...
February 26, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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