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Hippocampal neurogenesis

Sanghee Yun, Ryan P Reynolds, Iraklis Petrof, Alicia White, Phillip D Rivera, Amir Segev, Adam D Gibson, Maiko Suarez, Matthew J DeSalle, Naoki Ito, Shibani Mukherjee, Devon R Richardson, Catherine E Kang, Rebecca C Ahrens-Nicklas, Ivan Soler, Dane M Chetkovich, Saïd Kourrich, Douglas A Coulter, Amelia J Eisch
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered a 'circuitopathy', and brain stimulation therapies hold promise for ameliorating MDD symptoms, including hippocampal dysfunction. It is unknown whether stimulation of upstream hippocampal circuitry, such as the entorhinal cortex (Ent), is antidepressive, although Ent stimulation improves learning and memory in mice and humans. Here we show that molecular targeting (Ent-specific knockdown of a psychosocial stress-induced protein) and chemogenetic stimulation of Ent neurons induce antidepressive-like effects in mice...
April 16, 2018: Nature Medicine
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ryan P Vetreno, Colleen J Lawrimore, Pamela J Rowsey, Fulton T Crews
Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Charlotte Castillon, Steeve Lunion, Nathalie Desvignes, André Hanauer, Serge Laroche, Roseline Poirier
Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo...
April 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Maria Domenica Sanna, Alessandro Quattrone, Nicoletta Galeotti
Currently available antidepressant drugs often fail to achieve full remission and patients might evolve to treatment resistance, showing the need to achieve a better therapy of depressive disorders. Increasing evidence supports that post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is important in neuronal development and survival and a relevant role is played by RNA binding proteins (RBP). To explore new therapeutic strategies, we investigated the role of the neuron-specific ELAV-like RBP (HuB, HuC, HuD) in a mouse model of depression...
April 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Maura Boldrini, Camille A Fulmore, Alexandria N Tartt, Laika R Simeon, Ina Pavlova, Verica Poposka, Gorazd B Rosoklija, Aleksandar Stankov, Victoria Arango, Andrew J Dwork, René Hen, J John Mann
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis declines in aging rodents and primates. Aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decrease in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, although concurrent changes in these parameters are not well studied. Here we assessed whole autopsy hippocampi from healthy human individuals ranging from 14 to 79 years of age. We found similar numbers of intermediate neural progenitors and thousands of immature neurons in the DG, comparable numbers of glia and mature granule neurons, and equivalent DG volume across ages...
April 5, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Bo Cao, Qinghua Luo, Yixiao Fu, Lian Du, Tian Qiu, Xiangying Yang, Xiaolu Chen, Qibin Chen, Jair C Soares, Raymond Y Cho, Xiang Yang Zhang, Haitang Qiu
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for major depression disorder (MDD). ECT can induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in hippocampus, which contains distinct subfields, e.g., the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields, a granule cell layer (GCL), a molecular layer (ML), and the subiculum. It is unclear which subfields are affected by ECT and whether we predict the future treatment response to ECT by using volumetric information of hippocampal subfields at baseline? In this study, 24 patients with severe MDD received the ECT and their structural brain images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging before and after ECT...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Krista M Rodgers, Olivia P Patsos, Guiying Deng, Nicholas Chalmers, Nidia Quillinan, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson
Global ischemia in childhood often leads to poor neurologic outcomes, including learning and memory deficits. Using our novel model of childhood cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR), we investigate the mechanism of ischemia-induced cognitive deficits and recovery. Memory is impaired seven days after juvenile CA/CPR and completely recovers by 30 days. Consistent with this remarkable recovery not observed in adults, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired 7-14 days after CA/CPR, recovering by 30 days...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Patricia Sampedro-Piquero, Román D Moreno-Fernández, M Carmen Mañas-Padilla, Sara Gil-Rodríguez, Ana Luisa Gavito, Francisco J Pavón, Carmen Pedraza, María García-Fernández, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Luis J Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega
Learning experiences are potent modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). However, the vast majority of findings on the learning-induced regulation of AHN derive from aversively-motivated tasks, mainly the water maze paradigm, in which stress is a confounding factor that affects the AHN outcome. Currently, little is known regarding the effect of appetitively-motivated training on AHN. Hence we studied how spatial learning to find food rewards in a hole-board maze modulates AHN (cell proliferation and immature neurons) and AHN-related hippocampal neuroplasticity markers (BDNF, IGF-II and CREB phosphorylation) in mice...
March 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Daniela Felice, Jean-Philippe Guilloux, Alan Pehrson, Yan Li, Indira Mendez-David, Alain M Gardier, Connie Sanchez, Denis J David
Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) patients may exhibit cognitive deficits and it is currently unclear to which degree treatment with antidepressants may affect cognitive function. Preclinical and clinical observations showed that vortioxetine (VORT, an antidepressant with multimodal activity), presents beneficial effects on aspects of cognitive function. In addition, VORT treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in rodents, a candidate mechanism for antidepressant activity. Pattern separation (PS) is the ability to discriminate between two similar contexts/events generating two distinct and non-overlapping representations...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pascale Bouchard-Cannon, Christopher Lowden, Dennison Trinh, Hai-Ying M Cheng
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly responsive to exercise, which promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the integration of newborn granule neurons in the dentate gyrus. Here we show that genetic ablation of the small GTPase, Dexras1, suppresses exercise-induced proliferation of neural progenitors, alters survival of mitotic and post-mitotic cells in a stage-specific manner, and increases the number of mature newborn granule neurons. Dexras1 is required for exercise-triggered recruitment of quiescent neural progenitors into the cell cycle...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Verena Pfeiffer, Rudolf Götz, Guadelupe Camarero, Helmut Heinsen, Robert Blum, Ulf Rüdiger Rapp
RAF kinases are major constituents of the mitogen activated signaling pathway, regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival of many cell types, including neurons. In mammals, the family of RAF proteins consists of three members, ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF. Ablation of CRAF kinase in inbred mouse strains causes major developmental defects during fetal growth and embryonic or perinatal lethality. Heterozygous germline mutations in CRAF result in Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by neurocognitive impairment that may involve hippocampal physiology...
2018: PloS One
Aarthi R Gobinath, Sarah Wong, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E Lieblich, Alasdair M Barr, Liisa A M Galea
Treating postpartum depression (PPD) with pharmacological antidepressants like fluoxetine (FLX) is complicated because these drugs can remain active in breast milk and potentially affect infant development. Alternatively, non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise are associated with beneficial effects on infant development but its potential ability to counter the effects of PPD are largely unknown. To investigate this, we treated dams with corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle (sesame oil) from postpartum days 2-25 to model PPD...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Elane N Magno
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and devastating unilateral inflammatory brain disease that causes severe and intractable partial epilepsy. It has been shown that epilepsy and subsequent inflammation have deleterious influence on hippocampal cell survival and neurogenesis, but this still has not been systematically explored in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the correlation between inflammation and epilepsy as well as the rates of hippocampal gliogenesis and neurogenesis in a pediatric group of six patients with RE and six control cases...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sherleen Xue-Fu Adamson, Xubo Shen, Wendy Jiang, Vivien Lai, Xiaoting Wang, Jonathan H Shannahan, Jason R Cannon, Jinhui Chen, Wei Zheng
Adult neurogenesis takes place in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) in the frontal cortex and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG), and functions to supply newborn neurons for normal brain functionality. Subchronic Mn exposure is known to disrupt adult neurogenesis in the SVZ. This study was designed to determine whether Mn exposure disturbed neurogenesis within the adult HDG. Adult rats (10 weeks old) received a single dose of BrdU at the end of 4-wk Mn exposure to label the proliferating cells...
March 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Akram Sadeghi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Javad Hami, Hossein Khanahmad, Zahra Hejazi, Mohammad Mardani, Shahnaz Razavi
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of congenital malformations and central nervous system disorders (CNS) especially hippocampal neuronal circuitry disruption as a discreet region involved in neurogenesis phenomenon. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes and insulin treatment on the expression and distribution pattern of NeuN and DCX as two important markers of neurogenesis paradigm in developing rat hippocampus. All animals were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Control group, Diabetic (STZ-D), Diabetic treated with insulin (STZ-INS)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
A Yu Tarasova, O V Perepelkina, I G Lil'p, A V Revishchin, G V Pavlova, I I Poletaeva
Mice selected for high score in the extrapolation test (EX line) and kept under conditions of "enriched environment" for 3 months demonstrated changes in locomotor and exploratory activity and enhanced reaction to novelty. The relative brain weight was higher and neurogenesis in the hippocampal fascia dentate was more intensive in this group. In non-selected mice, the changes were similar, but insignificant in many cases.
March 26, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Edward J Calabrese, Alberto Rubio-Casillas
A generally undesired effect of cannabis smoking is a reversible disruption of short term memory induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. However, this paradigm has been recently challenged by a group of scientists who have shown that THC is also able to improve neurological function in old animals when chronically administered at low concentrations. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that THC paradoxically promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer Disease, protects from inflammation-induced cognitive damage and restores memory and cognitive function in old mice...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tomomi Kiyota, Jatin Machhi, Yaman Lu, Bhagyalaxmi Dyavarshetty, Maryam Nemati, Izumi Yokoyama, R Lee Mosley, Howard E Gendelman
We investigated the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on behavioral and pathological outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-transgenic mice. GM-CSF treatment in AD mice reduced brain amyloidosis, increased plasma Aβ, and rescued cognitive impairment with increased hippocampal expression of calbindin and synaptophysin and increased levels of doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus. These data extend GM-CSF pleiotropic neuroprotection mechanisms in AD and include regulatory T cell-mediated immunomodulation of microglial function, Aβ clearance, maintenance of synaptic integrity, and induction of neurogenesis...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Nikolas J Stimpson, Glen Davison, Amir-Homayoun Javadi
This narrative review examines literature pertaining to possible physiological explanations for observed cognitive benefits stemming from improvements to cardiovascular fitness following chronic aerobic exercise. Studies regarding exercise and cardiovascular fitness, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation in relation to IGF-1 signalling, regulation of neurotrophins, neurogenesis and plasticity, cognitive training, are briefly described. We propose that current evidence points towards a mechanism by which cardiovascular fitness improvements act to promote long-term angiogenesis and cerebral circulation...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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