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Hippocampal neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631844/sonic-hedgehog-wnt-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-cell-signaling-pathway-crosstalk-potential-therapy-for-depression
#1
REVIEW
Mohd Tayyab, Mehdi H Shahi, Shirin Farheen, Mubeena P M Mariyath, Nabeela Khanam, Javier S Castresana, M Mobarak Hossain
There are various theories to explain the pathophysiology of depression and support its diagnosis and treatment. The roles of monoamines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Wnt signaling are well researched, but sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and its downstream transcription factor Gli1 are not well studied in depression. Shh signaling plays a fundamental role in embryonic development and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also involved in the growth of cancer. In this article, we summarize the evidence for the Shh signaling pathway in depression and the potential crosstalk of Shh with Wnt and BDNF...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631721/disc1-in-astrocytes-influences-adult-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-behaviors-in-mice
#2
Chantelle E Terrillion, Bagrat Abazyan, Zhongxi Yang, Joshua Crawford, Alexey V Shevelkin, Yan Jouroukhin, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Robin Roychaudhuri, Solomon H Snyder, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Mikhail V Pletnikov
The functional role of genetic variants in glia in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remains poorly studied. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a genetic risk factor implicated in major mental disorders, has been implicated in regulation of astrocyte functions. As both astrocytes and DISC1 influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, we hypothesized that selective expression of dominant-negative C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (mutant DISC1) in astrocytes would affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent behaviors...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629541/stress-and-loss-of-adult-neurogenesis-differentially-reduce-hippocampal-volume
#3
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, H Douglas Morris, Varun Padmanaban, Heather A Cameron
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626932/dentate-gyrus-neurogenesis-ablation-via-cranial-irradiation-enhances-morphine-self-administration-and-locomotor-sensitization
#4
Sarah E Bulin, Matthew L Mendoza, Devon R Richardson, Kwang H Song, Timothy D Solberg, Sanghee Yun, Amelia J Eisch
Adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, but the role of new neurons in addiction-relevant learning and memory is unclear. To test the hypothesis that neurogenesis is involved in the vulnerability to morphine addiction, we ablated adult DG neurogenesis and examined morphine self-administration (MSA) and locomotor sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hippocampal-focused, image-guided X-ray irradiation (IRR) to eliminate new DG neurons or sham treatment (Sham)...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625859/harmine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-via-restoration-of-astrocytic-functions
#5
Fengguo Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lei Zhu, Li-Juan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Yong Ling, Chao Huang
Depression is a world-wide disease with no effective therapeutic methods. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytic pathology contributes to the formation of depression. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid and potent hallucinogen, known to modulate astrocytic glutamate transporters, on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and astrocytic dysfunctions. Results showed that harmine treatment (10, 20mg/kg) protected the mice against the CUS-induced increases in the immobile time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and also reversed the reduction in sucrose intake in the sucrose preference experiment...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#6
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#7
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611548/hippocampal-characteristics-and-invariant-sequence-elements-distribution-of-glra2-and-glra3-c-to-u-editing
#8
Philipp Schaefermeier, Sarah Heinze
Glycine receptor α2 and α3 subunit (GLRA2/GLRA3) high-affinity variants, of which the subjacent amino acid substitutions issue from C-to-U RNA editing, are thought to influence tonic inhibition and pathophysiology. In light of the detection of GLRA3 NM_006529:r.1157C>U and GLRA2 NM_002063:r.1416C>U exchanges in hippocampus explants of temporal lobe epilepsy patients, we now examine the healthy situation and relate it to the epileptic situation by ascertaining controls in a legitimate reanalysis. The GLRA2 and GLRA3 editing events that would ultimately result in a glycine receptor with increased affinity occur in the postmortem nonepileptic hippocampus...
March 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611114/notch1-deficiency-in-postnatal-neural-progenitor-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus-leads-to-emotional-and-cognitive-impairment
#9
Shufang Feng, Tianyao Shi, Jiangxia Qiu, Haihong Yang, Yan Wu, Wenxia Zhou, Wei Wang, Haitao Wu
It is well known that Notch1 signaling plays a crucial role in embryonic neural development and adult neurogenesis. The latest evidence shows that Notch1 also plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal mature neurons. So far, deeper insights into the function of Notch1 signaling during the different steps of adult neurogenesis are still lacking, and the mechanisms by which Notch1 dysfunction is associated with brain disorders are also poorly understood. In the current study, we found that Notch1 was highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus...
June 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608989/seizure-severity-dependent-selective-vulnerability-of-the-granule-cell-layer-and-aberrant-neurogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#10
Takeshi Uemori, Keiko Toda, Tatsunori Seki
The pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rodent model has been commonly used to analyze the mechanisms of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Recent studies using this model have demonstrated that epileptic seizures lead to increased adult neurogenesis of the dentate granule cells, and cause abnormal cellular organization in dentate neuronal circuits. In this study, we examined these structural changes in rats with seizures of varying severity. In rats with frequent severe seizures, we found a clear loss of Prox1 and NeuN expression in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), which was confined mainly to the suprapyramidal blade of the GCL at the septal and middle regions of the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus...
June 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607354/igf-1-mediated-neurogenesis-involves-a-novel-rit1-akt-sox2-cascade
#11
Sajad Mir, Weikang Cai, Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman, Douglas A Andres
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is known to have diverse effects on brain structure and function, including the promotion of stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. However, the intracellular pathways downstream of the IGF-1 receptor that contribute to these diverse physiological actions remain relatively uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that the Ras-related GTPase, RIT1, plays a critical role in IGF-1-dependent neurogenesis. Studies in hippocampal neuronal precursor cells (HNPCs) demonstrate that IGF-1 stimulates a RIT1-dependent increase in Sox2 levels, resulting in pro-neural gene expression and increased cellular proliferation...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597506/skeletal-myofiber-vegf-is-required-for-the-exercise-training-induced-increase-in-dentate-gyrus-neuronal-precursor-cells
#12
Benjamin Rich, Miriam Scadeng, M Yamaguchi, Peter D Wagner, Ellen C Breen
Exercise signals neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This phenomenon requires vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) originating from outside the blood brain barrier, but no cellular source has been identified. Thus, we hypothesized that VEGF produced by skeletal myofibers plays a role in regulating hippocampal neuronal precursor cell proliferation following exercise training. This was tested in adult conditional skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene-ablated mice (VEGF(HSA-/-) ) by providing VEGF(HSA-/-) and non-ablated (VEGF(f/f) ) littermates with running wheels for 14 days...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597491/hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-pattern-separation-a-meta-analysis-of-behavioral-data
#13
Thiago F A França, Alexandre M Bitencourt, Naiana R Maximilla, Daniela M Barros, José M Monserrat
The generation of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mammals has become a widely accepted phenomenon, but the functional significance of the adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is not fully understood. One of the main hypotheses currently investigated suggests that neurogenesis contributes to pattern separation in the dentate gyrus. Many behavioral studies were conducted aiming to test this hypothesis using rodents as animal model. In those studies, researches ablated neurogenesis in the animals and subsequently evaluate them in tests of behavioral pattern separation, that is, behaviors that are thought to rely on the computational process of pattern separation...
June 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591201/hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-volume-in-migrating-and-wintering-semipalmated-sandpipers-calidris-pusilla
#14
Nara Gyzely de Morais Magalhães, Cristovam Guerreiro Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Ediely Pereira Henrique, Patrick Douglas Corrêa Pereira, Isis Ananda Matos Moraes, Mauro André Damasceno de Melo, David Francis Sherry, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
Long distance migratory birds find their way by sensing and integrating information from a large number of cues in their environment. These cues are essential to navigate over thousands of kilometers and reach the same breeding, stopover, and wintering sites every year. The semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) is a long-distance migrant that breeds in the arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the northeast coast of South America. Its fall migration includes a 5,300-kilometer nonstop flight over the Atlantic Ocean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588483/plastic-and-neuroprotective-mechanisms-involved-in-the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabidiol-in-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Alline C Campos, Manoela V Fogaça, Franciele F Scarante, Sâmia R L Joca, Amanda J Sales, Felipe V Gomes, Andreza B Sonego, Naielly S Rodrigues, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Francisco S Guimarães
Beneficial effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been described for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. The mechanisms responsible for these effects, however, are still poorly understood. Similar to clinical antidepressant or atypical antipsychotic drugs, recent findings clearly indicate that CBD, either acutely or repeatedly administered, induces plastic changes. For example, CBD attenuates the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendrite spines density induced by chronic stress and prevents microglia activation and the decrease in the number of parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons in a pharmacological model of schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587591/microarray-expression-profiling-in-the-denervated-hippocampus-identifies-long-noncoding-rnas-functionally-involved-in-neurogenesis
#16
Bingying Deng, Xiang Cheng, Haoming Li, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin
BACKGROUND: The denervated hippocampus provides a proper microenvironment for the survival and neuronal differentiation of neural progenitors. While thousands of lncRNAs were identified, only a few lncRNAs that regulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus are reported. The present study aimed to perform microarray expression profiling to identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might participate in the hippocampal neurogenesis, and investigate the potential roles of identified lncRNAs in the hippocampal neurogenesis...
June 6, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587054/later-life-changes-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-behavioral-functions-after-low-dose-prenatal-irradiation-at-early-organogenesis-stage
#17
Ramya Ganapathi, Kailash Manda
PURPOSE: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585931/the-modulation-of-adult-neuroplasticity-is-involved-in-the-mood-improving-actions-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#18
M Morais, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, N D Alves, A R Machado-Santos, J S Correia, J Pereira, L Pinto, N Sousa, J M Bessa
Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with an increasing impact in global public health. However, a large proportion of patients treated with currently available antidepressant drugs fail to achieve remission. Recently, antipsychotic drugs have received approval for the treatment of antidepressant-resistant forms of major depression. The modulation of adult neuroplasticity, namely hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal remodeling, has been considered to have a key role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580422/hsp105-prevents-depression-like-behavior-by-increasing-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-mice
#19
Naoya Hashikawa, Yuta Utaka, Takumi Ogawa, Ryo Tanoue, Yuna Morita, Sayumi Yamamoto, Satoru Yamaguchi, Masafumi Kayano, Yoshito Zamami, Narumi Hashikawa-Hobara
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced chaperones that are involved in neurological disease. Although increasingly implicated in behavioral disorders, the mechanisms of HSP action, and the relevant functional pathways, are still unclear. We examined whether oral administration of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a known HSP inducer, produced an antidepressant effect in a social defeat stress model of depression in mice. We also investigated the possible molecular mechanisms involved, particularly focusing on hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophic factor expression...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580124/sex-dependent-effects-of-maternal-corticosterone-and-ssri-treatment-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-across-development
#20
Aarthi R Gobinath, Joanna L Workman, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E Lieblich, Liisa A M Galea
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers and represents a form of early life adversity for developing offspring. Postpartum depression can be treated with prescription antidepressants like fluoxetine (FLX). However, FLX can remain active in breast milk, raising concerns about the consequences of neonatal FLX exposure. The hippocampus is highly sensitive to developmental stress, and males and females respond differently to stress at many endpoints, including hippocampal plasticity...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
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