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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437737/changes-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-undergoing-surgery-preliminary-results
#1
Meng Wu, Xian Chen, Jianfang Lou, Shuping Zhang, Xiaojie Zhang, Lei Huang, Ruihong Sun, Peijun Huang, Shiyang Pan, Fang Wang
Regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress immune responses in patients with cancer. Surgery is the most effective therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer (OC). However, the interplay between the Treg population and surgical resection remains unclear. 61 patients with OC who received no prior treatment were enrolled in the study. Treg percentages were characterized from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We investigated CD4(+)CD25(+), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+), CD8(+)CD28(-), and CD8(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in OC patients and their postoperative changes using flow cytometry...
April 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434981/protein-transport-inhibitors-downregulate-the-expression-of-lag-3-on-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Sara Anvari, Andrea Grimbergen, Carla M Davis, George Makedonas
Modern immunologic studies demand increasing complexity because of a need to improve our understanding of the relationship between a cell's phenotype and its function. Regulatory T cells have been defined by a narrow set of phenotypic markers, however their actual functional capacity has not been determined at the single-cell level. Although the lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3; CD223) is a key marker for the identification of exhausted T cells, it may be useful also in resolving Treg subpopulations by indicating distinct functional breadths...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433429/immunological-function-of-langerhans-cells-in-hiv-infection
#3
Takamitsu Matsuzawa, Youichi Ogawa, Kohji Moriishi, Shinji Shimada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are one of the initial target cells for HIV following sexual exposure and they are productively infected by HIV. HIV-infected LCs migrate to the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and transmit the virus to CD4(+) T cells, leading to the dissemination of HIV. In contrast with the role of LCs in initial HIV acquisition, little is known about the modulation of immune responses by HIV-infected LCs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the induction of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), both of which play important roles in regulating the progression of HIV infection...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432597/t-regulatory-cells-in-bone-remodelling
#4
REVIEW
Aline Bozec, Mario M Zaiss
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we present the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in bone remodelling and bone-related disease such as osteoporosis or inflammatory bone loss. We also discuss the cellular and molecular mechanism how Treg cells regulate osteoclastogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Treg cells could regulate osteoclastogenesis by secreting TGF-β and IL-10 as well as IL-4 cytokines. Moreover, Treg cells can additionally regulate osteoclast differentiation, in a cell-to-cell contact via the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4)...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428201/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-lpd-rv0462-specific-t-cell-recall-responses-are-higher-in-healthy-household-contacts-of-tb-a-novel-immunodominant-antigen-from-m-tuberculosis
#5
Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
The partial effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), displayed by the existing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), highlights the need for novel vaccines to replace or improve BCG. In TB immunology, antigen-specific cellular immune response is frequently considered indispensable. Latency-associated antigens are intriguing as targets for TB vaccine development. The mycobacterial protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd; Rv0462), the third enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420873/viewing-immune-regulation-as-it-happens-in-vivo-imaging-for-investigation-of-regulatory-t-cell-function
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Hickey, Zachary Chow
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play indispensable roles in the immune system, in limiting excessive or inappropriate immune and inflammatory responses. They achieve this function via effects on other immune cells in the secondary lymphoid system, and in peripheral locations such as skin, gut and bone marrow. As for the more extensively-studied cellular players in the immune system, particularly dendritic cells and conventional T cells, in vivo imaging of Tregs via two-photon or multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been central to the development of understanding how these cells function...
April 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414061/mechanistic-correlates-of-clinical-responses-to-omalizumab-in-the-setting-of-oral-immunotherapy-for-milk-allergy
#7
Pamela A Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Madhan Masilamani, Wenjuan Gu, Erica Brittain, Robert Wood, Jennifer Kim, Kari Nadeau, Kirsi M Jarvinen, Alexander Grishin, Robert Lindblad, Hugh A Sampson
BACKGROUND: In our recent clinical trial, the addition of omalizumab to oral immunotherapy (OIT) for milk allergy improved safety but no significant clinical benefit was detected. OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms by which omalizumab modulates immunity in the context of OIT, and to identify baseline biomarkers that predict subgroups of patients most likely to benefit from omalizumab. METHODS: Blood was obtained at baseline and multiple time-points during a placebo-controlled trial of OIT for milk allergy where subjects were randomized to receive omalizumab or placebo...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413769/update-on-biomarkers-to-monitor-clinical-efficacy-response-during-and-post-treatment-in-allergen-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Lubna Kouser, Jasper Kappen, Ross P Walton, Mohamed H Shamji
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an immune modulating treatment for allergic diseases. Although highly effective, some patients do not respond to the treatment. To date there are no surrogate biomarkers that are predictive of the clinical response to AIT. More and more is known about the underlying immunological mechanism involved in AIT. Through modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, involving reduced ILC2 and enhanced Treg and Breg induction and functionality, along with induction of IgG4 antibody production which have the capacity to inhibit both allergen-induced basophil responsiveness and CD23-mediated IgE-facilitated allergen presentation, the result is an immune skewing towards a more balanced Type I response...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408751/mmp9-integrates-multiple-immunoregulatory-pathways-that-discriminate-high-suppressive-activity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Carolina Lavini-Ramos, Hernandez Moura Silva, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Sandra Maria Monteiro, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto Ferreira, Ana Paula Pacanaro, Samirah Gomes, Janaína Batista, Kellen Faé, Jorge Kalil, Verônica Coelho
The mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cells' (MSC) suppressive potency are largely unknown. We here show that highly suppressive human adipose tissue-derived MSC (AdMSC) display and induce a differential immunologic profile, upon ongoing AdMSC suppressive activity, promoting: (i) early correlated inhibition of IFN-γ and TNF-α production, along IL-10 increase, (ii) CD73(+)Foxp3(+)Treg subset expansion, and (iii) specific correlations between gene expression increases, such as: MMP9 correlated with CCL22, TNF, FASL, RUNX3, and SEMAD4 in AdMSC and, in T cells, MMP9 upregulation correlated with CCR4, IL4 and TBX21, among others, whereas MMP2 correlated with BCL2 and LRRC31...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401935/unique-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-promote-intestinal-polyps-by-suppressing-th1-immunity-and-promoting-regulatory-t-cells
#10
Y Wang, S Sedimbi, L Löfbom, A K Singh, S A Porcelli, S L Cardell
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known as potent early regulatory cells of immune responses. Besides the established roles in the regulation of inflammation and autoimmune disease, studies have shown that iNKT cells have important roles in tumor surveillance and the control of tumor metastasis. Here we found that the absence of iNKT cells markedly decreased the total number of intestinal polyps in APC(Min/+) mice, a model for colorectal cancer. Polyp iNKT cells were enriched for interleukin-10 (IL-10)- and IL-17-producing cells, showed a distinct phenotype being CD4(+), NK1...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399164/sequential-monitoring-of-lymphocyte-subsets-and-of-t-and-b-cell-neogenesis-indexes-to-identify-time-varying-immunologic-profiles-in-relation-to-graft-versus-host-disease-and-relapse-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Cristina Skert, Simone Perucca, Marco Chiarini, Viviana Giustini, Alessandra Sottini, Claudia Ghidini, Stefano Martellos, Federica Cattina, Benedetta Rambaldi, Valeria Cancelli, Michele Malagola, Alessandro Turra, Nicola Polverelli, Simona Bernardi, Luisa Imberti, Domenico Russo
T and B lymphocyte subsets have been not univocally associated to Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse of hematological malignancies after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Their sequential assessment together with B and T cell neogenesis indexes has been not thoroughly analysed in relation to these changing and interrelated immunologic/clinic events yet. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood (PB) and B and T cell neogenesis indexes were analysed together at different time points in a prospective study of 50 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395110/murine-models-of-transplantation-tolerance-through-mixed-chimerism-advances-and-roadblocks
#12
REVIEW
Benedikt Mahr, Thomas Wekerle
Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure but chronic immunosuppression is taking its toll in terms of morbidity and poor efficacy in preventing late graft loss. Therefore a drug-free state would be desirable where the recipient permanently accepts a donor organ while remaining otherwise fully immunologically competent. Mouse studies unveiled mixed chimerism as an effective approach to deliberately induce such donor-specific tolerance and laid the foundation for a series of clinical pilot trials...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390198/long-term-kinetics-of-immunologic-components-and-neurological-deficits-in-rats-following-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Ruojing Bai, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Xintong Ge, Shan Huang, Fanglian Chen, Ping Lei
BACKGROUND Despite growing awareness of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), understanding of the involvement of long-term kinetics of immunologic components in the central and peripheral immune system took part remains incomplete. The present study aimed to provide a quantitative assay for certain immune system parameters in rmTBI rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Neurological functions were assessed by modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and Morris Water Maze (MWM), immunologic components from brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM), and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were measure by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388572/combination-gitr-targeting-pd-1-blockade-with-vaccination-drives-robust-antigen-specific-antitumor-immunity
#14
Daniel O Villarreal, Diana Chin, Melissa A Smith, Leopoldo L Luistro, Linda A Snyder
Tumor progression is facilitated immunologically by mechanisms that include low antigen expression, an absence of coimmunostimulatory signals, and the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which act to suppress and restrict effector T cells in the tumor. It may be possible to overcome these conditions by a combination of modulatory immunotherapy agents and tumor-antigen targeting to activate and drive effective antitumor T cell responses. Here, we demonstrated that co-administration of aGITR and aPD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in combination with a peptide vaccine (Vax) in mice bearing established tumors significantly delayed tumor growth and induced complete regression in 50% of the mice...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387944/th17-and-treg-lymphocytes-as-cellular-biomarkers-of-disease-activity-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#15
Lorenzo Cosmi
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) is a vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting predominantly small- to medium-sized vessels, usually involving the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are probably the initial cause of the inflammatory process that leads to the typical necrotizing lesions. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Szczeklik et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2017. 47: 724-733] report some interesting findings on the possible involvement of T-cell subsets in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387942/the-balance-between-treg-and-th17-cells-cd11b-and-interleukin-6
#16
Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John
One of the gold standards for animal models of rheumatoid arthritis is the murine collagen-induced arthritis model. Native type II collagen together with CFA is injected into susceptible mouse strains. Unfortunately, only mice with H-2(q) or H-2(r) MHC haplotypes are susceptible, making the widely used C57BL/6 mouse strain, which carries the H-2(b) haplotype, resistant against the disease. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Stevanin et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2017. 47: 637-645] now convincingly show that although WT C57BL/6 mice are resistant to collagen-induced arthritis, mice with a homozygous deletion of CD11b on the same genetic background are fully susceptible in this important animal model of rheumatoid arthritis...
April 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360184/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-t-regulatory-cells-in-tumors-unraveling-the-dark-side-of-the-force
#17
REVIEW
Aikaterini Hatziioannou, Themis Alissafi, Panayotis Verginis
Important conceptual advances in tumor immunology over the last years have shifted the paradigm from focusing on the malignant cell to the importance of host immune components in the design of successful immunotherapies. The immune system, through sophisticated innate and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms, inhibits the growth and establishment of tumors. However, despite immune surveillance, tumors still escape and grow, mainly as a result of endowed tumor-induced immunosuppressive circuits. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are the major components of these regulatory networks that facilitate tumor immune escape and significantly compromise the efficacy of current immunotherapies...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343846/higher-levels-of-il-6-cd4-turnover-and-treg-frequency-are-already-present-before-cart-in-hiv-infected-subjects-with-later-low-cd4-recovery
#18
Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, Inmaculada Jarrín, María M Pozo-Balado, Rebeca S de Pablo-Bernal, Inés Herrero-Fernández, Ana I Alvarez-Ríos, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Miguel Genebat, Mar Vera, Juan Berenguer, María L Martín, Enrique Bernal, Francesc Vidal, Julià Blanco, Manuel Leal, Yolanda M Pacheco
Immunological characterization of HIV-infected subjects with low CD4-recovery (LR-subjects) has been extensively performed after a variable period of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We now explore immunological alterations present before the cART onset. In a case-control study, we selected pre-cART samples of HIV-subjects with and without low CD4-recovery after cART (n = 21 per group). CD4 T-cell activation, senescence and exhaustion related markers were not found specifically altered before cART initiation...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327619/il-36%C3%AE-signaling-controls-the-induced-regulatory-t-cell-th9-cell-balance-via-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-stat-transcription-factors
#19
A Harusato, H Abo, V L Ngo, S W Yi, K Mitsutake, S Osuka, J E Kohlmeier, J D Li, A T Gewirtz, A Nusrat, T L Denning
Regulatory and effector T helper (Th) cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, especially in the intestine, where they control the critical balance between tolerance and inflammation. However, the key factors that reciprocally dictate differentiation along these specific lineages remain incompletely understood. Here we report that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family member IL-36γ signals through IL-36 receptor, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and nuclear factor-κBp50 in CD4(+) T cells to potently inhibit Foxp3-expressing induced regulatory T cell (Treg) development, while concomitantly promoting the differentiation of Th9 cells via a IL-2-STAT5- (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 5) and IL-4-STAT6-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320438/regulatory-t-cell-frequency-but-not-plasma-il-33-levels-represents-potential-immunological-biomarker-to-predict-clinical-response-to-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy
#20
Mohan S Maddur, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Mrinmoy Das, Praveen Prakhar, Varun K Sharma, Vikas Singh, Magalie Rabin, Jamma Trinath, Kithiganahalli N Balaji, Francis Bolgert, Jean-Michel Vallat, Laurent Magy, Srini V Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (Treg) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. METHODS: Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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