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Treg, immunology

Shivani Mishra, Anukool Srivastava, Kausik Mandal, Shubha R Phadke
Recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestation. Various causes of RSA have been identified, still 50% cases remain unexplained after evaluation. One of the causes of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA) is supposed to be the disruption of immunological tolerance at foeta-maternal interface. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are responsible for the development of immune-tolerant environment at foetal-maternal interface and supports pregnancy...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Kassem Sharif, Yousra Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Yarden Yavne, Benjamin Lichtbroun, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects close to 1% of couples; however, the etiology is known in only about 50% of the cases. Recent studies show that autoimmune dysregulation is a probable cause of RPL, which in some cases may be overlooked. In order for a pregnancy to proceed to term, early modulation of immunologic response is required to induce tolerance to the semi-allogenic fetus. Certain subsets of both the innate and adaptive immune responses play a role in the induction of fetomaternal tolerance. A relatively predominant T-cell helper (Th) 2 and T regulatory (Treg) cell population seem to favor a better pregnancy outcome, whereas Th1 and Th17 cell populations appear to have an opposite effect...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Robert D Leone, Im-Meng Sun, Min-Hee Oh, Im-Hong Sun, Jiayu Wen, Judson Englert, Jonathan D Powell
Adenosine signaling via the A2a receptor (A2aR) is emerging as an important checkpoint of immune responses. The presence of adenosine in the inflammatory milieu or generated by the CD39/CD73 axis on tissues or T regulatory cells serves to regulate immune responses. By nature of the specialized metabolism of cancer cells, adenosine levels are increased in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor immune evasion. To this end, small molecule inhibitors of the A2aR are being pursued clinically to enhance immunotherapy...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Aneta Monika Gawlik, Elzbieta Berdej-Szczot, Dorota Blat, Renata Klekotka, Tomasz Gawlik, Ewa Blaszczyk, Magdalena Hankus, Ewa Malecka-Tendera
Objective: The risk of autoimmune diseases (AD) in patients with Turner Syndrome (TS) is twice higher than in the general female population and four times higher than in the male population. The causes of the increased incidence of AD in TS are still under discussion. We hypothesized the presence of a specific humoral, cellular, and regulatory T cell (Treg) immunity profile which predisposes to AD, disorders of immunity, and disorders of immune regulation. Methods: The study encompassed 37 girls with TS and with no signs of infection...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jessica Mandrioli, Roberto D'Amico, Elisabetta Zucchi, Annalisa Gessani, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Claudia Caponnetto, Adriano Chiò, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Christian Lunetta, Letizia Mazzini, Kalliopi Marinou, Gianni Sorarù, Sara de Biasi, Domenico Lo Tartaro, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded aggregated proteins and neuroinflammation significantly contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, hence representing therapeutic targets to modify disease expression. Rapamycin inhibits mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and enhances autophagy with demonstrated beneficial effects in neurodegeneration in cell line and animal models, improving phenotype in SQSTM1 zebrafish, in Drosophila model of ALS-TDP, and in the TDP43 mouse model, in which it reduced neuronal loss and TDP43 inclusions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ariel E Marciscano, Ali Ghasemzadeh, Thomas R Nirschl, Debebe Theodros, Christina M Kochel, Brian J Francica, Yuki Muroyama, Robert A Anders, Andrew B Sharabi, Esteban Velarde, Wendy Mao, Kunal R Chaudhary, Matthew G Chaimowitz, John Wong, Mark Selby, Kent B Thudium, Alan J Korman, David Ulmert, Daniel Lj Thorek, Theodore L DeWeese, Charles G Drake
PURPOSE: In the proper context, radiation therapy (RT) can promote anti-tumor immunity. It is unknown if elective nodal irradiation (ENI), a strategy that irradiates tumor-associated draining lymph nodes (DLN), impacts adaptive immune responses and combinatorial efficacy of RT with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a preclinical model to compare stereotactic RT (Tumor RT) with or without ENI to examine immunological differences between RT techniques that spare or irradiate the DLN...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Rajkumar Paul, Sandeep Jaiswal, Natarajan Mahalakshmi, Perumal Kaliraj
Human lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne neglected tropical parasitic disease, needs an early development of prophylactic agents such as a vaccine for its successful elimination. Our earlier study suggested the enhanced immunological response by fusion protein (P-TUFT-ALT-2) of Tuftsin and ALT-2 in a mice model. We cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and treated cells with Escherichia coli -expressed ALT-2 (E-ALT-2) and P-TUFT-ALT-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the mRNA copy number of various cytokine and transcription factor genes...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hiroshi Keino, Shintaro Horie, Sunao Sugita
Certain cellular components of the eye, such as neural retina, are unable to regenerate and replicate after destructive inflammation. Ocular immune privilege provides the eye with immune protection against intraocular inflammation in order to minimize the risk to vision integrity. The eye and immune system use strategies to maintain the ocular immune privilege by regulating the innate and adaptive immune response, which includes immunological ignorance, peripheral tolerance to eye-derived antigens, and intraocular immunosuppressive microenvironment...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Mariana Brutschin Pereira, Luciana Rodrigues Carvalho Barros, Paula A Bracco, Alvaro Vigo, Mariana Boroni, Martín Hernán Bonamino, Guido Lenz
Introduction : Several cell populations from the peripheral immune system interact to create a complex immunologic status during glioblastoma growth and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to integrate the impact of different immune cell populations present in glioblastoma tumor microenvironment on overall survival. Methodology : Gene expression and clinical data were generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas and previously reported meta-signatures representing cells of the immune system were used. The relationship between meta-signatures was evaluated through Pearson's correlation analyses...
2018: Oncoimmunology
In Kyu Lee, Min Jeong Gu, Kwang Hyun Ko, Suhan Bae, Girak Kim, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Eun Bae Kim, Young-Yun Kong, Tae Sub Park, Byung-Chul Park, Hyun Jung Jung, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun
The gut microbiota in chicken has long been studied, mostly from the perspective of growth performance. However, there are some immunological studies regarding gut homeostasis in chicken. Although CD4+ CD25+ T cells are reported to act as regulatory T cells (Tregs) in chicken, there have been no studies showing the relationship between gut microbiota and Tregs. Therefore, we established a model for 'antibiotics (ABX)-treated chickens' through administration of an antibiotic cocktail consisting of ampicillin, gentamycin, neomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin in water for 7 days...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessandra Barbosa Lopes, Larissa Barbosa Lopes, Roseli Nunes da Silveira Antunes, Josianne Thomazini Fukasawa, Debora de Aguiar Cavaretto, Zamir Calamita
BACKGROUND: Immunosenescence is a remodeling of the immune system, caused by aging, with changes in the function of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Treg cells. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of molecules CD11b, CD16 and CD64 (neutrophils), CD154 (T lymphocytes), CD40 (B lymphocytes), and to quantitatively analyze the Treg cell subpopulation. METHOD: Were studied 49 elderlies (60 years) and 49 adults (35 years). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the expression of surface molecules and the subpopulation of Treg cells, and the results between the groups were compared statistically by the t-test...
June 4, 2018: Current Aging Science
Hao Gu, Jie Ma, Zhenping Chen, Jing Wang, Rui Zhang, Runhui Wu
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) usually presents in childhood with fever, nonmalignant splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy along with hemocytopenia. This case report describes a 10-year-old boy presenting with signs of autoimmune disease, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and resistant hemocytopenia. Sirolimus controlled the relapsed thrombocytopenia after splenectomy. Sequencing of the FAS gene identified two spontaneous heterozygous mutations (c.234 T > G, p.D78E) (c.236dupA, p.P80Tfs*26). The boy's homozygous missense variation (c...
June 1, 2018: Gene
Xian Chen, Jie-Xin Zhang, Wen-Wen Shang, Wei-Ping Xie, Shu-Xian Jin, Fang Wang
Good's syndrome (GS) is often accompanied by recurrent respiratory infections and chronic diarrhea. The main purpose was to evaluate the peripheral immune status of a GS patient after thymoma resection. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as healthy controls (HCs). Flow cytometry was applied to determine the proportions of circuiting CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γδ T cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells in our GS patient. We also examined the proliferation capability of ex vivo CD4+ T cells and detected the levels of cytokines interferon- (IFN-) γ and interleukin-17A secreted by ex vivo immune cells from this GS patient...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Gholamreza Azizi, Abbas Mirshafiey, Hassan Abolhassani, Reza Yazdani, Alireza Ghanavatinejad, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Nima Rezaei, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Patients with lipopolysaccharides responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency suffer from a variety of immunological abnormalities. In the current study, we investigated the role of T helper (Th) cell subsets and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines and transcription factors in the immune dysregulation of LRBA deficiency. The study population comprised of 13 LRBA-deficient patients and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Th subsets and Treg were examined by flow cytometry...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yongling Ning, Kai Shen, Qiyong Wu, Xiao Sun, Yu Bai, Yewen Xie, Jie Pan, Chunjian Qi
Tumors can induce the generation and accumulation of immunosuppression in a tumor microenvironment, contributing to the tumor's escape from immunological surveillance. Although tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell can improve anti-tumor immune responses, tumor associated regulatory dendritic cells are involved in the induction of immune tolerance. The current study sought to investigate whether exosomes produced by tumor cells had any effect on DCs in immune suppression. In this study, we examined the effect of tumor exosomes on DCs and found that exosomes from LLC Lewis lung carcinoma or 4T1 breast cancer cell blocked the differentiation of myeloid precursor cells into CD11c+ DCs and induced cell apoptosis...
May 22, 2018: Immunology Letters
Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović, Petar Milovanović, Marija Đurić, Jelena Sopta, Gordana Leposavić
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a frequently used animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, human autoimmune disease that exhibits clear sex bias in incidence and clinical course. Female Dark Agouti rats immunized for CIA showed also greater incidence and higher arthritic score than their male counterparts. The study investigated sex differences in mechanisms controlling the primary immune responses in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), as a factor contributing to this dimorphism. The higher frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3- cells, presumably activated effector T (Teff) cells, and IL-17+, IFN-γ + and IL-17 + IFN-γ + T cells were found in female comapared with male rat dLNs...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Ju Yang, Jing Yan, Baorui Liu
In addition to the crucial role in promoting the growth of tumor vessels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also immunosuppressive. VEGF can inhibit the function of T cells, increase the recruitment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and hinder the differentiation and activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies have investigated the role of antiangiogenic agents in antitumor immunity, especially in recent 3 years. Therefore, it is necessary to update the role of targeting VEGF/VEGFR in antitumor immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yang Yang, Laiyang Cheng, Xiaohui Deng, Hongling Yu, Lan Chao
STUDY QUESTION: Is aberrant expression of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: GRIM-19 deficiency may regulate regulatory T cell/ T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) balance partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis in URSA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immunological disorders may cause impaired maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and result in fetal rejection...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Lisiery N Paiatto, Fernanda G D Silva, Áureo T Yamada, Wirla M S C Tamashiro, Patricia U Simioni
INTRODUCTION: In addition to conventional therapies, several new strategies have been proposed for modulating autoimmune diseases, including the adoptive transfer of immunological cells. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be one of the most promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of adoptive transfer of DCs obtained from both naïve and ovalbumin (OVA)-tolerant mice on the severity of TNBS induced colitis and analyze the eventual protective mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
Yukun Fang, Anhong Ning, Sha Li, Shaozheng Zhou, Lei Liu, Thomson Patrick Joseph, Mintao Zhong, Jilong Jiao, Wei Zhang, Yonghui Shi, Meishan Zhang, Min Huang
Malignant ascites is a highly severe and intractable complication of advanced or recurrent malignant tumors that is often immunotherapy-resistant. Rhizoma Pleionis is widely used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent, but its effectiveness in treating malignant ascites is unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharides isolated from Rhizoma Pleionis (PRP) on murine hepatocarcinoma H22 cells in an ascites model. We have found that the main components of PRP, that presented a relative molecular weight of 383...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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