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Treg, immunology

Sarah Onuora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Edurne Arriola, Matthew Wheater, Maria Antonette Lopez, Gareth Thomas, Christian Ottensmeier
Approximately 30% of patients treated with ipilimumab will develop gastrointestinal toxicity. The immunological drivers that underpin the clinical observations in human tissues are poorly understood. We report here on the immune consequences of ipilimumab treatment in the colorectal mucosa of patients with treatment-related colitis. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immune infiltrate by CD8(+), FoxP3, and granzyme B (GzmB) in colonic biopsies from 20 patients with ipilimumab-related colitis. We assessed 10 cases with normal colon biopsies for comparison...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Troels Holz Borch, Lotte Engell-Noerregaard, Trine Zeeberg Iversen, Eva Ellebaek, Özcan Met, Morten Hansen, Mads Hald Andersen, Per Thor Straten, Inge Marie Svane
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) has generally not fulfilled its promise in cancer immunotherapy due to ineffective translation of immune responses into clinical responses. A proposed reason for this is intrinsic immune regulatory mechanisms, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs). A metronomic regimen of cyclophosphamide (mCy) has been shown to selectively deplete Tregs. To test this in a clinical setting, we conducted a phase I trial to evaluate the feasibility and safety of vaccination with DCs transfected with mRNA in combination with mCy in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Samuel Torres-Landa, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Enrique Coss-Adame, Miguel A Valdovinos, Edgar Alejandro-Medrano, Bárbara Ramos-Ávalos, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos
The aim of the study was to characterize the presence of diverse CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and regulatory cells in peripheral blood and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) from a young patient with BE/achalasia without treatment versus achalasia group. In order to characterize the circulating cells in this patient, a cytometric analysis was performed. LES tissue was evaluated by double-immunostaining procedure. Five healthy blood donors, 5 type achalasia patients, and 5 oesophagus tissue samples (gastrooesophageal junction) from transplant donors were included as control groups...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Paul C Schröder, Sabina Illi, Vera I Casaca, Anna Lluis, Andreas Böck, Caroline Roduit, Martin Depner, Remo Frei, Jon Genuneit, Petra Ina Pfefferle, Marjut Roponen, Juliane Weber, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Josef Riedler, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Juha Pekkanen, Roger Lauener, Erika von Mutius, Bianca Schaub, Anne Hyvärinen, Anne M Karvonen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Pekka Tiittanen, Sami Remes, Vincent Kaulek, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Markus J Ege, Georg J Loss, Harald Renz, Gert Doekes, Michael Kabesch
BACKGROUND: Farm exposure protects against development of allergies early in life. At 4.5 years, protection against asthma by farm-milk exposure was partially mediated by regulatory T-cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to investigate the critical time window of the "asthma-protective" farm effect via Tregs during childhood immune maturation. METHODS: Tregs were assessed longitudinally at 4.5 and 6 years in 111 children (56 farm, 55 reference children) from the PASTURE/EFRAIM birth cohort (flow-cytometry)...
October 12, 2016: Allergy
Ana María Vega-Letter, Mónica Kurte, Catalina Fernández-O'Ryan, Melanie Gauthier-Abeliuk, Patricia Fuenzalida, Ivón Moya-Uribe, Claudia Altamirano, Fernando Figueroa, Carlos Irarrázabal, Flavio Carrión
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been observed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate their immunoregulatory properties depending on the specific in-vitro activation of different Toll-like receptors (TLR), such as TLR3 and TLR4. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pretreatment on the immunological capacity of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: C57BL/6 bone marrow-derived MSCs were pretreated with poly(I:C) and LPS for 1 hour and their immunomodulatory capacity was evaluated...
October 10, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Katharina Bell, Anna Holz, Kirstin Ludwig, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz H Grus
BACKGROUND: Many studies analyzing neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate altered frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Till date, there is hardly any information concerning Tregs in glaucoma. To gather first results concerning Treg levels in glaucoma patients, we aimed to investigate whether the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)T cells vary in the patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy controls. METHODS: Heparinized blood samples were collected from 16 healthy individuals and 16 POAG patients...
October 10, 2016: Current Eye Research
Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Wafa Nouari, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an imbalance between inflammation and repair. Recently, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, i.e. 1,25(OH)2D3, has been reported to have potent immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as on the production of their specific cytokines. METHODS: We examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 and anti-inflammatory Th2/Treg related cytokines, as well as on the phosphorylation of monocyte-expressed STAT4 and STAT6 at the recent-onset human T1D...
October 4, 2016: Immunology Letters
T G Coursey, F Bian, M Zaheer, S C Pflugfelder, E A Volpe, C S de Paiva
In both humans and animal models, the development of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and non-SS keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) increases with age. Here, we investigated the ocular surface and lacrimal gland (LG) phenotype of NOD.B10.H2(b) mice at 7-14, 45-50, and 96-100 weeks. Aged mice develop increased corneal permeability, CD4(+) T-cell infiltration, and conjunctival goblet cell loss. Aged mice have LG atrophy with increased lymphocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokine levels. An increase in the frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) was observed with age in the cervical lymph node (CLN), spleen, and LG...
October 5, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
L Li, J Tu, Y Jiang, J Zhou, D J Schust
Pregnancy loss is the commonest complication of pregnancy. The causes of pregnancy loss are poorly understood. It has been reported that stimulation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells using α-galactosylceramide (αGC) induces pregnancy loss in mice. Here we investigated the mechanisms, especially the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells, in iNKT cell-mediated pregnancy loss. We found that injection of αGC rapidly induced fetal resorption, activated decidual iNKT cells, decreased the percentage of decidual Treg cells and their interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production, and upregulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-4, and IL-10 in serum...
October 5, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Antonella Riccomi, Valentina Gesa, Alessandra Sacchi, Maria Teresa De Magistris, Silvia Vendetti
We have shown that cholera toxin (CT) and other cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents induce upregulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on human CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, which include the T regulatory cells (Tregs) that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP-elevating agents induce upregulation of CTLA-4 in CD4(+)CD25(-) and further enhance its expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Valerie A Gerriets, Rigel J Kishton, Marc O Johnson, Sivan Cohen, Peter J Siska, Amanda G Nichols, Marc O Warmoes, Aguirre A de Cubas, Nancie J MacIver, Jason W Locasale, Laurence A Turka, Andrew D Wells, Jeffrey C Rathmell
CD4(+) effector T cells (Teff cells) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) undergo metabolic reprogramming to support proliferation and immunological function. Although signaling via the lipid kinase PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase), the serine-threonine kinase Akt and the metabolic checkpoint kinase complex mTORC1 induces both expression of the glucose transporter Glut1 and aerobic glycolysis for Teff cell proliferation and inflammatory function, the mechanisms that regulate Treg cell metabolism and function remain unclear...
October 3, 2016: Nature Immunology
Ye Shu, Qinghua Hu, Hai Long, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu, Rong Xiao
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain unknown. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of mature T cells which have an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), a member of the fork head transcription factor family, is recognized as a marker of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. The decreased number and/or function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral blood and related tissues has been demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases, which are at least partially regulated by epigenetic mechanisms...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Emma Eriksson, Jessica Wenthe, Sandra Irenaeus, Angelica Loskog, Gustav Ullenhag
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy can be potentiated by conditioning regimens such as cyclophosphamide, which reduces the level of regulatory T cells (tregs). However, myeloid suppressive cells are still remaining. Accordingly to previous reports, gemcitabine improves immune status of cancer patients. In this study, the role of gemcitabine was further explored to map its immunological target cells and molecules in patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patient blood was investigated by flow cytometry and cytokine arrays at different time points during gemcitabine treatment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Periklis Dousdampanis, Kostantina Trigka, Athanasia Mouzaki
Kidney transplantation is recognised as the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation continues to face several challenges including long-term graft and patient survival, and the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The tendency in kidney transplantation is to avoid the side effects of immunosuppresants and induce immune tolerance. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) contribute to self-tolerance, tolerance to alloantigen and transplant tolerance, mainly by suppressing the activation and function of reactive effector T-cells...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Vikram Mehraj, Feras M Ghazawi, Rémi Fromentin, Joëlle Brousseau, Pierre Brassard, Maud Bélanger, Petronela Ancuta, Reina Bendayan, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy
OBJECTIVE: HIV persistence in long-lived infected cells and in anatomical sanctuary sites are major hurdles to HIV eradication. Testicular tissue may represent a significant viral sanctuary site as it constitutes an immunologically-privileged compartment. We assessed immuno-tolerance properties of the testicular tissue in individuals receiving suppressive ART. DESIGN AND METHODS: Testicular tissue and matched blood samples were collected from 6 virally suppressed adults and 10 HIV-uninfected controls prior to gender reassignment surgery...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
María Perera, Teresa Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Classically, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was thought to be caused by the destruction and insufficient production of platelets, as mediated by autoantibodies. More recently other immune mechanisms that contribute to the disease have been discovered. This review attempts to address the main unresolved questions in ITP. METHODS: We review the most current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ITP. Immunological effects of available therapies are also described...
September 27, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Michael J Haller, Stephen E Gitelman, Peter A Gottlieb, Aaron W Michels, Daniel J Perry, Andrew R Schultz, Maigan A Hulme, Jonathan J Shuster, Baiming Zou, Clive H Wasserfall, Amanda Posgai, Clayton E Mathews, Todd M Brusko, Mark A Atkinson, Desmond A Schatz
Low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) + pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) preserves beta cell function for at least 12-months in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we describe metabolic and immunologic parameters 24-months following treatment. Patients with established T1D (duration 4-24 months) were randomized to ATG and peg-G-CSF (N=17) or placebo (N=8). Primary outcomes included AUC C-peptide following mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and flow cytometry. "Responders" (12-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), "Super-responders" (24-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), and "Non-responders" (12-month C-peptide < baseline) were evaluated for biomarkers of outcome...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes
Nader Bagheri, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Hedayatollah Shirzad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection does not disappear and a chronic active gastritis continues if left untreated. It has been shown that the topographical pattern and immune response of gastritis are the main reasons for the bacteria persistence and the clinical outcome. Gastritis due to H. pylori is caused by a complicated interaction among a variety of T cell subsets. Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppressing the immune response of antigen-specific T-cells have recently been demonstrated to play a key role in chronic inflammation by immunologic tolerance...
May 2016: Archives of Medical Research
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