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donor specific antibody

Marcelo Piaia, Carolina Bonet Bub, Guilherme de Menezes Succi, Margareth Torres, Thiago Henrique Costa, Fabricio Costa Pinheiro, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga
According to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplants, in 2015, 19,408 bone transplants were performed in Brazil, over 90% by Dental Surgeons. The surgical technique itself has a respectable number of reports regarding its clinical efficacy, as measured by long-term survival of dental implants in grafted areas. Uncertainty remains, however, as to whether fresh frozen grafts from human bone donors remain immunologically innocuous in the body of the host. Six male with no previous medical history of note, including systemic diseases, surgery or blood transfusion were selected...
October 25, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Undine Schulz, Angelika Reil, Volker Kiefel, Jürgen Bux, Rainer Moog
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI), a high number of plasma donors were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies. For HNA antibody detection, the gold standard is a combination of the granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and the granulocyte agglutination test (GAT). However, these tests are not suitable for a high-throughput of samples. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To evaluate the new generation of the LABScreen MULTI assay (One Lambda, Inc...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Ronald F Parsons, Jayme E Locke, Robert R Redfield, Garrett R Roll, Matthew H Levine
Deceased donor kidney allocation was reorganized in the United States to address several problems, including the highly sensitized patients disadvantaged with large, diverse repertoires of antibodies. Here, five transplant surgeons review their center's experience with the new allocation changes: highlighting areas of accomplishment, opportunities for improvement and, in some cases, stark differences in practice. Across these five centers the highly sensitized patients (CPRA ⩾98%) range from 5.5 to 9.2% of the 12,364 candidates on their collective waitlist...
October 20, 2016: Human Immunology
Rene J Duquesnoy
The new kidney allocation system (KAS) still applies donor-recipient HLA compatibility mostly at the antigen level and although some four-digit alleles have been included. This system is used to record unacceptable mismatches for sensitized transplant candidates with serum HLA antibodies. Since the reactivities of such antibodies are specifically associated with epitopes rather than HLA antigens, a more scientifically accurate assessment of mismatch acceptability could be based on epitopes. HLA class I and class II epitope specificity analyses can now be readily performed with serum antibody assays with single allele panels...
October 19, 2016: Human Immunology
D Luethy, S D Owens, D Stefanovski, R Nolen-Walston, U Giger
BACKGROUND: Assessment of blood compatibility, typically by tube agglutination (TUBE) and hemolysis crossmatch or, less commonly, by blood typing and alloantibody screening, often is performed before blood transfusion in horses. In contrast, gel column (GEL) and immunochromatographic strip (STRIP) techniques are preferred for compatibility testing in dogs and cats. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of novel and standard crossmatch and typing methods. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight healthy horses, previously blood typed and alloantibody screened...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Byung Ha Chung, Jeong Ho Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Cheol Whee Park, Ji-Il Kim, In Sung Moon, Yong-Soo Kim, Yeong Jin Choi, Eun-Jee Oh, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: This study investigated the clinical significance of detecting anti-human leukocyte antigen-donor specific antibody (HLA-DSA) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) requiring indication biopsy owing to allograft dysfunction. Methods: We analyzed the presence of HLA-DSA in 210 KTRs who took indication biopsy. We divided these cases into two groups, HLA-DSA (+) (n = 52) and HLA-DSA (-) (n = 158) group, and compared the clinical characteristics, pathological findings, and clinical outcomes of the two groups...
October 20, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Francesca Diomedi Camassei, Antonina Piazza, Elvira Poggi, Luca Dello Strologo
BACKGROUND: Several cases of severe antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) secondary to antibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Ab) have been described with variable outcome. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report the case of a 13-year-old boy whose first kidney transplant failed due to steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection, with the subsequent development of sensitization. He received a second kidney transplant which was complicated by early humoral rejection, with weakly positive staining for the complement degradation product C4d...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. NoV-specific serum antibodies which block the binding of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to the cell receptors have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight healthy adult human donors previously exposed to NoV were stimulated with purified VLPs derived from NoV GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
David K Packham, Ian R Fraser, Peter G Kerr, Karen R Segal
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal failure. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and explored therapeutic effects of adult allogeneic bone-marrow derived mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) in patients with moderate to severe diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, dose-escalating, sequential, placebo-controlled trial assessing a single intravenous (IV) infusion of allogeneic MPC (United States adopted name: rexlemestrocel-L) 150×10(6) (n=10), 300×10(6) (n=10) or placebo (n=10) in adults with diabetic nephropathy with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 20-50ml/min/1...
September 17, 2016: EBioMedicine
Yihung Huang, Evan Farkash
As both T cell and antibody-mediated rejection can have a subclinical phase, protocol biopsies provide an early opportunity to intervene before the onset of clinical allograft dysfunction. Protocol biopsies are usually done after reperfusion to establish baseline, between 3 and 6 months to identify subclinical rejection, and at 6-12 months to assess chronicity and persistent inflammation that have prognostic implication. Treatment of both subclinical T cell and antibody-mediated rejection prevents progression of rejection and development of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy or transplant glomerulopathy...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Jeffrey Ma, Anita Patel, Kathryn Tinckam
This review paper discusses the impact of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to donor HLA antigens in kidney transplantation and summarizes the benefits and challenges that exist with DSA monitoring. Post-transplant DSA is associated with worse allograft outcomes and its detection may precede or coincide with clinical, biochemical, and histologic allograft dysfunction. There are no absolute features of DSA testing results that perfectly discriminate between states of disease and health. In a state of antibody-associated graft dysfunction, removal or reduction in DSA may only provide clinical benefit for some...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
M Pereira, J Guerra, J Gonçalves, A Santana, C Nascimento, A G da Costa
Hyperacute rejection (HAR) is a rare event that can be prevented by crossmatch tests that detect anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies against the donor. We present the case of a 43-year-old man who underwent a deceased-donor kidney transplantation with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity and a negative flow cytometry crossmatch. Luminex technology detected anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with a mean fluorescence intensity of 11,000. A single plasmapheresis session was carried out, followed by immunosuppression with immunoglobulin, antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, and methylprednisolone...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Bumpei Samata, Daisuke Doi, Kaneyasu Nishimura, Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Akira Watanabe, Yoshimasa Sakamoto, Jungo Kakuta, Yuichi Ono, Jun Takahashi
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. To eliminate these unwanted cells, cell sorting using antibodies for specific markers such as CORIN or ALCAM has been developed, but neither marker is specific for ventral midbrain. Here we employ a double selection strategy for cells expressing both CORIN and LMX1A::GFP, and report a cell surface marker to enrich mDA progenitors, LRTM1...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Ilaria Bortoluzzi, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 260 million people globally, with increasing incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite antiviral therapies, HBV-related end-stage liver disease remains one of the most important indications for liver transplantation worldwide. Although new available treatments have improved the outcome of patients with both compensated and decompensated liver disease in some specific clinical settings as acute-on-chronic liver failure mortality is still high. Moreover, the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seems to be increasing and represents a major challenge for the transplant team...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Christine Gonzales, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Nahzli Dilek, Julie Leignadier, Melita Irving, Pascal Mieville, Lothar Helm, Olivier Michielin, Juerg Schwitter
BACKGROUND: 19F-MRI and 19F-MRS can identify specific cell types after in-vitro or in-vivo 19F-labeling. Knowledge on the potential to track in-vitro 19F-labeled immune cells in tumor models by 19F-MRI/MRS is scarce. AIM: To study 19F-based MR techniques for in-vivo tracking of adoptively transferred immune cells after in-vitro 19F-labeling, i.e. to detect and monitor their migration non-invasively in melanoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Splenocytes (SP) were labeled in-vitro with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and IV-injected into non-tumor bearing mice...
2016: PloS One
Bing-Mae Chen, Yu-Cheng Su, Chia-Jung Chang, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Kuo-Hsiang Chuang, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Tian-Lu Cheng, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Steve R Roffler
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a biocompatible polymer that is often attached to therapeutic molecules to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Although antibodies with specificity for PEG may compromise the safety and effectiveness of PEGylated medicines, the prevalence of pre-existing anti-PEG antibodies in healthy individuals is unclear. Chimeric human anti-PEG antibody standards were created to accurately measure anti-PEG IgM and IgG antibodies by direct ELISA with confirmation by a competition assay in the plasma of 1504 healthy Han Chinese donors residing in Taiwan...
October 11, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
A Sankiewicz, Z Lukaszewski, K Trojanowska, E Gorodkiewicz
Serum collagen type IV (COLIV) is a promising tumor marker. High COLIV concentrations have been found in the serum of patients with colorectal, gastric, lung, liver and breast cancers. The aim of this work was to develop a biosensor for use with the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) technique for COLIV determination. The biosensor consists of glass covered with gold and immobilized monoclonal mouse anti-human collagen type IV antibody via cysteamine linker. The biosensor works selectively within a dynamic response range between 10 and 300 ng mL(-1), with LOD 2...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
N Quraishy, S Sapatnekar
The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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