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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312862/polyoma-virus-nephropathy-in-kidney-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Jacob Rw Scadden, Adnan Sharif, Kassi Skordilis, Richard Borrows
BK virus (BKV) is a polyomavirus that is able to cause renal dysfunction in transplanted grafts via BK virus-associated nephritis (BKVAN). This condition was mis-diagnosed in the past due to clinical and histopthological similarities with acute rejection. Due to the prevalence of the virus in the population, it is an important pathogen in this context, and so it is important to understand how this virus functions and its' relationship with the pathogenesis of BKVN. Screening for BKV often reveals viruria and/or viremia, which then manifests as BKVN, which can be asymptomatic or result in clinical features namely renal dysfunction...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302585/high-intensity-interval-training-increases-natural-killer-cell-number-and-function-in-obese-breast-cancer-challenged-mice-and-obese-women
#2
Nicole G Barra, Isabella Y Fan, Jenna B Gillen, Marianne Chew, Katarina Marcinko, Gregory R Steinberg, Martin J Gibala, Ali A Ashkar
High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220404/pymt-maclow-a-novel-inducible-murine-model-for-determining-the-role-of-cd68-positive-cells-in-breast-tumor-development
#3
Robin M H Rumney, Seth B Coffelt, Terence A Neale, Sandeep Dhayade, Gillian M Tozer, Gaynor Miller
CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pro-tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and are associated with decreased survival rates in patients with cancer, including breast cancer. Non-specific models of macrophage ablation reduce the number of TAMs and limit the development of mammary tumors. However, the lack of specificity and side effects associated with these models compromise their reliability. We hypothesized that specific and controlled macrophage depletion would provide precise data on the effects of reducing TAM numbers on tumor development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169987/the-r-enantiomer-of-ketorolac-delays-mammary-tumor-development-in-mouse-mammary-tumor-virus-polyoma-middle-t-antigen-mmtv-pymt-mice
#4
Amanda S Peretti, Dayna Dominguez, Martha M Grimes, Helen J Hathaway, Eric R Prossnitz, Melanie R Rivera, Angela Wandinger-Ness, Donna F Kusewitt, Laurie G Hudson
Epidemiologic studies report improved breast cancer survival in women receiving ketorolac (Toradol®) for post-operative pain relief compared to other analgesics. Ketorolac is a racemic drug. The S-enantiomer inhibits cyclooxygenases; R-ketorolac is a selective inhibitor of the small GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), which are signaling molecules up-regulated during breast cancer progression and metastasis. our goal was to determine whether R-ketorolac altered breast cancer development in the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) model...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156681/the-histone-demethylase-kdm3a-is-required-for-normal-epithelial-proliferation-ductal-elongation-and-tumor-growth-in-the-mouse-mammary-gland
#5
Li Qin, Yixiang Xu, Xiaobin Yu, Michael J Toneff, Dabing Li, Lan Liao, Jarrod D Martinez, Yi Li, Jianming Xu
Histone modification alters chromatin architecture to regulate gene transcription. KDM3A is a histone demethylase in the JmjC domain-containing protein family. It removes di- and mono- methyl residues from di- or mono-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2/me1). Recent studies have shown that Kdm3a plays an important role in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, spermatogenesis, metabolism, sex determination and tumor angiogenesis. However, its role in mammary gland development and breast carcinogenesis remains unclear...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143415/severe-bk-polyomavirus-induced-hemorrhagic-cystitis-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-with-absence-of-renal-allograft-involvement
#6
Mahwash Kamal, Amit Govil, Manish Anand, Bassam G Abu Jawdeh, Silvi Shah
BK polyomavirus mostly manifests as polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) in kidney transplant patients and polyoma virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (PyVHC) in bone marrow transplant patients. PyVHC in kidney transplant patients is only reported in four cases in the literature. Our patient had severe hemorrhagic cystitis without renal involvement. We postulate that our patient's exposure to ifosfamide and radiation 8 years prior transplantation might pre-dispose him to this disease. This article is protected by copyright...
November 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104861/graft-loss-among-renal-transplant-recipients-with-early-reduction-of-immunosuppression-for-bk-viremia
#7
Marwan M Azar, Roland Assi, Aziz K Valika, David B Banach, Isaac E Hall, Marie-Louise Landry, Maricar F Malinis
AIM: To review the incidence of graft loss and acute rejection among renal transplant recipients with early reduction of immunosuppression for BK viremia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive de-novo kidney-only transplants from January 2009 to December 2012 to evaluate the incidence of Polyoma-virus associated nephropathy (PyVAN). Recipient plasma was screened for BKV DNA via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 post-transplant and on worsening graft function...
October 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104053/polyoma-small-t-upregulates-the-expression-of-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-mammalian-cells-during-mitosis
#8
Irfana Reshi, Zarka Sarwar, Sameer Ahmed Bhat, Syed Qaaifah Gillani, Misbah Shah, Khalid Majid Fazili, Shaida Andrabi
Mammalian cells expressing murine polyoma small T antigen are known to undergo prolonged mitotic arrest followed by extensive cell death. However, the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. While studying the mechanism related to small T induced mitotic arrest in mammalian cells, we observed the expression of various cytoskeletal proteins was unusually altered in polyoma small T expressing cell line. Since most of the cytoskeletal proteins are reoriented during mitosis and are involved in spindle formation, so it was pertinent to investigate the expression of these genes in PyST expressing cell line...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055440/merkel-cell-carcinoma-with-fingolimod-treatment-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#9
Kedar R Mahajan, Jennifer S Ko, Michael T Tetzlaff, Courtney W Hudgens, Steven D Billings, Jeffrey A Cohen
Neoplasms and reactivation of latent viruses have been observed in individuals taking fingolimod. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare neuroendocrine skin cancer, is associated with immunosuppression and can be triggered by the oncogenic Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). We report a case of a 61-year-old man with multiple sclerosis who developed MCPyV-positive MCC 4 years after starting fingolimod. This is the second report of MCC associated with MCPyV in an individual on fingolimod.
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#10
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984642/viral-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-novel-updates-and-a-review-of-the-classics
#11
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize new discoveries in viral pathogenesis and novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: For decades, prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been the standard preventive strategy, but new clinical trials are expected to determine the advantages of preemptive therapy over prophylaxis. Novel anti-CMV agents, such as maribavir and letermovir, are being studied for the treatment of resistant/refractory CMV as alternatives to foscarnet and cidofovir...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984299/medical-renal-diseases-are-frequent-but-often-unrecognized-in-adult-autopsies
#12
Marie E Perrone, Anthony Chang, Kammi J Henriksen
Kidney diseases affect many hospitalized patients and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, kidney disease should be prevalent, but the frequency and spectrum of medical renal pathology in autopsy specimens has not been well documented. We sought to determine the spectrum of medical renal pathology in adult autopsy specimens and the frequency of overlooked diagnoses. We reviewed the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained kidney sections from 140 adult autopsies performed at a large teaching hospital over a 2-year period...
October 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947147/differentiation-of-minute-virus-of-mice-and-mouse-parvovirus-by-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis
#13
Dan Rao, Miaoli Wu, Jing Wang, Wen Yuan, Yujun Zhu, Feng Cong, Fengjiao Xu, Yuexiao Lian, Bihong Huang, Qiwen Wu, Meili Chen, Yu Zhang, Ren Huang, Pengju Guo
Murine parvovirus is one of the most prevalent infectious pathogens in mouse colonies. A specific primer pair targeting the VP2 gene of minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV) was utilized for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. The resulting melting curves could distinguish these two virus strains and there was no detectable amplification of the other mouse pathogens which included rat parvovirus (KRV), ectromelia virus (ECT), mouse adenovirus (MAD), mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV), polyoma virus (Poly), Helicobactor hepaticus (H...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922413/exploitation-of-stable-nanostructures-based-on-the-mouse-polyomavirus-for-development-of-a-recombinant-vaccine-against-porcine-circovirus-2
#14
Martin Fraiberk, Michaela Hájková, Magdaléna Krulová, Martina Kojzarová, Alena Drda Morávková, Ivan Pšikal, Jitka Forstová
The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-directed production of chimeric MPyV VLPs or pentamers of the major capsid protein, VP1, were designed for their exploitation as vaccines against other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881673/bromodomain-inhibition-shows-antitumoral-activity-in-mice-and-human-luminal-breast-cancer
#15
Montserrat Pérez-Salvia, Laia Simó-Riudalbas, Pere Llinàs-Arias, Laura Roa, Fernando Setien, Marta Soler, Manuel Castro de Moura, James E Bradner, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Catia Moutinho, Manel Esteller
BET bromodomain inhibitors, which have an antitumoral effect against various solid cancer tumor types, have not been studied in detail in luminal breast cancer, despite the prevalence of this subtype of mammary malignancy. Here we demonstrate that the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 exerts growth-inhibitory activity in human luminal breast cancer cell lines associated with a depletion of the C-MYC oncogene, but does not alter the expression levels of the BRD4 bromodomain protein. Interestingly, expression microarray analyses indicate that, upon JQ1 administration, the antitumoral phenotype also involves downregulation of relevant breast cancer oncogenes such as the Breast Carcinoma-Amplified Sequence 1 (BCAS1) and the PDZ Domain-Containing 1 (PDZK1)...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800720/jc-virus-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-rare-case
#16
Archana Rastogi, Natasha Gulati, Chhagan Bihari, Ashok Chaudhary, Kalpana Bansal, Shridhar Sasturkar, Shalini Thapar, Viniyendra Pamecha
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by polyoma JC virus is a rare and severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It occurs in immunocompromised patients and is scarcely reported in liver transplant recipients. Brain biopsy demonstrating demyelination with presence of foamy macrophages, relative preservation of axons, astrogliosis, and typical polyomavirus inclusions in the enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei is essential for diagnosis. Here, we report a case of JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a living-donor liver transplant recipient who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702160/bk-virus-associated-hemorrhagic-cystitis-in-patients-with-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-report-of-three-cases
#17
Duygu Mert, Hikmetullah Batgi, Alparslan Merdin, Sabahat Çeken, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Emre Tekgündüz, Fevzi Altuntaş, Mustafa Ertek
BK viras is a human polyoma viras. It is acquired in early childhood and remains life-long latent in the genitourinary system. BK virus replication is more common in receiving immunosuppressive therapy receiving patients and transplant patients. BK virus could cause hemorrhagic cystitis in patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis could cause morbidity and long stay in the hospital. Diagnosis is more frequently determined by the presence of BK virus DNA detected with quantitative or real-time PCR testing in serum or plasma and less often in urine...
June 1, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686294/nfat-regulated-cytokine-gene-expression-during-tacrolimus-therapy-early-after-renal-transplantation
#18
Sara Bremer, Nils T Vethe, Morten Skauby, Margrete Kasbo, Elisabet D Johansson, Karsten Midtvedt, Stein Bergan
AIMS: Despite pharmacokinetic monitoring of calcineurin inhibitors, the long-term outcome after transplantation (Tx) is still hampered by the side effects of these drugs. The aim of the present study was to characterize nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-regulated gene expression as a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker for further individualization of tacrolimus (Tac) therapy. METHODS: In 29 renal allograft recipients, samples were drawn once pre-Tx, and before and 1...
November 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624801/bromodomain-inhibition-shows-antitumoral-activity-in-mice-and-human-luminal-breast-cancer
#19
Montserrat Pérez-Salvia, Laia Simó-Riudalbas, Pere Llinàs-Arias, Laura Roa, Fernando Setien, Marta Soler, Manuel Castro de Moura, James E Bradner, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Catia Moutinho, Manel Esteller
BET bromodomain inhibitors, which have an antitumoral effect against various solid cancer tumor types, have not been studied in detail in luminal breast cancer, despite the prevalence of this subtype of mammary malignancy. Here we demonstrate that the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 exerts growth-inhibitory activity in human luminal breast cancer cell lines associated with a depletion of the C-MYC oncogene, but does not alter the expression levels of the BRD4 bromodomain protein. Interestingly, expression microarray analyses indicate that, upon JQ1 administration, the antitumoral phenotype also involves downregulation of relevant breast cancer oncogenes such as the Breast Carcinoma-Amplified Sequence 1 (BCAS1) and the PDZ Domain-Containing 1 (PDZK1)...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611083/inhibition-of-ciliogenesis-promotes-hedgehog-signaling-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#20
Nadia B Hassounah, Martha Nunez, Colleen Fordyce, Denise Roe, Ray Nagle, Thomas Bunch, Kimberly M McDermott
Primary cilia are chemosensors that play a dual role to either activate or repress Hedgehog signaling, depending on presence or absence of ligand, respectively. While inhibition of ciliogenesis has been shown to be characteristic of breast cancers, the functional consequence is unknown. Here, for the first time, inhibition of ciliogenesis led to earlier tumor formation, faster tumor growth rate, higher grade tumor formation, and increased metastasis in the polyoma middle T (PyMT) mouse model of breast cancer...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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