Read by QxMD icon Read

Microbiome, cancer,ibd, mechanism

Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Micah G Donovan, Ornella I Selmin, Tom C Doetschman, Donato F Romagnolo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
Mingsong Kang, Alberto Martin
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs in many human chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Reciprocally, uncontrolled immune responses, that may or may not be induced by dysbiosis, are central to the development of IBD and CAC. There has been a surge of interest in investigating the relationship between microbiota, inflammation and CAC. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to gut microbiota and chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as IBD and CAC...
August 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Peyton Cramer, Robert S Bresalier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal complications are very common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Some of these complications can be life threatening and require prompt and appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to address luminal gastrointestinal and hepatic complications associated with a new class of anticancer drugs, immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), and focuses on the identification, evaluation, and management of the complications associated with this class of drugs...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Celestine Wong, Philip J Harris, Lynnette R Ferguson
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Avinash K Kudva, Ashley E Shay, K Sandeep Prabhu
Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
C T Peterson, V Sharma, L Elmén, S N Peterson
The distal gut harbours ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system...
March 2015: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jong-Min Park, Na Young Han, Young-Min Han, Mi Kyung Chung, Hoo Keun Lee, Kwang Hyun Ko, Eun-Hee Kim, Ki Baik Hahm
Recent advances in genomic medicine have opened up the possibility of tailored medicine that may eventually replace traditional "one-size-fits all" approaches to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to exploring the interactions between hosts and microbes, referred to as the microbiome, a variety of strategies that can be tailored to an individual in the coming era of personalized medicine in the treatment of IBD are being investigated. These include prompt genomic screening of patients at risk of developing IBD, the utility of molecular discrimination of IBD subtypes among patients diagnosed with IBD, and the discovery of proteome biomarkers to diagnose or predict cancer risks...
October 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Y W Han, X Wang
The link between oral infections and adverse systemic conditions has attracted much attention in the research community. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including spread of the oral infection due to transient bacteremia resulting in bacterial colonization in extra-oral sites, systemic injury by free toxins of oral pathogens, and systemic inflammation caused by soluble antigens of oral pathogens. Mounting evidence supports a major role of the systemic spread of oral commensals and pathogens to distant body sites causing extra-oral infections and inflammation...
June 2013: Journal of Dental Research
I Merelli, F Viti, L Milanesi
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) refer to a group of inflammatory conditions concerning colon and small intestine, which cause socially uncomfortable symptoms and often are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. IBD are complex disorders, which rely on genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, deregulation of the immune system, and host relationship with commensal microbiota. The complexity of these pathologies makes difficult to clearly understand the mechanisms of their onset...
2012: BMC Bioinformatics
Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Renata Stěpánková, Hana Kozáková, Tomáš Hudcovic, Luca Vannucci, Ludmila Tučková, Pavel Rossmann, Tomáš Hrnčíř, Miloslav Kverka, Zuzana Zákostelská, Klára Klimešová, Jaroslava Přibylová, Jiřina Bártová, Daniel Sanchez, Petra Fundová, Dana Borovská, Dagmar Srůtková, Zdeněk Zídek, Martin Schwarzer, Pavel Drastich, David P Funda
Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria)...
March 2011: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Janelle C Arthur, Christian Jobin
Recently, an unprecedented effort has been directed at understanding the interplay between chronic inflammation and development of cancer, with the case of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer at the forefront of this research endeavor. The last decade has been particularly fertile, with the discovery of numerous innovative paradigms linking various inflammatory, proliferative, and innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways to the development of colorectal cancer. Because of the preponderant role of the intestinal microbiota in the initiation and progression of IBD, recent efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between bacteria and colorectal cancer...
January 2011: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"