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Microbiome, cancer,ibd, mechanism

Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Celestine Wong, Philip J Harris, Lynnette R Ferguson
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to be an important cause of disease progression and the gastrointestinal symptoms experienced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Inflammation appears to be a major contributor in perpetuating a dysregulated gut microbiota. Although current drug therapies can significantly induce and maintain disease remission, there is no cure for these diseases. Nevertheless, ongoing human studies investigating dietary fibre interventions may potentially prove to exert beneficial outcomes for IBD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Avinash K Kudva, Ashley E Shay, K Sandeep Prabhu
Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
C T Peterson, V Sharma, L Elmén, S N Peterson
The distal gut harbours ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system...
March 2015: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Jong-Min Park, Na Young Han, Young-Min Han, Mi Kyung Chung, Hoo Keun Lee, Kwang Hyun Ko, Eun-Hee Kim, Ki Baik Hahm
Recent advances in genomic medicine have opened up the possibility of tailored medicine that may eventually replace traditional "one-size-fits all" approaches to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to exploring the interactions between hosts and microbes, referred to as the microbiome, a variety of strategies that can be tailored to an individual in the coming era of personalized medicine in the treatment of IBD are being investigated. These include prompt genomic screening of patients at risk of developing IBD, the utility of molecular discrimination of IBD subtypes among patients diagnosed with IBD, and the discovery of proteome biomarkers to diagnose or predict cancer risks...
October 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Y W Han, X Wang
The link between oral infections and adverse systemic conditions has attracted much attention in the research community. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including spread of the oral infection due to transient bacteremia resulting in bacterial colonization in extra-oral sites, systemic injury by free toxins of oral pathogens, and systemic inflammation caused by soluble antigens of oral pathogens. Mounting evidence supports a major role of the systemic spread of oral commensals and pathogens to distant body sites causing extra-oral infections and inflammation...
June 2013: Journal of Dental Research
I Merelli, F Viti, L Milanesi
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) refer to a group of inflammatory conditions concerning colon and small intestine, which cause socially uncomfortable symptoms and often are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. IBD are complex disorders, which rely on genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, deregulation of the immune system, and host relationship with commensal microbiota. The complexity of these pathologies makes difficult to clearly understand the mechanisms of their onset...
2012: BMC Bioinformatics
Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Renata Stěpánková, Hana Kozáková, Tomáš Hudcovic, Luca Vannucci, Ludmila Tučková, Pavel Rossmann, Tomáš Hrnčíř, Miloslav Kverka, Zuzana Zákostelská, Klára Klimešová, Jaroslava Přibylová, Jiřina Bártová, Daniel Sanchez, Petra Fundová, Dana Borovská, Dagmar Srůtková, Zdeněk Zídek, Martin Schwarzer, Pavel Drastich, David P Funda
Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria)...
March 2011: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Janelle C Arthur, Christian Jobin
Recently, an unprecedented effort has been directed at understanding the interplay between chronic inflammation and development of cancer, with the case of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer at the forefront of this research endeavor. The last decade has been particularly fertile, with the discovery of numerous innovative paradigms linking various inflammatory, proliferative, and innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways to the development of colorectal cancer. Because of the preponderant role of the intestinal microbiota in the initiation and progression of IBD, recent efforts have been directed at understanding the relationship between bacteria and colorectal cancer...
January 2011: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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