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Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fernando J Martinez, Jørgen Vestbo, Julie A Anderson, Robert D Brook, Bartolome R Celli, Nicholas J Cowans, Courtney Crim, Mark Dransfield, Sally Kilbride, Julie Yates, David E Newby, Dennis Niewoehner, Peter Ma Calverley
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids have been shown to decrease exacerbations in COPD patients with moderate to severe COPD. Their effect in patients with milder airflow obstruction remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This was an analysis of exacerbations in the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy (SUMMIT) study. DESIGN: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, once daily inhaled placebo, fluticasone furoate (FF, 100 μg), vilanterol (VI, 25 μg) or the combination (FF/VI) was administered...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
J R Baker, C Vuppusetty, T Colley, Andriana I Papaioannou, P Fenwick, Louise Donnelly, K Ito, P J Barnes
Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and SIRT6, NAD(+)-dependent Class III protein deacetylases, are putative anti-aging enzymes, down-regulated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by the accelerated ageing of the lung and associated with increased oxidative stress. Here, we show that oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) selectively elevates microRNA-34a (miR-34a) but not the related miR-34b/c, with concomitant reduction of SIRT1/-6 in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B), which was also observed in peripheral lung samples from patients with COPD...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoonki Hong, You-Sun Kim, Seok-Ho Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice...
October 21, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan Harper, Neil Derek Eves
COPD is associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and large increases in negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP). The individual and interactive effect of these stressors on left ventricular (LV) filling, emptying and geometry, and the role of direct ventricular interaction (DVI) in mediating these interactions have not been fully elucidated. Twenty healthy subjects were exposed to the following stressors alone and in combination: 1) inspiratory resistive loading of -20 cmH2O (nITP), 2) expiratory resistive loading to cause dynamic hyperinflation (DH), and 3) normobaric-hypoxia to increase PVR (hPVR)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Josefin Sundh, Scott Montgomery, Mikael Hasselgren, Mary Kämpe, Christer Janson, Björn Ställberg, Karin Lisspers
Health status is a prognostic factor included in the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to examine the associations of clinical factors with change in health status over a 7-year follow-up period. In 2005, 970 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis completed questionnaires including the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ); and in 2012, 413 completed the CCQ questionnaire again. Linear regression used difference in mean total CCQ score between 2005 and 2012 as the dependent variable...
October 20, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
César Alameda, Ángel Carlos Matía, Verónica Casado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Adam J N Raymakers, Natalie McCormick, Carlo A Marra, J Mark Fitzgerald, Don Sin, Larry D Lynd
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are commonly prescribed to COPD patients, particularly those with more advanced stages of the disease. These patients are also at increased risk of lung cancer. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies that examined the association between lung cancer risk and ICS therapy in COPD patients. The search strategy was created in MEDLINE and extended to EMBASE as well as other relevant databases. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were considered for inclusion...
October 19, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Rafael Mesquita, Frits M E Franssen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Yvonne M J Goërtz, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and to what extent impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) affects physical and psychological status in COPD. We aimed to compare health outcome measures between COPD patients with and without impaired LVEF after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and FEV1. METHODS: Impaired LVEF was defined as values <50%. 85 COPD patients with impaired LVEF and 85 COPD patients with normal LVEF were matched for sex, age, BMI and FEV1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Renata Rubinsztajn, Tadeusz Przybyłowski, Marta Maskey-Warzęchowska, Krzysztof Karwat, Ryszarda Chazan
: Body composition disorders are observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and have a significant impact the general condition and outcome in this disease. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess body composition in relation to airway obstruction severity in patients with COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 143 patients (58F, 85M) in the middle age The group was divided to two groups: group A FEV1<50% predicted and group B FEV1 ≥50% predicted; both groups were compared...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Martina Doubková, Michal Karpíšek, Jiri Mazoch, Jana Skřičková, Michael Doubek
BACKGROUND: Identification of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers may facilitate diagnosis and prognostication in various lung disorders. OBJECTIVE: Serum and BALF levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), Clara cell protein 16 (CC16), S100 protein, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and prostatic secretory protein 94 (PSP94) were evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n=18), sarcoidosis (n=25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=51)), and in 155 healthy controls...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
C Savelkoul, A F Klijnsma, E Balk, A Janse, D H T Tjan
Acute intensive care (IC) triage involves a challenging decision-making process. Physicians are required to make life or death decisions about an unfamiliar patient within a short time frame. An 84-year-old female was admitted to the stroke unit following an extensive cerebral infarction. The intensive care unit (ICU) physician was consulted because of a suspected severe abdominal sepsis even though ICU treatment had never previously been discussed. A 77-year-old female with a previous history of myocardial infarction and severe COPD developed acute respiratory failure on the ward, and was admitted to the ICU for support by a mechanical ventilator...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Katarzyna Górska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Rafał Krenke
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) seems a promising asthma biomarker. In earlier studies, mainly the serum concentration of TSLP was investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the TSLP concentration measured by two different ELISA kits in the serum, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate in asthma, COPD, and control subjects. The study included 24 asthmatics, 36 patients with COPD, and 12 controls. TSLP concentration was measured with the use of R&D and EIAab commercial ELISA kits. The results obtained with the EIAab kit were 3 to even 45-fold higher than those measured with the R&D kit...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hye Seon Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Sung Kyoung Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Hyung Kyu Yoon, Joong Hyun Ahn, Yong Hyun Kim
PURPOSE: We compared the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with eosinophilic and neutrophilic COPD exacerbations requiring hospital admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study performed between January 2010 and December 2014. In all, 1,688 COPD patients admitted via the outpatient clinics or emergency departments of six university hospitals were enrolled. The patients were grouped by complete blood counts: eosinophilic group, >2% peripheral blood eosinophils, and neutrophilic group, >65% peripheral blood neutrophils or >11,000 leukocytes/mL...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jing Gao, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Jukka Koskela, Harri Alenius, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Tarja Laitinen, Witold Mazur, Ville Pulkkinen
Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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