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"Cognition"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231476/evaluation-of-cognitive-performance-in-professional-divers-by-means-of-event-related-potentials-and-neuropsychology
#2
Mehmet Ergen, Atilla Uslu, Ozlem Caglar, Sukriye Akca-Kalem, Maide Cimsit, Hakan Gurvit
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether professional air diving with no decompression illness causes any long-term changes in cognitive functions. METHODS: The all-male participants consisted of 18 healthy control (HC) volunteers and 32 divers. Divers were divided into two subgroups as moderate exposure group, Divers-I (DI) and extensive exposure group, Divers-II (DII). Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while they performed auditory oddball task and visual continuous performance test (CPT)...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#3
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231265/resist-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial-for-resistance-training-maintenance-in-adults-with-prediabetes
#4
Brenda M Davy, Richard A Winett, Jyoti Savla, Elaina L Marinik, Mary Elizabeth Baugh, Kyle D Flack, Tanya M Halliday, Sarah A Kelleher, Sheila G Winett, David M Williams, Soheir Boshra
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves resistance training (RT) maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231024/incorporating-behavioral-techniques-into-a-serious-videogame-for-children
#5
Debbe Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how to design serious videogames for children. The purpose of this article is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious videogame to help children consume more fruits and vegetables (FVs) and the extent to which these techniques were used by players. A secondary goal is to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge regarding how to design effective serious videogames for children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research examines the game play data from an effective 10-episode online serious videogame promoting FV consumption to preadolescent children in the United States (roughly 9-11-year-olds)...
February 23, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230894/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-bias-reduction-strategies-in-the-forensic-and-clinical-sciences
#6
Joseph J Lockhart, Saty Satya-Murti
Cognitive effort is an essential part of both forensic and clinical decision-making. Errors occur in both fields because the cognitive process is complex and prone to bias. We performed a selective review of full-text English language literature on cognitive bias leading to diagnostic and forensic errors. Earlier work (1970-2000) concentrated on classifying and raising bias awareness. Recently (2000-2016), the emphasis has shifted toward strategies for "debiasing." While the forensic sciences have focused on the control of misleading contextual cues, clinical debiasing efforts have relied on checklists and hypothetical scenarios...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230848/computational-approaches-to-fmri-analysis
#7
Jonathan D Cohen, Nathaniel Daw, Barbara Engelhardt, Uri Hasson, Kai Li, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman, Jonathan Pillow, Peter J Ramadge, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Theodore L Willke
Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230845/dynamic-models-of-large-scale-brain-activity
#8
REVIEW
Michael Breakspear
Movement, cognition and perception arise from the collective activity of neurons within cortical circuits and across large-scale systems of the brain. While the causes of single neuron spikes have been understood for decades, the processes that support collective neural behavior in large-scale cortical systems are less clear and have been at times the subject of contention. Modeling large-scale brain activity with nonlinear dynamical systems theory allows the integration of experimental data from multiple modalities into a common framework that facilitates prediction, testing and possible refutation...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#9
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230841/magnetoencephalography-for-brain-electrophysiology-and-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Sylvain Baillet
We review the aspects that uniquely characterize magnetoencephalography (MEG) among the techniques available to explore and resolve brain function and dysfunction. While emphasizing its specific strengths in terms of millisecond source imaging, we also identify and discuss current practical challenges, in particular in signal extraction and interpretation. We also take issue with some perceived disadvantages of MEG, including the misconception that the technique is redundant with electroencephalography. Overall, MEG contributes uniquely to our deeper comprehension of both regional and large-scale brain dynamics: from the functions of neural oscillations and the nature of event-related brain activation, to the mechanisms of functional connectivity between regions and the emergence of modes of network communication in brain systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230732/effects-of-acute-blueberry-flavonoids-on-mood-in-children-and-young-adults
#11
Sundus Khalid, Katie L Barfoot, Gabrielle May, Daniel J Lamport, Shirley A Reynolds, Claire M Williams
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination) that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18-21 years old) consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230730/physical-activity-a-viable-way-to-reduce-the-risks-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia-in-older-adults
#12
REVIEW
Patrick J Gallaway, Hiroji Miyake, Maciej S Buchowski, Mieko Shimada, Yutaka Yoshitake, Angela S Kim, Nobuko Hongu
A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA) with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA's role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research...
February 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230705/determinant-variables-enteric-pathogen-burden-gut-function-and-immune-related-inflammatory-biomarkers-associated-with-childhood-malnutrition-a-prospective-case-control-study-in-northeastern-brazil
#13
Aldo Am Lima, Álvaro M Leite, Alessandra Di Moura, Noélia L Lima, Alberto M Soares, Cláudia B Abreu, José Quirino Filho, Rosa Ms Mota, Ila Fn Lima, Alexandre Havt, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Mara Mg Prata, Marjorie M Guedes, Paloma A Cavalcante, Herlice N Veras, Ana Ks Santos, Sean R Moore, Relana C Pinkerton, Eric R Houpt, Richard L Guerrant
Malnutrition results in serious consequences for growth and cognitive development in children. We studied select child and maternal biological factors, socio-economic factors, enteric pathogenic burden, and gut function biomarkers in 402 children 6-24 months of age in North-eastern Brazil. In this prospective case-control study, not being fed colostrum (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-6.26), maternal age ≥18 years (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.10-3.22), and no electrical fan (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#14
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#15
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230528/biologically-plausible-learning-in-recurrent-neural-networks-reproduces-neural-dynamics-observed-during-cognitive-tasks
#16
Thomas Miconi
Neural activity during cognitive tasks exhibits complex dynamics that flexibly encode task-relevant variables. Chaotic recurrent networks, which spontaneously generate rich dynamics, have been proposed as a model of cortical computation during cognitive tasks. However, existing methods for training these networks are either biologically implausible, and/or require a continuous, real-time error signal to guide learning. Here we show that a biologically plausible learning rule can train such recurrent networks, guided solely by delayed, phasic rewards at the end of each trial...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230463/hypnotism-as-a-function-of-trance-state-effects-expectancy-and-suggestibility-an-italian-replication
#17
Ronald J Pekala, Francesca Baglio, Monia Cabinio, Susanna Lipari, Gisella Baglio, Laura Mendozzi, Pietro Cecconi, Luigi Pugnetti, Riccardo Sciaky
Previous research using stepwise regression analyses found self-reported hypnotic depth (srHD) to be a function of suggestibility, trance state effects, and expectancy. This study sought to replicate and expand that research using a general state measure of hypnotic responsivity, the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). Ninety-five participants completed an Italian translation of the PCI-HAP, with srHD scores predicted from the PCI-HAP assessment items. The regression analysis replicated the previous research results...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230462/a-nonrandomized-comparison-study-of-self-hypnosis-yoga-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-to-reduce-emotional-distress-in-breast-cancer-patients
#18
Isabelle Bragard, Anne-Marie Etienne, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Philippe Coucke, Eric Lifrange, Hélène Schroeder, Aurélie Wagener, Gilles Dupuis, Guy Jerusalem
The authors asked breast cancer (BC) patients to participate in 1 of 3 mind-body interventions (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), yoga, or self-hypnosis) to explore their feasibility, ease of compliance, and impact on the participants' distress, quality of life (QoL), sleep, and mental adjustment. Ninety-nine patients completed an intervention (CBT: n = 10; yoga: n = 21; and self-hypnosis: n = 68). Results showed high feasibility and high compliance. After the interventions, there was no significant effect in the CBT group but significant positive effects on distress in the yoga and self-hypnosis groups, and, also, on QoL, sleep, and mental adjustment in the self-hypnosis group...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230422/effects-of-arousal-and-context-on-recognition-memory-for-emotional-pictures-in-younger-and-older-adults
#19
Yang Wang, Jiongjiong Yang
: Background/Study Context: Previous studies found that older adults tend to remember more positive than negative information (i.e., positivity bias), leading to an age-related positivity effect. However, the extent to which factors of arousal and contextual information influence the positivity bias in older adults remains to be determined. METHODS: In this study, 27 Chinese younger adults (20.00 ± 1.75 years) and 33 Chinese older adults (70.76 ± 5.49) learned pictures with negative, positive, and neutral valences...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230421/medicare-expenditure-correlates-of-atrophy-and-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#20
Briana S Last, Maria-José García Rubio, Carolyn W Zhu, Stephanie Cosentino, Jennifer J Manly, Charles DeCarli, Yaakov Stern, Adam M Brickman
: Background/Study Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of cerebrovascular disease and atrophy are common in older adults and are associated with cognitive and medical burden. However, the extent to which they are related to health care expenditures has not been examined. We studied whether increased Medicare expenditures were associated with brain markers of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease in older adults. METHODS: A subset of participants (n = 592; mean age = 80 years; 66% women) from the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a community-based observational study of aging in upper Manhattan, received high-resolution MRI and had Medicare expenditure data on file...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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