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"Cognition"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656549/sodium-nitroprusside-is-effective-in-preventing-and-or-reversing-the-development-of-schizophrenia-related-behaviors-in-an-animal-model-the-shr-strain
#1
Mariana C Diana, Fernanda F Peres, Veronica Justi, Rodrigo A Bressan, Acioly L T Lacerda, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Vanesssa Costhek Abilio
AIMS: The treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, the search for new treatments and prevention is crucial, and animal models are fundamental tools for this objective. Preclinical and clinical data evidence the antipsychotic profile of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. We aimed to investigate SNP in treating and/or preventing the schizophrenia-related behaviors presented by the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strain...
April 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#2
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656487/experimental-research-requires-valid-and-sensitive-measures-of-alcohol-intake-and-this-is-a-step-in-the-right-direction-commentary-on-leeman-et-al-2018
#3
Matt Field, Andrew Jones, Inge Kersbergen, Eric Robinson
The paper by Leeman and colleagues (2018) makes an important contribution to the broader literature on cognitive bias modification (CBM) for alcohol use disorders. In a balanced discussion, the authors speculate on possible explanations for their null findings, including failure of CBM to change cognitive biases, participant characteristics, and the suitability and sensitivity of the alcohol self-administration paradigm that was the primary outcome measure. The former explanations have been the subject of recent discussion, often heated (see Cristea, Kok, & Cuijpers, 2015, 2017, 2018; Grafton et al...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656437/structural-correlates-of-openness-and-intellect-implications-for-the-contribution-of-personality-to-creativity
#4
Oshin Vartanian, Christopher J Wertz, Ranee A Flores, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Rex E Jung
Openness/Intellect (i.e., openness to experience) is the Big Five personality factor most consistently associated with individual differences in creativity. Recent psychometric evidence has demonstrated that this factor consists of two distinct aspects-Intellect and Openness. Whereas Intellect reflects perceived intelligence and intellectual engagement, Openness reflects engagement with fantasy, perception, and aesthetics. We investigated the extent to which Openness and Intellect are associated with variations in brain structure as measured by cortical thickness, area, and volume (N = 185)...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656360/dietary-vitamin-e-status-dictates-oxidative-stress-outcomes-by-modulating-effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-in-alzheimer-disease-model-app-swe-ps1-de9-mice
#5
Shengqi Dong, Xiaochen Huang, Jie Zhen, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, JiaJia Wang, Cui Zhou, Linhong Yuan
Quite a number of studies have examined the effects of fish oil supplementation on cognitive performance in different transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, inconsistent and controversial outcomes have been derived from these experiments. In order to investigate whether the beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation on cognition was dietary VE status associated, fish oil dietary intervention was carried out in transgenic APPswe /PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. Control mice (C57BL/6J mice) were fed a normal control diet...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656343/lateralisation-in-parkinson-disease
#6
REVIEW
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656290/psychosocial-cognitive-and-physical-impact-of-elaborate-consultations-and-life-review-in-female-patients-with-non-metastasized-breast-cancer
#7
Anja Thronicke, Matthias Kröz, Antje Merkle, Harald Matthes, Cornelia Herbstreit, Friedemann Schad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Complementary Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656271/spanish-validation-of-a-specific-measure-to-assess-work-related-problems-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-the-multiple-sclerosis-work-difficulties-questionnaire-mswdq-23
#8
María L Martínez-Ginés, Jose M García-Domínguez, Lucía Forero, Neus Canal, Pablo Rebollo, Daniel Prefasi, Cynthia A Honan, Jorge Maurino
INTRODUCTION: Unemployment is a significant problem for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The MS Work Difficulties Questionnaire (MSWDQ-23) is a self-report tool to assess work-related problems in people with MS across three domains: physical, psychological/cognitive, and external barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the MSWDQ-23. METHODS: A multicentre, non-interventional, cross-sectional study in adult patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or primary progressive (PPMS) multiple sclerosis (McDonald 2010 criteria) was conducted...
April 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656261/young-adult-cognitive-ability-and-subsequent-major-depression-in-a-cohort-of-666-804-danish-men
#9
Gunhild Tidemann Christensen, Maarten Pieter Rozing, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Merete Osler
BACKGROUND: Early life cognitive ability (CA) might influence the risk of developing major depression (MD). The aim was to investigate the association between young adult CA and subsequent MD in relation to different MD disease characteristics. METHODS: Information on CA was assessed at conscription board examinations 1957-1984 (mean age 19 years) and information on MD was based on hospital diagnosis retrieved from Danish Patient registers 1969-2015. Associations between CA and MD were examined using Cox regression analyses...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656245/individual-differences-in-socioemotional-sensitivity-are-an-index-of-salience-network-function
#10
Gianina Toller, Jesse Brown, Marc Sollberger, Suzanne M Shdo, Laura Bouvet, Paul Sukhanov, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Connectivity in intrinsically connected networks (ICNs) may predict individual differences in cognition and behavior. The drastic alterations in socioemotional awareness of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are presumed to arise from changes in one such ICN, the salience network (SN). We examined how individual differences in SN connectivity are reflected in overt social behavior in healthy individuals and patients, both to provide neuroscientific insight into this key brain-behavior relationship, and to provide a practical tool to diagnose patients with early bvFTD...
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656189/quantitative-electroencephalography-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-fluctuations-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-an-aid-to-differential-diagnosis
#11
Myrto Stylianou, Nicholas Murphy, Luis R Peraza, Sara Graziadio, Ruth Cromarty, Alison Killen, John T O' Brien, Alan J Thomas, Fiona E N LeBeau, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: We investigated for quantitative EEG (QEEG) differences between Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients and healthy controls, and for QEEG signatures of cognitive fluctuations (CFs) in DLB. METHODS: We analysed eyes-closed, resting state EEGs from 18 AD, 17 DLB and 17 PDD patients with mild dementia, and 21 age-matched controls. Measures included spectral power, dominant frequency (DF), frequency prevalence (FP), and temporal DF variability (DFV), within defined EEG frequency bands and cortical regions...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656106/supporting-cognitive-control-through-competition-and-cooperation-in-childhood
#12
Paula Fischer, Letizia Camba, Seok Hui Ooi, Nicolas Chevalier
Cognitive control is often engaged in social contexts where actions are socially relevant. Yet, little is known about the immediate influence of the social context on childhood cognitive control. To examine whether competition or cooperation can enhance cognitive control, preschool and school-age children completed the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) in competitive, cooperative, and neutral contexts. Children made fewer errors, responded faster, and engaged more cognitive effort, as shown by greater pupil dilation, in the competitive and cooperative social contexts relative to the neutral context...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656094/social-interaction-with-a-tutor-modulates-responsiveness-of-specific-auditory-neurons-in-juvenile-zebra-finches
#13
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656092/sleep-deprivation-impairs-cognitive-performance-in-zebrafish-a-matter-of-fact
#14
Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Steven Tran, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a valuable model organism for behavioral studies examining learning and memory. Its diurnal circadian rhythm and characterized sleep-like state make it comparable to mammals, features that have contributed to establishing this small vertebrate as a translational model for sleep research. Despite sleep being an evolutionarily conserved behavior, its mechanisms and functions are still debated. Sleep deprivation is commonly associated with decreased attention, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, altered locomotor activity and impaired performance on cognitive tasks...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656076/is-improved-lane-keeping-during-cognitive-load-caused-by-increased-physical-arousal-or-gaze-concentration-toward-the-road-center
#15
Penghui Li, Gustav Markkula, Yibing Li, Natasha Merat
Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance...
April 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656030/post-stroke-depression-the-sequelae-of-cerebral-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Jyotirekha Das, G K Rajanikant
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mental health issue, afflicting around 33% of stroke survivors. PSD has a negative impact on the rehabilitation, recuperation of motor and cognitive deficits following stroke and significantly increases the chances of relapsing neurovascular events. It has been demonstrated that biological and psychological factors have a significant role in PSD. Numerous endeavors have been made to discover the risk factors and predictors of PSD. Screening and diagnosis also have gained attention; however, a suitable tool is yet to be developed...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656013/escitalopram-alleviates-stress-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits-by-reducing-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-and-insulin-gsk-3%C3%AE-signal-pathway-activity
#17
Chao Wu, Wei-Gang Gong, Yan-Juan Wang, Jun-Jun Sun, Hong Zhou, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Qing-Guo Ren
Chronic stress, a causal factor for depression, can also cause cognitive impairments and tau pathology. However, whether and how the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant escitalopram ameliorates these effects are still unclear. In the present study, rats were subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress for 8 weeks. Following the initial 4 weeks, the stressed animals were separated into susceptible (depressive) and unsusceptible (resistant) groups based on behavioral tests. Then, escitalopram (10 mg/kg i...
March 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656011/apoe-genotype-modifies-the-association-between-central-arterial-stiffening-and-cognition-in-older-adults
#18
Francis E Cambronero, Dandan Liu, Jacquelyn E Neal, Elizabeth E Moore, Katherine A Gifford, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Kimberly R Pechman, Katie E Osborn, Timothy J Hohman, Susan P Bell, J David Sweatt, Thomas J Wang, Joshua A Beckman, John Jeffrey Carr, Angela L Jefferson
Arterial stiffening is associated with cognitive impairment and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. This study tested the interaction between arterial stiffening and an Alzheimer's disease genetic risk factor (apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype) on cognition among older adults. Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project participants with normal cognition (n = 162, 72 ± 7 years, 29% APOE-ε4 carrier) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 121, 73 ± 8 years, 42% APOE-ε4 carrier) completed neuropsychological assessment and cardiac MRI to assess aortic stiffening using pulse wave velocity (PWV, m/s)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656010/age-related-defects-in-short-term-plasticity-are-reversed-by-acetyl-l-carnitine-at-the-mouse-calyx-of-held
#19
Mahendra Singh, Pedro Miura, Robert Renden
Hearing acuity and sound localization are affected by aging and may contribute to cognitive dementias. Although loss of sensorineural conduction is well documented to occur with age, little is known regarding short-term synaptic plasticity in central auditory nuclei. Age-related changes in synaptic transmission properties were evaluated at the mouse calyx of Held, a sign-inverting relay synapse in the circuit for sound localization, in juvenile adults (1 month old) and late middle-aged (18-21 months old) mice...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655945/long-term-westernized-diet-leads-to-region-specific-changes-in-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#20
Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and down-stream markers of synaptic plasticity, as well as alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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