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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822348/risk-factors-for-potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#1
Slobodan M Janković, Ana V Pejčić, Miloš N Milosavljević, Valentina D Opančina, Nikola V Pešić, Tamara T Nedeljković, Goran M Babić
PURPOSE: To determine risk factors for each severity-based category of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) encountered at intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated at the ICU of the Clinical Center Kragujevac, a public tertiary care hospital in Kragujevac, Serbia. Three interaction checkers were used to reveal drug-drug interactions: Medscape, Epocrates and Micromedex. RESULTS: The study included 201 patients, 66...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#2
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822309/nature-based-solutions-to-promote-human-resilience-and-wellbeing-in-cities-during-increasingly-hot-summers
#3
Angelo Panno, Giuseppe Carrus, Raffaele Lafortezza, Luigi Mariani, Giovanni Sanesi
Air temperatures are increasing because of global climate change. A warming phenomenon strongly related to global climate change is the urban heat island. It has been shown that the hotter temperatures occurring in cities during the summer negatively affect human wellbeing, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between hotter temperatures, cognitive psychological resources and wellbeing. The aim of the present research is to understand whether, and how, spending time in urban green spaces, which can be considered as a specific kind of Nature-Based Solution (NBS), helps the recovery of cognitive resources and wellbeing...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822299/avoidance-and-depression-vulnerability-an-examination-of-avoidance-in-remitted-and-currently-depressed-individuals
#4
Leanne Quigley, Alainna Wen, Keith S Dobson
Behavioral theories posit that depression is characterized by heightened levels of avoidance, and recent research has supported this notion. Whether avoidance persists after remission from depression is unknown, however. In this study, we investigated levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance in remitted, currently, and never depressed individuals. We also examined relationships among avoidance and purported adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Remitted depressed individuals exhibited levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, in social and nonsocial domains, that were greater than nonclinical control individuals but lower than currently depressed individuals...
July 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822294/does-reconsolidation-occur-in-natural-settings-memory-reconsolidation-and-anxiety-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Fernández, María E Pedreira, Mariano M Boccia
In normal settings, our brain is able to update its stored representations in content, strength, and/or expectations by the memory reconsolidation process. Thus, a reactivated memory enters in a transient labile state (destabilization) followed by a re-stabilization phase in order to persist (memory reconsolidation). Cognitive neuroscience and its insight into psychiatric problems attributed a close relationship between memory (formation, maintenance, and utilization) and several mental disorders. In this framework, the reconsolidation process could be not only the mechanism for maintenance of some psychopathologies, but also open a novel therapeutic window...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#6
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822221/brain-plasticity-cognitive-functions-and-neural-stem-cells-a-pivotal-role-for-the-brain-specific-neural-master-gene-srgap2-fam72
#7
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ho, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 - family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#8
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#9
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822019/gypenoside-ix-suppresses-p38-mapk-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes-stimulated-by-proinflammatory-mediators
#10
Xiaoshuang Wang, Liu Yang, Li Yang, Faping Xing, Hua Yang, Liyue Qin, Yunyi Lan, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Cheng Lu, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821967/effects-of-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-a-serotonergic-cell-line
#11
Zoya Marinova, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
The neuropeptides oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the regulation of social behavior and cognition. The current study analyzed the effect of oxytocin and AVP on proliferation and differentiation of serotonergic neurons (RN46A cells). Oxytocin did not affect, while 5-10 μM AVP decreased RN46A proliferation. Oxytocin did not significantly alter, while 10 μM AVP decreased the number of cells extending neurites. We found divergent effects of oxytocin and AVP in serotonergic neurons, underscoring their functional differences...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821958/midlife-work-related-stress-is-associated-with-late-life-cognition
#12
Shireen Sindi, Ingemar Kåreholt, Alina Solomon, Babak Hooshmand, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821923/ankg-hemizygous-mice-present-cognitive-impairment-and-elevated-anxiety-depressive-like-traits-associated-with-decreased-expression-of-gaba-receptors-and-postsynaptic-density-protein
#13
Cui Liu, Ling Zhang, Jie Wu, Xiaolong Sui, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yunlin Han, Hua Zhu, Yanhong Li, Xiuping Sun, Chuan Qin
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of patient populations and genetic linkage assessments have demonstrated that the ankyrin-G (AnkG) gene is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease, but it remains unclear how the genetic variants of AnkG contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we generated AnkG hemizygous mice using the gene trapping approach. Homozygous AnkG was embryonically lethal. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assessments of wild type (WT) and AnkG (+/-) mutant mice demonstrated a 50% reduction of ANKG levels, at the gene and protein levels, in AnkG hemizygous mice...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821846/the-effects-of-long-term-abacus-training-on-topological-properties-of-brain-functional-networks
#14
Jian Weng, Ye Xie, Chunjie Wang, Feiyan Chen
Previous studies in the field of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training have shown that this training has the potential to enhance a wide variety of cognitive abilities. It can also generate specific changes in brain structure and function. However, there is lack of studies investigating the impact of AMC training on the characteristics of brain networks. In this study, utilizing graph-based network analysis, we compared topological properties of brain functional networks between an AMC group and a matched control group...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#15
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821719/neural-physiological-and-behavioral-correlates-of-visuomotor-cognitive-load
#16
S M Hadi Hosseini, Jennifer L Bruno, Joseph M Baker, Andrew Gundran, Lene K Harbott, J Christian Gerdes, Allan L Reiss
Visuomotor ability is quite crucial for everyday functioning, particularly in driving and sports. While there is accumulating evidence regarding neural correlates of visuomotor transformation, less is known about the brain regions that accommodate visuomotor mapping under different cognitive demands. We concurrently measured cortical activity and pupillary response, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and eye-tracking glasses, to examine the neural systems linked to pupil dilation under varying cognitive demands...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821706/apigenin-ameliorates-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-through-histone-acetylation-mediated-neurochemical-alterations
#17
Fengxia Tu, Qiongyi Pang, Tingting Huang, Yun Zhao, Meixia Liu, Xiang Chen
BACKGROUND To identify the effect of apigenin on cognitive deficits of rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, and to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rats were given sodium butyrate (NaB) or apigenin (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 28 days. Cognition was investigated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. On day 28, the rats were euthanized and their hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical and neurochemical alterations. The content of histone deacetylase (HDAC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821687/mri-substrates-of-sustained-attention-system-and-cognitive-impairment-in-pediatric-ms-patients
#18
Ermelinda De Meo, Lucia Moiola, Angelo Ghezzi, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Ruggero Capra, Maria Pia Amato, Elisabetta Pagani, Agnese Fiorino, Lorena Pippolo, Maria C Pera, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To explore the structural and functional integrity of the sustained attention system in patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients with pediatric MS and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Patients with >3 abnormal tests at neuropsychological evaluation were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Sustained attention system activity was studied with fMRI during the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821686/effect-of-simvastatin-on-csf-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#19
Ge Li, Cynthia L Mayer, Daniel Morelli, Steven P Millard, Wendy H Raskind, Eric C Petrie, Monique Cherrier, Anne M Fagan, Murray A Raskind, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVE: To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. METHODS: Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821682/amyloid-and-tau-pathology-in-normal-cognitive-aging
#20
Emilie T Reas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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