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"Cognition"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913528/blood-pressure-and-cognitive-performance-after-a-single-administration-of-a-camphor-crataegus-combination-in-adolescents-with-low-blood-pressure
#1
Rainer Schandry, Daniela Lindauer, Matthias Mauz
Low blood pressure is rather widespread among adolescents and frequently accompanied by complaints. Two single-center, double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials were performed with adolescent participants in the age range of 14 - 17 y having a systolic blood pressure below 118 mmHg (boys) or 110 mmHg (girls). They received a single dose of 20 drops of a fixed combination of natural D-camphor and an ethanolic extract from fresh Crataegus berries (CCC) or of an ethanolic placebo. The efficacy of CCC (commercial name Korodin) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of low blood pressure in adults of all ages, although related placebo-controlled, double-blind studies for adolescents following European (EU) pediatric regulations are lacking...
June 18, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913450/lower-cognitive-function-in-older-patients-with-lower-muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass
#2
Romee van Dam, Jeanine M Van Ancum, Sjors Verlaan, Kira Scheerman, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. METHODS: This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT)...
June 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#3
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913382/the-perception-of-text-triggers-reflexive-oculomotor-orienting
#4
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913355/statistical-experience-and-individual-cognitive-differences-modulate-neural-activity-during-sentence-production
#5
Malathi Thothathiri
I explored how individual cognitive differences combine with prior statistical experience to determine choice of sentence structure during speech. Participants were exposed to English language input with controlled statistical properties wherein some verbs appeared equally often in two possible structures and others appeared in only one. Subsequently, they produced sentences naturally while their brain activity was scanned. Choosing a less preferred over a more preferred structure recruited regions involved in conflict control, especially in individuals with better control abilities...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913351/shedding-light-on-the-association-between-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-deficits-in-cognitive-control-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Ulrike Zetsche, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Lars Schulze
Individuals who experience recurrent negative thoughts are at elevated risk for mood and anxiety disorders. It is thus essential to understand why some individuals get stuck in recurrent negative thinking (RNT), whereas others are able to disengage eventually. Theoretical models propose that individuals high in recurrent negative thinking suffer from deficits in controlling the contents of working memory. Empirical findings, however, are inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 94 studies to examine the proposed association between RNT and deficits in cognitive control...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913342/effects-of-lifetime-noise-exposure-on-the-middle-age-human-auditory-brainstem-response-tinnitus-and-speech-in-noise-intelligibility
#7
Joaquin T Valderrama, Elizabeth Francis Beach, Ingrid Yeend, Mridula Sharma, Bram Van Dun, Harvey Dillon
Recent animal studies have shown that the synapses between inner hair cells and the dendrites of the spiral ganglion cells they innervate are the elements in the cochlea most vulnerable to excessive noise exposure. Particularly in rodents, several studies have concluded that exposure to high level octave-band noise for 2 h leads to an irreversible loss of around 50% of synaptic ribbons, leaving audiometric hearing thresholds unaltered. Cochlear synaptopathy following noise exposure is hypothesized to degrade the neural encoding of sounds at the subcortical level, which would help explain certain listening-in-noise difficulties reported by some subjects with otherwise 'normal' hearing...
June 12, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913315/when-two-are-better-than-one-bilateral-mesial-temporal-lobe-contributions-associated-with-better-vocabulary-skills-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
Lisa Bartha-Doering, Astrid Novak, Kathrin Kollndorfer, Gregor Kasprian, Anna-Lisa Schuler, Madison M Berl, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, William D Gaillard, Johanna Alexopoulos, Daniela Prayer, Rainer Seidl
This study considered the involvement of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in language and verbal memory functions in healthy children and adolescents. We investigated 30 healthy, right-handed children and adolescents, aged 7-16, with a fMRI language paradigm and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. We found significant MTL activations during language fMRI in all participants; 63% of them had left lateralized MTL activations, 20% exhibited right MTL lateralization, and 17% showed bilateral MTL involvement during the fMRI language paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913227/effects-of-bright-light-exposure-on-human-fear-conditioning-extinction-and-associated-prefrontal-activation
#9
Takuya Yoshiike, Motoyasu Honma, Naoto Yamada, Yoshiharu Kim, Kenichi Kuriyama
Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913130/effect-of-5-httlpr-on-current-source-density-connectivity-and-topological-properties-of-resting-state-eeg-networks
#10
Ekaterina A Proshina, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev
The S allele of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been found to increase the risk of depression and other mental health problems, but some evidence suggests that S-allele carriers outperform subjects carrying the long allele in an array of cognitive tasks. Evidence linking this polymorphism with individual variation in electrophysiological properties of resting state brain networks is very limited. This study investigated the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on EEG current source density, connectivity, and topological properties of resting state networks...
June 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913093/recent-advances-in-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-burning-mouth-syndrome
#11
A Ritchie, J M Kramer
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a debilitating condition that has a striking female predilection. Although the oral mucosa is normal in appearance, patients with BMS experience oral burning that most commonly localizes to the lips and tongue. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion, and all underlying pathoses associated with allodynia must be ruled out prior to rendering the diagnosis. The etiopathogenesis of BMS remains poorly understood, and thus patient management is challenging. Data indicate that oral and systemic factors both contribute to the development and persistence of the condition...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913089/deficits-in-saccades-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Revathy Mani, Lisa Asper, Sieu K Khuu
PURPOSE: To conduct a review of literature and quantify the effect that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on oculomotor functions (OM). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted from papers that objectively measured saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in mild and severe TBI. RESULTS: The overall impact of TBI on OM functions was moderate and significant with an effect size of 0.42 from 181 OM case-control comparisons...
June 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912925/associations-between-waist-circumference-metabolic-risk-and-executive-function-in-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-mediation-analysis
#13
Anna Bugge, Sören Möller, Daniel R Westfall, Jakob Tarp, Anne K Gejl, Niels Wedderkopp, Charles H Hillman
The main objective of this study was to investigate the associations between waist circumference, metabolic risk factors, and executive function in adolescents. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and included 558 adolescents (mean age 14.2 years). Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (sysBP) were measured and fasting blood samples were analyzed for metabolic risk factors. A metabolic risk factor cluster score (MetS-cluster score) was computed from the sum of standardized sysBP, triglycerides (TG), inverse high-density lipid cholesterol (HDLc) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912921/information-processes-of-task-switching-and-modality-shifting-across-development
#14
Anna Peng, Natasha Z Kirkham, Denis Mareschal
Developmental research on flexible attentional control in young children has often focused on the role of attention in task-switching in a unimodal context. In real life, children must master the art of switching attention not only between task demands, but also between sensory modalities. Previous study has shown that young children can be efficient at switching between unimodal tasks when the situation allows, incurring no greater task-switching costs than adults. However, young children may still experience a greater demand to shift attention between modalities than older participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912883/acceptability-of-hpv-vaccines-and-associations-with-perceptions-related-to-hpv-and-hpv-vaccines-among-male-baccalaureate-students-in-hong-kong
#15
Teris Cheung, Joseph T F Lau, Johnson Z Wang, P K H Mo, Y S Ho
OBJECTIVES: The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912882/young-children-fail-to-generate-an-additive-ratchet-effect-in-an-open-ended-construction-task
#16
Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie
The ratchet effect-the gradual accumulation of changes within a cultural trait beyond a level that individuals can achieve on their own-arguably rests on two key cognitive abilities: high-fidelity social learning and innovation. Researchers have started to simulate the ratchet effect in the laboratory to identify its underlying social learning mechanisms, but studies on the developmental origins of the ratchet effect remain sparse. We used the transmission chain method and a tower construction task that had previously been used with adults to investigate whether "generations" of children between 4 and 6 years were able to make a technological product that individual children could not yet achieve...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912847/the-neural-correlation-of-sustained-attention-in-performing-conjunctive-continuous-performance-task-an-event-related-potential-study
#17
Amin Behzadnia, Farnaz Ghassemi, Soghra A Chermahini, Zahra Tabanfar, Athena Taymourtash
Owing to great improvements in cognitive neuroscience, the study of brain functions during different types of cognitive tasks has attracted much attention. Recording event-related potentials (ERPs) is an appropriate tool for such a purpose, as it is noninvasive and affordable. Attention is among the most studied cognitive processes. In this study, a visual version of the conjunctive continuous performance task-visual was used to examine the differences of cognitive processes in target and nontarget stimuli...
June 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912798/phase-iib-trial-of-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-partial-agonist-with-and-without-nicotine-patch-for-withdrawal-associated-cognitive-deficits-and-tobacco-abstinence
#18
Randi Melissa Schuster, Gladys N Pachas, Luke Stoeckel, Corinne Cather, Mireya Nadal, David Mischoulon, David A Schoenfeld, Haiyue Zhang, Christine Ulysse, Elisabeth B Dodds, Sara Sobolewski, Vicenta Hudziak, Ailish Hanly, Maurizio Fava, A Eden Evins
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]). METHODS: Adult daily smokers, n = 160, who were motivated to quit smoking completed cognitive testing at satiated baseline and after overnight abstinence and then were randomized to receive a 12-week trial of encenicline 1 mg twice daily or identical placebo the day of the overnight abstinent cognitive testing...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912792/neurocognitive-effects-of-agomelatine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-patients-suffering-from-comorbid-depression-results-from-the-agopsych-study
#19
Susanne Englisch, Hanna Sophie Jung, Sarah Eisenacher, Antje Lewien, Anna Becker, Ulrike Nowak, Hanna Braun, Jascha Thiem, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is highly disabling and remains one of the major therapeutic challenges. Agomelatine (AGO), an agonist at melatonergic MT1/MT2 receptors and antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors, increases dopamine and norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex and may therefore have the potential of improving neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid depression were treated with AGO in addition to stable doses of antipsychotic drugs...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912657/using-multiple-mini-interviews-as-a-pre-screening-tool-for-medical-student-candidates-completing-international-health-electives
#20
Caley A Satterfield, Matthew M Dacso, Premal Patel
There continues to be an increase in the number of learners who participate in international health electives (IHEs). However, not all learners enter IHEs with the same level of knowledge, attitude, and previous experience, which puts undue burden on host supervisors and poses risks to student and patient safety. The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) is a technique that has become a popular method for undergraduate and postgraduate-level health science admissions programs. This paper describes the MMI process used by our program to screen first-year medical students applying for pre-clinical IHEs...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
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