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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036854/functional-repertoire-of-interleukin-6-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#2
Klaus Heese
In an aging society with dementia imposing an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions, understanding the molecular and cellular events of adult neurogenesis is imperative. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R (the combined proteins are also known as Hyper-IL-6), is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration when neuron replacement is needed. In contrast to the previously reported gliogenic effects of activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis, this review summarizes recent studies showing that IL-6 activation can be neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036842/investigating-the-discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-cognitive-impairment-following-acquired-brain-injury-the-role-of-psychological-affect
#3
Christopher Byrne, Rudi Coetzer, Karen Addy
BACKGROUND: Previous research examining the use of self-reported cognitive impairment as a reliable predictor of actual objective cognitive impairment (OCI) has provided mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the potential discrepancy between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI). METHOD: Twenty-four participants, recruited from a community brain injury service, completed an objective neuropsychological assessment and a series of self-report questionnaires assessing psychological affect and perceived cognitive difficulties...
October 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036841/home-and-family-in-cognitive-rehabilitation-after-brain-injury-implementation-of-social-reserves
#4
Jesper Mogensen, Camilla Wulf-Andersen
The focus of the present article is the home and family environment of patients suffering acquired brain injury. In order to obtain the optimal outcome of posttraumatic cognitive rehabilitation it is important (a) to obtain a sufficient intensity of rehabilitative training, (b) to achieve the maximum degree of generalization from formalized training to the daily environment of the patient, and (c) to obtain the best possible utilization of "cognitive reserves" in the form of cognitive abilities and "strategies" acquired pretraumatically...
October 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036832/neuropathological-comparison-of-adult-onset-and-juvenile-huntington-s-disease-with-cerebellar-atrophy-a-report-of%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-father-and-son
#5
Caitlin S Latimer, Margaret E Flanagan, Patrick J Cimino, Suman Jayadev, Marie Davis, Zachary S Hoffer, Thomas J Montine, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Thomas D Bird, C Dirk Keene
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion in huntingtin (HTT) on chromosome 4. Anticipation can cause longer repeat expansions in children of HD patients. Juvenile Huntington's disease (JHD), defined as HD arising before age 20, accounts for 5-10% of HD cases, with cases arising in the first decade accounting for approximately 1%. Clinically, JHD differs from the predominately choreiform adult onset Huntington's disease (AOHD) with variable presentations, including symptoms such as myoclonus, seizures, Parkinsonism, and cognitive decline...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036829/microrna-221-targets-adam10-mrna-and-is-downregulated-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Patricia R Manzine, Silvia Pelucchi, Maria A Horst, Francisco A C Vale, Sofia C I Pavarini, Matteo Audano, Nico Mitro, Monica Di Luca, Elena Marcello, Marcia R Cominetti
ADAM10 is the α-secretase that cleaves amyloid-β protein precursor in the non-amyloidogenic pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is known to be regulated by different microRNAs (miRNAs), which are post-transcriptional regulators related to several biological and pathological processes, including AD. Here we proposed to explore and validate miRNAs that have direct or indirect relations to the AD pathophysiology and ADAM10 gene. Approximately 700 miRNAs were analyzed and 21 differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in a sample of 21 AD subjects and 17 cognitively healthy matched controls...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036824/alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-and-future-decline-in-cognitive-normal-older-adults
#7
Julien Dumurgier, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Frances B Hatling, Kelly A Judge, Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Deborah Blacker, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Bradley T Hyman, Teresa Gómez-Isla
BACKGROUND: Identifying older adults at risk of cognitive decline represents a challenge as Alzheimer's disease (AD) modifying therapies move toward preclinical stages. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between AD biomarkers and subsequent change in cognition in a cohort of cognitively intact older adults. METHODS: 84 cognitively normal subjects (mean age 72.0 years, 59% women) were recruited through the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the Harvard Aging Brain Study and followed over 3 years...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036823/prevalence-and-correlates-of-behavioral-disorders-in-old-age-subjects-with-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-regal-project
#8
Virginia Boccardi, Manuela Conestabile Della Staffa, Marta Baroni, Sara Ercolani, Michele Francesco Croce, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: Presence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is very common in subjects with cognitive impairment, representing an important determinant of disease progression, institutionalization, and worse prognosis. Knowledge of the prevalence and correlates of BPSD in community-living old subjects with cognitive impairment is limited so far, but it is essential for establishing specifically tailored care and cure in such a vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we aimed at investigating, in a large sample of old age subjects with cognitive impairment, BPSD prevalence and correlates including the main demographic, clinical, and socio-environmental characteristics...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036822/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3-tesla-mri-in-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#9
Doeschka A Ferro, Susanne J van Veluw, Huiberdina L Koek, Lieza G Exalto, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHOD: 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036821/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-is-not-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-a-northern-ireland-cohort
#10
Euan N Paterson, Michael A Williams, Peter Passmore, Giuliana Silvestri, Tom J MacGillivray, Alexander P Maxwell, Gareth J McKay
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence is increasing globally and typically progresses for several years prior to clinical presentation of dementia. Renal dysfunction and vascular disease have been reported in association with dementia in several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and may contribute to AD risk. Experimental and observational studies suggest amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance may be impaired in chronic kidney disease (CKD) indicating a mechanism for increased AD risk...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036815/diaschisis-like-association-of-hippocampal-atrophy-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-hypometabolism-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-depends-on-impaired-integrity-of-parahippocampal-cingulum-fibers
#12
Florian U Fischer, Dominik Wolf
Hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), early markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been shown to be associated in late mild cognitive impairment and early AD via atrophy of connecting cingulum fibers. Recently, a direct association of hippocampal atrophy and PCC hypometabolism has been shown in cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to investigate if this association might be modulated by partly non-hippocampogenic alterations of parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) integrity...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036814/curcumin-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-neurodegeneration-and-memory-deficits-in-p25-transgenic-mouse-model-that-bears-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Jeyapriya Raja Sundaram, Charlene Priscilla Poore, Noor Hazim Bin Sulaimee, Tej Pareek, Wei Fun Cheong, Markus R Wenk, Harish C Pant, Sally A Frautschy, Chian-Ming Low, Sashi Kesavapany
Several studies have indicated that neuroinflammation is indeed associated with neurodegenerative disease pathology. However, failures of recent clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents in neurodegenerative disorders have emphasized the need to better understand the complexity of the neuroinflammatory process in order to unravel its link with neurodegeneration. Deregulation of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity by production of its hyperactivator p25 is involved in the formation of tau and amyloid pathology reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036813/association-between-later-life-lifestyle-factors-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-non-demented-individuals-a-longitudinal-descriptive-cohort-study
#14
Babette L R Reijs, Stephanie J B Vos, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjonen, Juha Koikkalainen, Maria Pikkarainen, Anette Hall, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B Frisoni, Lutz Frölich, Flavio Nobili, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Luiza Spiru, Magda Tsolaki, Åsa K Wallin, Philip Scheltens, Frans Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036812/altered-gut-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ling Zhang, Ying Wang, Xia Xiayu, Changhua Shi, Wei Chen, Nan Song, Xinjing Fu, Rui Zhou, Yan-Feng Xu, Lan Huang, Hua Zhu, Yunlin Han, Chuan Qin
The topic of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent and time course of alterations in the gut microbiota, and their effects on AD pathology remain uncertain. Herein, we compared the fecal microbiomes and fecal short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) between wild-type and AD model mice at different ages under strictly controlled specific pathogen free conditions, and also conducted microscopic investigations of intestinal structures...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036811/sildenafil-improves-vascular-and-metabolic-function-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Yang Li, Harshan Ravi, Shin-Lei Peng, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Michael D Devous, Kyle B Womack
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD. OBJECTIVE: We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036701/mismatch-negativity-but-not-p300-is-associated-with-functional-disability-in-schizophrenia
#17
Holly K Hamilton, Veronica B Perez, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Judith Jaeger, Daniel H Mathalon
Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 event-related potential (ERP) reductions in schizophrenia (SZ) reflect preattentive and attention-mediated auditory processing deficits, respectively. Although both have been linked to cognitive deficits in SZ, their relative contributions to real-world functioning are unclear. We sought to determine the functional significance of disrupted auditory processing in SZ by examining MMN and P300 in typically disabled low-functioning patients and in patients with high levels of independent role functioning...
August 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036699/pain-related-acceptance-as-a-mediator-in-the-fear-avoidance-model-of-chronic-pain-a-preliminary-study
#18
Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn, Maria Louison Vang, Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen
Objective: The fear avoidance model has served as a popular, heuristic model in explaining the transition from acute to chronic pain. In addition, the significance of pain-related acceptance in chronic pain development and adjustment is underlined in a vast number of empirical studies. The objective of the current preliminary study was to investigate pain-related acceptance as a mediator within the key cognitive relationships proposed by the fear avoidance model of chronic pain. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional design, bodily pain, pain catastrophizing, fear avoidance beliefs, and pain-related acceptance were assessed by questionnaires in 125 chronic pain patients in a Danish multidisciplinary pain center...
September 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036636/genetic-reduction-of-nrf2-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Caterina Branca, Eric Ferreira, Thuy-Vi Nguyen, Kristian Doyle, Antonella Caccamo, Salvatore Oddo
Aging is the major risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which aging contributes to neurodegeneration remain elusive. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of a vast number of genes by binding to the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 levels decrease as a function of age, and reduced Nrf2 levels have been reported in postmortem human brains and animal models of AD...
September 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#20
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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