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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099784/investigating-the-extent-of-parallelism-in-morphological-and-genomic-divergence-among-lake-trout-ecotypes-in-lake-superior
#1
Alysse Perreault-Payette, Andrew M Muir, Frederick Goetz, Charles Perrier, Eric Normandeau, Pascal Sirois, Louis Bernatchez
Understanding the emergence of species through the process of ecological speciation is a central question in evolutionary biology which also has implications for conservation and management. Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is renowned for the occurrence of different ecotypes linked to resource and habitat use throughout North America. We aimed to unravel the fine genetic structure of the four Lake Trout ecotypes in Lake Superior. A total of 486 individuals from four sites were genotyped at 6822 filtered SNPs using RADseq technology...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098524/swine-influenza-virus-h1n2-characterization-and-transmission-in-ferrets-chile
#2
Nicolás Bravo-Vasquez, Erik A Karlsson, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Victoria Meliopoulos, Bryan Kaplan, Shauna Marvin, Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Melinda A Beck, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095511/epidemiology-and-molecular-typing-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-naturally-infected-hound-dogs-and-associated-triatomine-vectors-in-texas-usa
#3
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Karen F Snowden, Brandon Dominguez, Lewis Dinges, Sandy Rodgers, Glennon Mays, Sarah A Hamer
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095503/detection-of-a-potential-new-bartonella-species-candidatus-bartonella-rondoniensis-in-human-biting-kissing-bugs-reduviidae-triatominae
#4
Maureen Laroche, Jean-Michel Berenger, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095375/disappearing-in-the-night-an-overview-on-trade-and-legislation-of-night-monkeys-in-south-and-central-america
#5
Magdalena S Svensson, Sam Shanee, Noga Shanee, Flavia B Bannister, Laura Cervera, Giuseppe Donati, Maren Huck, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Cecilia P Juarez, Angela M Maldonado, Jesus Martinez Mollinedo, Pedro G Méndez-Carvajal, Miguel A Molina Argandoña, Antonietta D Mollo Vino, K A I Nekaris, Mika Peck, Jennifer Rey-Goyeneche, Denise Spaan, Vincent Nijman
The international trade in night monkeys (Aotus spp.), found throughout Central and South America, has been regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1975. We present a quantitative analysis of this trade from all 9 range countries, over 4 decades, and compare domestic legislation to CITES regulations. Night monkeys were exported from 8 of the 9 habitat countries, totalling 5,968 live individuals and 7,098 specimens, with trade of live individuals declining over time...
January 18, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095299/african-and-asian-zika-virus-strains-differentially-induce-early-antiviral-responses-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#6
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liegeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093769/low-migratory-connectivity-is-common-in-long-distance-migrant-birds
#7
Tom Finch, Simon Butler, Aldina Franco, Will Cresswell
1.Estimating how much long-distance migrant populations spread out and mix during the non-breeding season (migratory connectivity) is essential for understanding and predicting population dynamics in the face of global change. 2.We quantify variation in population spread and inter-population mixing in long-distance, terrestrial migrant land-bird populations (712 individuals from 98 populations of 45 species, from tagging studies in the Neotropic and Afro-Palearctic flyways). We evaluate the Mantel test as a metric of migratory connectivity, and explore the extent to which variance in population spread can be explained simply by geography...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093503/work-and-health-in-latin-america-results-from-the-working-conditions-surveys-of-colombia-argentina-chile-central-america-and-uruguay
#8
Pamela Merino-Salazar, Lucía Artazcoz, Cecilia Cornelio, María José Itatí Iñiguez, Marianela Rojas, David Martínez-Iñigo, Alejandra Vives, Lorena Funcasta, Fernando G Benavides
OBJECTIVE: To describe working and employment conditions, and health status between non-agricultural employees with a written contract from Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. METHODS: We compared data from the first working condition surveys (WCS) of Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Central America and Uruguay. For comparative purposes, we selected a subsample of 15 241 non-agricultural employees aged 18-64 years and working with a written contract...
January 16, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092249/-zika-virus-and-their-means-of-delivery-rather-than-aedes
#9
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, María María Gonzáles-Clemente
In the present work an exposition of the most frequent vectors of the arboviruses is made highlighting the ones of the genus Aedes, of these in each geographic distribution there are specific subgeneros, in Africa emphasizes A. africanus, A. opok and A. vitatus like those in charge of The propagation of arboviruses. In Asia and Oceania, A. hensilii and A. polynesiensis stand out, and A. albopictus, in addition to A. koreicus and A. japonicus, the latter also responsible for dissemination in North America. It is mentioned in the wave that struck to South America the greater importance of other genera like Culex, emphasizing C...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088491/toxicogenetic-study-of-persea-americana-fruit-pulp-oil-and-its-effect-on-genomic-instability
#10
Heloiza Diniz Nicolella, Francisco Rinaldi Neto, Mariana Beltrame Corrêa, Danillo Henrique Lopes, Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Luiz Felipe Ribeiro Dos Santos, Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira, Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Marcos Gomide Tozatti, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Denise Crispim Tavares
Persea americana Mill., commonly known as avocado, is a tree native to Central America that is widely used as a food source and for the treatment of diseases. This plant has various biological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and total cholesterol-lowering activity. In view of its pharmacological potential, we conducted a toxicogenetic study of the fruit pulp oil of P. americana (PAO) and investigated its influence on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and doxorubicin. V79 cells and Swiss mice were used for the assays...
January 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#11
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086816/rationale-description-and-baseline-findings-of-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study-of-kidney-function-amongst-the-young-rural-population-of-northwest-nicaragua
#12
Marvin González-Quiroz, Armando Camacho, Dorien Faber, Aurora Aragón, Catharina Wesseling, Jason Glaser, Jennifer Le Blond, Liam Smeeth, Dorothea Nitsch, Neil Pearce, Ben Caplin
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along the Pacific coast of Central America, but the natural history and aetiology of the disease remain poorly understood. We have recently commenced a community-based longitudinal study to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Nicaragua. Although logistically challenging, study designs of this type have the potential to provide important insights that other study designs cannot...
January 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076666/the-global-incidence-of-lip-oral-cavity-and-pharyngeal-cancers-by-subsite-in-2012
#13
Kevin D Shield, Jacques Ferlay, Ahmedin Jemal, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Anil K Chaturvedi, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
By using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer publication Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents and GLOBOCAN, this report provides the first consolidated global estimation of the subsite distribution of new cases of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by country, sex, and age for the year 2012. Major geographically based, sex-based, and age-based variations in the incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite were observed. Lip cancers were highly frequent in Australia (associated with solar radiation) and in central and eastern Europe (associated with tobacco smoking)...
January 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076578/confirmed-clinical-case-of-chronic-kidney-disease-of-nontraditional-causes-in-agricultural-communities-in-central-america-a-case-definition-for-surveillance
#14
Alejandro Ferreiro, Guillermo Álvarez-Estévez, Manuel Cerdas-Calderón, Zulma Cruz-Trujillo, Elio Mena, Marina Reyes, Mabel Sandoval-Diaz, Vicente Sánchez-Polo, Régulo Valdés, Pedro Ordúnez
Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076577/chronic-kidney-disease-of-nontraditional-etiology-in-central-america-a-provisional-epidemiologic-case-definition-for-surveillance-and-epidemiologic-studies
#15
Matthew Lozier, Reina Maria Turcios-Ruiz, Gary Noonan, Pedro Ordunez
SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076576/-optimization-of-registry-of-deaths-from-chronic-kidney-disease-in-agricultural-communities-in-central-america
#16
José Antonio Escamilla-Cejudo, Jorge Lara Báez, Rodolfo Peña, Patricia Lorena Ruiz Luna, Pedro Ordunez
Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073771/out-of-borneo-biogeography-phylogeny-and-divergence-date-estimates-of-artocarpus-moraceae
#17
Evelyn W Williams, Elliot M Gardner, Robert Harris, Arunrat Chaveerach, Joan T Pereira, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The breadfruit genus (Artocarpus, Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus, to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#18
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072836/pre-migration-trauma-exposure-and-mental-health-functioning-among-central-american-migrants-arriving-at-the-us-border
#19
Allen Keller, Amy Joscelyne, Megan Granski, Barry Rosenfeld
In recent years, increasing numbers of families and individuals have arrived at the U.S. border from Central America, in particular, from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. This study sought to examine pre-migration trauma exposure and current mental health functioning of migrant families arriving at the U.S. border from the Northern Triangle region, with specific attention to the reasons offered for leaving their home country and the frequency with which migrant families appear to satisfy legal criteria for asylum We interviewed 234 adults in McAllen, Texas, using a structured interview and standardized questionnaires to assess exposure to trauma prior to migration, reasons for leaving their home country and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070007/first-evidence-of-angiostrongyliasis-caused-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-guadeloupe-lesser-antilles
#20
Céline Dard, Jean-Eudes Piloquet, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, LeAnne M Fox, Helmi M'kada, Jean-Christophe Hebert, Didier Mattera, Dorothée Harrois
Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system (CNS) angiostrongyliasis. Most of CNS angiostrongyliasis cases were described in Asia, Pacific Basin, Australia, and some limited parts of Africa and America. CNS angiostrongyliasis has been reported in the Caribbean but never in the Lesser Antilles. The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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