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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676615/walter-b-cannon-s-world-war-i-experience-treatment-of-traumatic-shock-then-and-now
#1
Kathy L Ryan
Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945), perhaps America's preeminent physiologist, volunteered for service with the Army Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I. He initially served with Base Hospital No. 5, a unit made up of Harvard clinicians, before moving forward to the front lines to serve at a casualty clearing station run by the British. During his time there, he performed research on wounded soldiers to understand the nature and causes of traumatic shock. Subsequently, Cannon performed animal experimentation on the causes of traumatic shock in the London laboratory of Dr...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674932/revision-of-the-mesoamerican-species-of-calolydella-townsend-diptera-tachinidae-and-description-of-twenty-three-new-species-reared-from-caterpillars-in-area-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-northwestern-costa-rica
#2
A J Fleming, D Monty Wood, M Alex Smith, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H Janzen
Background: Twenty-three new species of the genus Calolydella Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Tachinidae) are described, all reared from multiple species of wild-caught caterpillars across a wide variety of families (Lepidoptera: Crambidae; Erebidae; Geometridae; Hesperiidae; Lycaenidae; Nymphalidae; Pieridae; Riodinidae; and Sphingidae). All caterpillars were collected within Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), in northwestern Costa Rica. This study provides a concise description of each new species using morphology, life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674904/two-new-species-of-ateuchus-with-remarks-on-ecology-distributions-and-evolutionary-relationships-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae
#3
Victor Moctezuma, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Gonzalo Halffter
Two new species of the genus Ateuchus Weber are described from the region of Los Chimalapas, Oaxaca, Mexico: A. benitojuarezi sp. n. and A. colossus sp. n. A diagnosis for distinguishing these new species from the other species of this genus in North America is included. This paper is illustrated with pictures of the dorsal habitus and the male genitalia of the new species. The evolutionary relationships of the species are discussed, as well as their distribution and ecology. It is considered that the species of the genus Ateuchus present in North and Central America correspond to the Typical Neotropical and Mountain Mesoamerican distribution patterns...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674874/phylogenetics-of-ogyges-kaup-and-the-biogeography-of-nuclear-central-america-coleoptera-passalidae
#4
Enio B Cano, Jack C Schuster, Juan J Morrone
A phylogenetic morphological analysis of the genus Ogyges Kaup, distributed in Nuclear Central America, from Chiapas, Mexico, to northwestern Nicaragua was undertaken. Five species of Proculejus Kaup, distributed north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, were selected as outgroup. Ogyges was recovered as monophyletic with three species groups: championi , laevissimus , and crassulus . Each species group shows a distinct, generally allopatric distribution. The O. championi species group, with ten species, is distributed in the Maya block, more specifically in the mountainous system north of the Motozintla-Comaltitlán fault in Chiapas, and north of the dry valleys of the Cuilco and Motagua rivers in Guatemala...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674531/complete-genome-sequencing-of-10-brucella-abortus-biovar-3-strains-isolated-from-water-buffalo
#5
Rubina Paradiso, Massimiliano Orsini, Daniela Criscuolo, Rosanna Borrelli, Ornella Valvini, Cesare Cammà, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Giorgio Galiero, Giorgia Borriello
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals. Its distribution is global, concentrated in the Mediterranean area, India, Central Asia, and Latin America. Here, we present a complete genome assembly of 10 Brucella abortus strains isolated from water buffaloes farmed in the Campania region of Italy.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672820/a-review-of-the-toxicity-of-compounds-found-in-herbal-dietary-supplements
#6
Amy Hudson, Elizabeth Lopez, Ahmad J Almalki, Amy L Roe, Angela I Calderón
Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities...
April 19, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672152/islamophobia-health-and-public-health-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
Goleen Samari, Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif
BACKGROUND: In 2017, a "Muslim ban" on immigrants to the United States was coupled with a continued rise in Islamophobia and hate crimes toward Muslims. Islamophobia undermines health equity, yet delineating the effects of Islamophobia globally is challenging as it affects a myriad of groups (geographically, racially, and socially). Additionally, stereotypes equate all Muslims with populations from the Middle East and South Asia. To date, health research pays insufficient attention to Islamophobia, Muslims, and those racialized to be Muslim...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670994/weekend-effects-on-health-outcomes-and-operational-efficiency-in-emergency-admissions-to-general-medicine-services-of-the-central-hospital-of-the-autonomous-province-of-bolzano-italy
#8
C J Wiedermann, M Adami, W Wiedermann
The possibility of higher death rates after admission to hospital during the weekend has been intensively investigated in North America and Northern Europe, while data are almost absent from Southern Europe and other WHOV regions. Increased death rates have not been uniformly confirmed. Differences in hospital care on weekends can vary depending on the reason for hospital admission, place and time. The aim was to verify whether weekend admission from the emergency department to internal medicine services is associated with parameters of operational efficiency in a Northern Italian hospital...
May 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670007/prevalence-of-self-reported-gluten-related-disorders-and-adherence-to-a-gluten-free-diet-in-salvadoran-adult-population
#9
Noé Ontiveros, Cecilia Ivonne Rodríguez-Bellegarrigue, Gerardo Galicia-Rodríguez, Marcela de Jesús Vergara-Jiménez, Elia María Zepeda-Gómez, Jesús Gilberto Arámburo-Galvez, Martina Hilda Gracia-Valenzuela, Francisco Cabrera-Chávez
Gluten-related disorders are not considered of relevance at public health level in Central America. The prevalence of gluten-related disorders, and adherence to a gluten-free diet, remain unknown in the Central American region. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the Central American population from San Salvador, El Salvador, to estimate the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to a gluten-free diet. 1326 individuals were surveyed. Self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval): gluten sensitivity 3...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668913/defining-pneumonia-after-esophagectomy-for-cancer-validation-of-the-uniform-pneumonia-score-in-a-high-volume-center-in-north-america
#10
M F J Seesing, A Wirsching, P S N van Rossum, T J Weijs, J P Ruurda, R van Hillegersberg, D E Low
Surgery is a central component of multimodality therapy for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer. Pneumonia is a common sequela of esophagectomy, leading to an increase in intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, readmission rates, and postoperative mortality. Developing strategies to reduce pneumonia after esophagectomy is hampered by the absence of a standardized methodology for defining pneumonia. This study aims to validate the Uniform Pneumonia Score (UPS) in a high volume center in the USA...
April 14, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667911/experimental-heat-stress-nephropathy-and-liver-injury-are-improved-by-allopurinol
#11
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Yuka Sato, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Gabriela E Garcia, Petter Bjornstad, Jaime Butler-Dawson, Cecilia Sorensen, Lee Newman, Lyndsay Krisher, Magdalena Madero, Jason Glaser, Ramon Garcia-Trabannino, Emmanuel Jarquin-Romero, Zhilin Song, Thomas Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America among workers in the sugarcane fields. One hypothesis is that the CKD may be caused by recurrent heat stress and dehydration, and potentially by hyperuricemia. Accordingly, we developed a murine model of kidney injury associated with recurrent heat stress. In the current experiment, we tested whether treatment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces serum urate) provides renal protection against recurrent heat stress and dehydration...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667019/what-is-new-in-heart-failure-management-in-2017-update-on-acc-aha-heart-failure-guidelines
#12
REVIEW
Biykem Bozkurt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of the new recommendations in the most recent 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. The intent is to provide the background and the supporting evidence for the recommendations and to provide practical guidance for management strategies in treatment of heart failure patients...
April 17, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666450/novel-hla-class-i-associations-with-hiv-1-control-in-a-unique-genetically-admixed-population
#13
Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Selma Alva-Hernández, Daniela Garrido-Rodríguez, Maribel Soto-Nava, Thalía García-Téllez, Tania Escamilla-Gómez, Claudia García-Morales, Verónica Sonia Quiroz-Morales, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Silvia Del Arenal-Sánchez, Francisco-Javier Prado-Galbarro, Ramón Hernández-Juan, Edna Rodríguez-Aguirre, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Carlos Mejía-Villatoro, Ingrid Y Escobar-Urias, Rodolfo Pinzón-Meza, Juan Miguel Pascale, Yamitzel Zaldivar, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Carlos Quant-Durán, Ivette Lorenzana, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Marvin Manzanero, Rolando A Cedillos, Carmen Aláez, Mark A Brockman, P Richard Harrigan, Chanson J Brumme, Zabrina L Brumme, Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Associations between HLA class I alleles and HIV progression in populations exhibiting Amerindian and Caucasian genetic admixture remain understudied. Using univariable and multivariable analyses we evaluated HLA associations with five HIV clinical parameters in 3,213 HIV clade B-infected, ART-naïve individuals from Mexico and Central America (MEX/CAM cohort). A Canadian cohort (HOMER, n = 1622) was used for comparison. As expected, HLA allele frequencies in MEX/CAM and HOMER differed markedly. In MEX/CAM, 13 HLA-A, 24 HLA-B, and 14 HLA-C alleles were significantly associated with at least one clinical parameter...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665876/diversity-distribution-and-parasitism-rates-of-fleas-insecta-siphonaptera-on-sigmodontine-rodents-cricetidae-from-argentinian-patagonia
#14
J Sanchez, M Lareschi
Fleas have great medical relevance as vectors of the causative agents of several diseases in animals and humans and rodents are the principal reservoirs for these pathogens. Argentinian Patagonia has the highest diversity of rodent fleas in South America. However, parasitism rates of rodents by fleas, the factors that influence them and the ecological aspects that modulate geographical distributions of flea-host association remain unknown for this region. This is the first study to record the diversity, prevalence, abundance, geographical distributions and host ranges of fleas in Argentinian Patagonia...
April 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664190/child-marriage-in-the-united-states-how-common-is-the-practice-and-which-children-are-at-greatest-risk
#15
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
CONTEXT: Marriage before the age of 18, commonly referred to as child marriage, is legal under varying conditions across the United States. The prevalence of child marriage among recent cohorts is unknown. METHODS: American Community Survey data for 2010-2014 were used to estimate the average national and state-level proportions of children who had ever been married. Prevalence was calculated by gender, race and ethnicity, and birthplace, and the living arrangements of currently married children were examined...
April 17, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659763/the-distribution-and-habitat-affinities-of-the-invasive-ant-myrmica-rubra-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-southern-new-england
#16
Wen Chen, Eldridge S Adams
The Eurasian ant Myrmica rubra (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was first discovered in North America in the early 1900s in Massachusetts. Populations have since appeared in at least seven states within the United States and in seven Canadian provinces. We conducted a systematic search for the ant across southern New England-the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island-where M. rubra is spreading from multiple loci. The species occurs in two large regions in Massachusetts, each spanning approximately 75 km, and in several smaller populations in Massachusetts and Rhode Island...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659586/supply-side-interventions-to-improve-health-findings-from-the-salud-mesoam%C3%A3-rica-initiative
#17
Ali H Mokdad, Erin B Palmisano, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Casey K Johanns, Alexandra Schaefer, Sima S Desai, Annie Haakenstad, Marielle C Gagnier, Claire R McNellan, Danny V Colombara, Sonia López Romero, Leolin Castillo, Benito Salvatierra, Bernardo Hernandez, Miguel Betancourt-Cravioto, Ricardo Mujica-Rosales, Ferdinando Regalia, Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Emma Iriarte
BACKGROUND: Results-based aid (RBA) is increasingly used to incentivize action in health. In Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, the RBA project known as the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) was designed to target disparities in maternal and child health, focusing on the poorest 20% of the population across the region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were first collected in 365 intervention health facilities to establish a baseline of indicators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658161/parallel-evolutionary-forces-influence-the-evolution-of-male-and-female-songs-in-a-tropical-songbird
#18
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Ryan P Walter, Melissa M Mark, Daniel J Mennill
Given the important role that animal vocalizations play in mate attraction and resource defence, acoustic signals are expected to play a significant role in speciation. Most studies, however, have focused on the acoustic traits of male animals living in the temperate zone. In contrast to temperate environments, in the tropics it is commonplace for both sexes to produce complex acoustic signals. Therefore tropical birds offer the opportunity to compare the sexes and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of animal signals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652644/alphaviruses-serological-evidence-of-human-infection-in-paraguay-2012-2013
#19
Fátima Cardozo, Brenda Konigheim, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, María Elisa Rivarola, Javier Aguilar, Alejandra Rojas, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Malvina Paez, Yvalena Guillén, Adrian Diaz, María Asunción Vallejos, Lilian Herebia, María Lidia Recalde, Marta Silvia Contigiani, Laura Mendoza
INTRODUCTION: Alphaviruses can produce febrile illness and encephalitis in dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Within this genus, the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex includes pathogenic epizootic subtypes and enzootic subtypes that are not pathogenic in horses (except subtype IE, Mexican strains), although they can cause febrile symptoms in humans. The Rio Negro virus (RNV-VEEV subtype VI) circulates in Argentina, where it was associated with undifferentiated febrile illness...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644250/symptomatic-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-returning-travelers
#20
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Alan G Palestine, Jose G Montoya
We report a family who acquired acute toxoplasmosis after a trip to Central America. One member developed severe clinical manifestations including bilateral chorioretinitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis requiring therapy. Symptomatic acute toxoplasmosis is unusual and possesses a diagnostic challenge. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological implications, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment plan.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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