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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329741/drugs-violence-and-trauma-in-m%C3%A3-xico-and-united-states
#1
Juan Carlos Puyana, Juan Carlos Jacob Puyana, Andres Mariano Rubiano, Jorge Hernan Montenegro, Glyn O Estebanez, Alvaro Ignacio Sanchez, Felipe Vega-Rivera
The impact of illicit drug markets on the occurrence of violence varies tremendously depending on many factors. Over the last years, Mexico and United States (US) has increased security border issues that included many aspects of drug-related trade and criminal activities. Mexico experienced only a small reduction of trauma deaths after severe crime reinforcement policies. This strategy in the war on drugs is shifting the drug market to other Central American countries. This phenomenon is called the ballooning effect where by pressure to control illicit drug related activities in one particular area forces a shift to other more vulnerable areas that lead to increase crime and violence...
March 21, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329023/hydro-wind-and-solar-power-as-a-base-for-a-100-renewable-energy-supply-for-south-and-central-america
#2
Larissa de Souza Noel Simas Barbosa, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Pasi Vainikka, Christian Breyer
Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325972/nine-new-species-of-uramya-robineau-desvoidy-diptera-tachinidae-from-area-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-in-northwestern-costa-rica-with-a-key-to-their-identification
#3
A J Fleming, D Monty Wood, M Alex Smith, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel Janzen, Tanya Dapkey
BACKGROUND: We describe nine new species in the genus Uramya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. All species were reared from an ongoing inventory of wild-caught caterpillars spanning a variety of families (Lepidoptera: Erebidae; Limacodidae; Megalopygidae; Lasiocampidae and Dalceridae). Our study provides a concise description of each new species using morphology, life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325927/temperature-fluctuations-in-a-changing-climate-an-ensemble-based-experimental-approach
#4
Miklós Vincze, Ion Dan Borcia, Uwe Harlander
There is an ongoing debate in the literature about whether the present global warming is increasing local and global temperature variability. The central methodological issues of this debate relate to the proper treatment of normalised temperature anomalies and trends in the studied time series which may be difficult to separate from time-evolving fluctuations. Some argue that temperature variability is indeed increasing globally, whereas others conclude it is decreasing or remains practically unchanged. Meanwhile, a consensus appears to emerge that local variability in certain regions (e...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322578/interview-with-amr-h-sawalha-epigenetics-and-autoimmunity
#5
Amr H Sawalha
Amr H Sawalha is Professor of Internal Medicine and Marvin and Betty Danto Research Professor of Connective Tissue Research at the University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology. He also holds faculty appointments at the Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics and the Graduate Program in Immunology at the University of Michigan. He was recently appointed as Guest Professor at Central South University in Changsha, China. He received his medical degree from Jordan University of Science and Technology and completed his residency training in internal medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, and his fellowship in rheumatology at the University of Michigan...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319485/recent-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-not-the-same-old-song
#6
Raymond K Hsu, Neil R Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review recent updates on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent analyses from the National Health and Nutritional Examination survey describe the temporal trend in CKD prevalence in US adults. The overall prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m increased from 4.8% in 1988-1994 to 6.9% in 2003-2004, but has since stabilized at 6.4-6.9% up to 2011-2012. Prevalence of CKD stages 1-4 has also stabilized at ∼14% of adults since 2003-2004...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317515/howard-wilcox-haggard-and-the-institutionalization-of-modern-alcohol-studies
#7
Nicholas Allred, William Bejarano, Judit Ward
OBJECTIVE: This biographical sketch and accompanying bibliography provide a new look at Howard Wilcox Haggard, M.D., Ph.D., whose career highlights the consolidation of alcohol studies as a field in twentieth-century America. METHOD: The article relies in large part on the works of Haggard assembled for the bibliography project, supplemented by published and unpublished documents and records from collections at Rutgers University. RESULTS: Haggard began his career in respiratory physiology, influenced by his work on chemical weapons for the Army during the First World War...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316885/the-neotropical-land-snails-mollusca-gastropoda-collected-by-the-comisi%C3%A3-n-cient%C3%A3-fica-del-pac%C3%A3-fico
#8
Abraham S H Breure, Rafael Araujo
The land snails collected by the 'Comisión Científica del Pacifíco' (CCP), a Spanish expedition to South and Central America from 1862-1866, are restudied and revised. The historical context of the expedition and the study of its collected material are described. Biographical data is given for the main persons involved. The land snails were previously studied by Joaquin Hidalgo between 1867 and 1893. A total of 3,470 specimens belonging to 211 species are treated in this paper. Of 34 species mentioned by Hidalgo is his catalogue, the corresponding material could not be located...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315790/cutaneous-myiasis-a-stowaway-from-central-america
#9
Sara de Menezes, Olivia Smibert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315476/comparative-analysis-of-protein-evolution-in-the-genome-of-pre-epidemic-and-epidemic-zika-virus
#10
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Lei Dai, Deisy Contreras, Sanjeev Sinha, Ren Sun, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly in congenital infection, neurological disorders, and poor pregnancy outcome and no vaccine is available for use in humans or approved. Although ZIKV was first discovered in 1947, the exact mechanism of virus replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in the Americas clearly suggest a human-mosquito cycle or urban cycle of transmission. Understanding the conserved and adaptive features in the evolution of ZIKV genome will provide a hint on the mechanism of ZIKV adaptation to a new cycle of transmission...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298350/the-acacia-ants-revisited-convergent-evolution-and-biogeographic-context-in-an-iconic-ant-plant-mutualism
#11
Philip S Ward, Michael G Branstetter
Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296798/all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-positive-adults-starting-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-correcting-for-loss-to-follow-up
#12
Nanina Anderegg, Leigh F Johnson, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Keri N Althoff, Eric Balestre, Matthew Law, Denis Nash, Bryan E Shepherd, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality in HIV-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to discuss different approaches to calculating correction factors to account for loss to follow-up. METHODS: A total of 222 096 adult HIV-positive patients who started ART 2009-2014 in clinics participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS collaboration in 43 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292724/deleterious-role-of-trace-elements-silica-and-lead-in-the-development-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Starlaine Mascarenhas, Srikanth Mutnuri, Anasuya Ganguly
Chronic-Kidney-Disease of Unknown-etiology (CKDu) has been reported in developing-countries like Sri-Lanka, India and Central-America without sparing the Indian sub-district (namely Canacona) located in south-Goa. The disease etiology is unlinked to common causes of diabetes and hypertension and assumed to be environmentally induced due to its asymptomatic-nature and occurrence in groundwater relying communities. This study aimed to understand environmental risk-factors underlying CKDu-etiology using Indian sub-district (Canacona) as case-study...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290306/a-historical-case-of-an-ameloblastoma-from-southern-italy
#14
J Cilli, R D'Anastasio
Jawbones are susceptible to various tumours, some of which originate from dental structures. Here we describe a case of a tumour in a mandible of an old man that was discovered during an archaeological excavation in southern Italy (Torrecuso; 17th-19th centuries). The right mandibular branch presents an extended, multilocular lesion. X-ray analysis shows erosion of the cortical bone layers and the thin trabeculae that circumscribe the lobular areas. Macroscopic and radiological aspects of the mandibular lesion are consistent with an ameloblastoma...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289421/preliminary-studies-of-the-performance-of-quinoa-chenopodium-quinoa-willd-genotypes-under-irrigated-and-rainfed-conditions-of-central-malawi
#15
Moses F A Maliro, Veronica F Guwela, Jacinta Nyaika, Kevin M Murphy
The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288924/global-expansion-of-chikungunya-virus-mapping-the-64-year-history
#16
REVIEW
Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is emerging as a global threat because of its highly debilitating nature and unprecedented magnitude. The disease originated from Africa and then hit the entire globe causing large number of epidemics that infected millions of people in Asia, Indian subcontinent, Europe, Americas, and Pacific Islands. According to phylogenetic analysis, four different genotypes of CHIKV are: Asian, West African, East/Central/South African (ECSA), and Indian Ocean lineage (IOL)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287391/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-domestic-pets-from-metropolitan-regions-of-panama
#17
Claudia Rengifo-Herrera, Edwin Pile, Anabel García, Alexander Pérez, Dimas Pérez, Felicia K Nguyen, Valli de la Guardia, Rima Mcleod, Zuleima Caballero
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286602/climate-change-allergy-and-asthma-and-the-role-of-tropical-forests
#18
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Nelson Rosario, Herberto Josè Chong Neto, Deborah Carla Chong-Silva, Francisco Mendonça, Josè Perini, Loraine Landgraf, Dirceu Solé, Mario Sánchez-Borges, Ignacio Ansotegui, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km(2)) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km(2)) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km(2), and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286101/the-biogeographic-and-evolutionary-history-of-an-endemic-clade-of-middle-american-sparrows-melozone-and-aimophila-aves-passerellidae
#19
Luis Sandoval, Kevin L Epperly, John Klicka, Daniel J Mennill
The large number of endemic species in Middle America is frequently attributed to the interplay of geographical barriers and historical climatic changes in the region. This process promotes genetic divergence between populations, and given enough time, may yield new species. Animals that inhabit mid-elevation or highland habitats may be disproportionately affected in this way. Genetic analyses of animals in this region allow us to better understand how historical patterns of isolation have influenced the generation of new species in this biodiversity hotspot...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285789/zika-virus-history-epidemiology-transmission-and-clinical-presentation
#20
REVIEW
Byung-Hak Song, Sang-Im Yun, Michael Woolley, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is now causing an unprecedented large-scale outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV spread eastward from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands during the late 2000s to early 2010s, invaded the Caribbean and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infection generally causes no symptoms or only a mild self-limiting illness, it has recently been linked to a rising number of severe neurological diseases, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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