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central america

Marvin Gonzalez-Quiroz, Evangelia-Theano Smpokou, Richard J Silverwood, Armando Camacho, Dorien Faber, Brenda La Rosa Garcia, Amin Oomatia, Michael Hill, Jason Glaser, Jennifer Le Blond, Catharina Wesseling, Aurora Aragon, Liam Smeeth, Neil Pearce, Dorothea Nitsch, Ben Caplin
Background Epidemic levels of CKD of undetermined cause, termed Mesoamerican nephropathy in Central America, have been found in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the natural history of, and factors associated with, loss of kidney function in a population at high risk for this disease. Methods We conducted a 2-year prospective, longitudinal study with follow-up every 6 months in nine rural communities in northwestern Nicaragua and included all men ( n =263) and a random sample of women ( n =87) ages 18-30 years old without self-reported CKD, diabetes, or hypertension...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Anilena Mejia, Richard Emsley, Eleonora Fichera, Wadih Maalouf, Jeremy Segrott, Rachel Calam
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence can significantly reduce adolescents' opportunities for becoming happy and healthy adults. Central America is the most violent region in the world and it is estimated that adolescents are involved in 82% of all homicides in this region. Family skills training programmes have been designed to prevent interpersonal violence in adolescents. Several studies in high-income countries suggest they are effective. However, there are no published trials assessing effectiveness of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 15, 2018: Trials
Rohan Menon, Aris Karatasakis, Siddharth Patel, Barbara A Danek, Judit Karacsonyi, Bavana V Rangan, Tayo Addo, Dharam Kumbhani, Samir Kapadia, Michael Luna, Ehtisham Mahmud, Charles Chambers, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis
BACKGROUND: There is great variability in radiation safety practices in cardiac catheterization laboratories around the world. METHODS: We performed an international online survey on radiation safety including interventional cardiologists, electrophysiologists, interventional radiologists, and vascular surgeons. RESULTS: A total of 570 responses were received from various geographic locations, including the United States (77.9%), Asia (7.9%), Europe (6...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Jiang He, Yu-Zhen Wang, Qiao-Li Yang, Bo Cheng, Li-Nu-Er Di, Yan-Fu Zhang, Guan Li, Wei-Jun Yang
With the development and change of Uygur medicine, The sources,medicinal parts and producing area of some Uygur Medicine have changed. It is more important to master the classification, distribution and change of Uygur medicinal materials. These were more than 1 200 kinds Uygur medicine in history were resaerched by field investigation, philological research, and textual research, which main source of original plant were 140 families, 510 genera, 840 species; and source of original animal were 76 families, 107 genera, the original animal 141 species; 55 kinds of original mineral, which main producer were Xinjiang and Central Asia, West Asia, the Mediterranean, and North Africa, Southeast Asia and other provinces in China, there are individual medicinal materials from the Americas, Europe and other places...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Maria A Gandolfo, Kevin C Nixon, William L Crepet, David A Grimaldi
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: An inflorescence with three pistillate flowers in amber from the early Upper Cretaceous (Turonian, ~90-94 million years ago) of central New Jersey represents the oldest known flowers with features present in an early stem complex of the Fagales. The inflorescence has characteristics of Nothofagaceae, but also has strikingly distinct characters that suggest it is intermediate between Nothofagus and other Fagales. This intermediacy is consistent with its northern hemisphere distribution...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Maximilian Koblischke, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Stefan Malafa, Georgios Tschouchnikas, Julia Schwaiger, Michael Kundi, Franz X Heinz, Judith H Aberle
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused explosive outbreaks in Pacific islands, South- and Central America. Like with other flaviviruses, protective immunity is strongly dependent on potently neutralizing antibodies (Abs) directed against the viral envelope protein E. Such Ab formation is promoted by CD4 T cells through direct interaction with B cells that present epitopes derived from E or other structural proteins of the virus. Here, we examined the extent and epitope dominance of CD4 T cell responses to capsid (C) and envelope proteins in Zika patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ib C Bygbjerg, Lone Simonsen, Karin L Schiøler
The global malaria burden, including falciparum malaria, has been reduced by 50% since 2000, though less so in Sub-Saharan Africa. Regional malaria elimination campaigns beginning in the 1940s, up-scaled in the 1950s, succeeded in the 1970s in eliminating malaria from Europe, North America, the Caribbean (except Haiti), and parts of Asia and South- and Central America. Dengue has grown dramatically throughout the pantropical regions since the 1950s, first in Southeast Asia in the form of large-scale epidemics including severe dengue, though mostly sparing Sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lyda Z Rojas, Marija Glisic, Laura Pletsch-Borba, Luis E Echeverría, Wichor M Bramer, Arjola Bano, Najada Stringa, Asija Zaciragic, Bledar Kraja, Eralda Asllanaj, Rajiv Chowdhury, Carlos A Morillo, Oscar L Rueda-Ochoa, Oscar H Franco, Taulant Muka
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a major public health concern in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat in non-endemic countries. Although the association between CD and cardiac abnormalities is widely reported, study design diversity, sample size and quality challenge the information, calling for its update and synthesis, which would be very useful and relevant for physicians in non-endemic countries where health care implications of CD are real and neglected. We performed to systematically review and meta-analyze population-based studies that compared prevalence of overall and specific ECG abnormalities between CD and non-CD participants in the general population...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Santiago Mora-García, Marcelo J Yanovsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016...
June 2, 2018: Lancet
Raphaëlle Klitting, Ernest A Gould, Christophe Paupy, Xavier de Lamballerie
The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes ( Stegomyia ) aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s) and vertebrate host(s)...
June 8, 2018: Genes
Fanny Hidalgo-Villeda, Edgardo Tzoc, Luque Torres, Efraín Bu, César Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
In recent years, reports of NAP1/RT027/ST01 epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile producing outbreaks of healthcare-associated diarrhea have increased in America and Europe. We cultivated multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains from the FQR2 linage from TcdA/TcdB+ stool samples obtained from patients in two Honduran hospitals. The PFGE macrorestriction patterns of two of the isolates were new. These bacteria were toxigenic and induced with different magnitude classical cytopathic effects on HeLa cells...
June 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Shonali Pachauri, Narasimha D Rao, Colin Cameron
The Central American nations of Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua are among the poorest in the Americas. While the fraction of population dependent on solid fuels has declined in these nations over the last 25 years, the number of people using them has risen. Here, we first assess current patterns of cooking energy use in these nations. We then apply a discrete model of household cooking choices and demand to simulate future pathways of clean cooking uptake and the outlook for achieving target 7.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which aims to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030...
2018: PloS One
Angelo Barbato, Barbara D'Avanzo, Alberto Parabiaghi
BACKGROUND: Couple therapy for depression has the twofold aim of modifying negative interaction patterns and increasing mutually supportive aspects of intimate relationships, changing the interpersonal context of depression. Couple therapy is included in several guidelines among the suggested treatments for depression. OBJECTIVES: 1. The main objective was to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to individual psychotherapy for depression.2. Secondary objectives were to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to drug therapy and no/minimal treatment for depression...
June 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gunter von Minckwitz, Marco Colleoni, Hans-Christian Kolberg, Serafin Morales, Patricia Santi, Zorica Tomasevic, Nan Zhang, Vladimir Hanes
BACKGROUND: ABP 980 (Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) is a biosimilar of trastuzumab, with analytical, functional, and pharmacokinetic similarities. We compared the clinical safety and efficacy of ABP 980 with that of trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer. METHODS: We did a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled equivalence trial at 97 study centres in 20 countries, mainly in Europe and South America. Eligible women were aged 18 years or older, had histologically confirmed HER2-positive invasive early breast cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and were planning to have surgical resection of the breast tumour with sentinel or axillary lymph node dissection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
June 4, 2018: Lancet Oncology
María Florencia Realini, Lidia Poggio, Julián Cámara Hernández, Graciela Esther González
In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA) and the Northwestern (NWA) regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter-populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs...
2018: PloS One
F M S Dias, A Specht, V F Roque-Specht, G San Blas, M M Casagrande, O H H Mielke
Feltia submontana (Köhler, 1961) is redescribed based on specimens from Northwestern Argentina and Central and Southeastern Brazil. Taxonomic comments, photographs of the adults, characters of taxonomic importance, and illustrations of structures of the labial palpus, legs, and male and female genitalia are provided. The species is compared with similar-looking and supposedly closely related species, such as F. hispidula (Guenée, 1852) and F. lilacina (Zerny, 1916). The species, originally described for Argentina, is reported for Brazil for the first time...
June 6, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Shahan Derkarabetian, James Starrett, Nobuo Tsurusaki, Darrell Ubick, Stephanie Castillo, Marshal Hedin
Molecular phylogenetics has transitioned into the phylogenomic era, with data derived from next-generation sequencing technologies allowing unprecedented phylogenetic resolution in all animal groups, including understudied invertebrate taxa. Within the most diverse harvestmen suborder, Laniatores, most relationships at all taxonomic levels have yet to be explored from a phylogenomics perspective. Travunioidea is an early-diverging lineage of laniatorean harvestmen with a Laurasian distribution, with species distributed in eastern Asia, eastern and western North America, and south-central Europe...
2018: ZooKeys
Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Elizabete Captivo Lourenço, Kátia Maria Famadas, Amanda Barbosa Garcia, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species...
2018: PloS One
Niels Rochow, Malak AlSamnan, Hon Yiu So, Dirk Olbertz, Anna Pelc, Jan Däbritz, Roland Hentschel, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Manfred Voigt
BACKGROUND: Anthropometric parameters such as birth weight (BW) and adult body height vary between ethnic groups. Ethnic-specific percentile charts are currently being used for the assessment of newborns. However, due to globalization and interethnic families, it is unclear which charts should be used. A correlation between a mother's height and her child's BW (1 cm accounts for a 17 g increase in BW) has been observed. The study aims to test differences in small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) rates, employing BW percentile charts based on maternal height between ethnic groups...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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