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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724448/systemic-insecticide-treatment-of-the-canine-reservoir-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-induces-high-levels-of-lethality-in-triatoma-infestans-a-principal-vector-of-chagas-disease
#1
Ariel Loza, Adrianna Talaga, Gladys Herbas, Ruben Jair Canaviri, Thalia Cahuasiri, Laura Luck, Alvaro Guibarra, Raquel Goncalves, Juan Antonio Pereira, Sonia A Gomez, Albert Picado, Louisa Alexandra Messenger, Caryn Bern, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: Despite large-scale reductions in Chagas disease prevalence across Central and South America, Trypanosoma cruzi infection remains a considerable public health problem in the Gran Chaco region where vector-borne transmission persists. In these communities, peridomestic animals are major blood-meal sources for triatomines, and household presence of infected dogs increases T. cruzi transmission risk for humans. To address the pressing need for field-friendly, complementary methods to reduce triatomine infestation and interrupt T...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724072/genome-wide-analysis-of-tar-spot-complex-resistance-in-maize-using-genotyping-by-sequencing-snps-and-whole-genome-prediction
#2
Shiliang Cao, Alexander Loladze, Yibing Yuan, Yongsheng Wu, Ao Zhang, Jiafa Chen, Gordon Huestis, Jingsheng Cao, Vijay Chaikam, Michael Olsen, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Felix San Vicente, Xuecai Zhang
Tar spot complex (TSC) is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize ( L.) in tropical and subtropical areas of Central and South America, causing significant grain yield losses when weather conditions are conducive. To dissect the genetic architecture of TSC resistance in maize, association mapping, in conjunction with linkage mapping, was conducted on an association-mapping panel and three biparental doubled-haploid (DH) populations using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722618/clinical-evidence-of-acute-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#3
Rebecca S B Fischer, Sreedhar Mandayam, Denis Chavarria, Chandan Vangala, Melissa N Garcia, Linda L Garcia, Lesbia Palma, Felix Garcia, Ramón García-Trabanino, Kristy O Murray
Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic of unexplained kidney disease in Central America, affects mostly young, healthy individuals. Its etiology is a mystery that requires urgent investigation. Largely described as a chronic kidney disease (CKD), no acute clinical scenario has been characterized. An understanding of the early disease process could elucidate an etiology and guide treatment and prevention efforts. We sought to document the earliest clinical signs in patients with suspected MeN in a high-risk population in Nicaragua...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722567/bartonella-infection-in-hematophagous-insectivorous-and-phytophagous-bat-populations-of-central-mexico-and-the-yucatan-peninsula
#4
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Mónica Salas-Rojas, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719254/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-the-cusco-region-of-the-peruvian-highlands-diagnosed-using-focused-abdominal-ultrasound
#5
Francesca Tamarozzi, Amy Hou, Maria Luisa Morales, Maria Teresa Giordani, Freddy Vilca, Karen Mozo, Ruben Bascope, A Clinton White, Enrico Brunetti, Lin Chen, Miguel M Cabada
AbstractLatin America is among the highly endemic regions for cystic echinococcosis (CE). In Peru, an estimated 1,139 disability-adjusted life years are lost annually from surgical treatment of CE. This is comparable with the combined total for Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Chile. The prevalence of human infection has been investigated in the central Peruvian Andes, but there are no community-based screening data from other regions of Peru. We carried out a population survey in January 2015 using abdominal ultrasound to estimate the prevalence of abdominal CE in the Canas and Canchis provinces, in the Cusco region of Peru...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718087/speaking-two-languages-in-america-a-semantic-space-analysis-of-how-presidential-candidates-and-their-supporters-represent-abstract-political-concepts-differently
#6
Ping Li, Benjamin Schloss, D Jake Follmer
In this article we report a computational semantic analysis of the presidential candidates' speeches in the two major political parties in the USA. In Study One, we modeled the political semantic spaces as a function of party, candidate, and time of election, and findings revealed patterns of differences in the semantic representation of key political concepts and the changing landscapes in which the presidential candidates align or misalign with their parties in terms of the representation and organization of politically central concepts...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717712/egfr-mutations-in-latinos-from-the-united-states-and-latin-america
#7
Ariel Lopez-Chavez, Anish Thomas, Moses O Evbuomwan, Liqiang Xi, Guinevere Chun, Tatiana Vidaurre, Oscar Arrieta, George Oblitas, Ana Belen Oton, Alejandro R Calvo, Arun Rajan, Mark Raffeld, Seth M Steinberg, Lorena Arze-Aimaretti, Giuseppe Giaccone
PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are limited and conflicting reports on the frequency of EGFR mutations in Latinos. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples from 642 patients with NSCLC from seven institutions in the United States and Latin America were assessed for EGFR mutations (exons 18 to 21) at Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified central laboratories...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716740/multilocus-analysis-of-the-catfish-family-trichomycteridae-teleostei-ostariophysi-siluriformes-supporting-a-monophyletic-trichomycterinae
#8
Luz E Ochoa, Fabio F Roxo, Carlos DoNascimiento, Mark H Sabaj, Aléssio Datovo, Michael Alfaro, Claudio Oliveira
Trichomycteridae is the second most diverse family of the order Siluriformes, its members are widely distributed through the freshwaters of Central and South America, exhibiting an exceptional ecological and phenotypic disparity. The most diverse subfamily, Trichomycterinae, represented mainly by the genus Trichomycterus, historically has been recognized as non-monophyletic and various characters used to unite or divide its constituents are repeatedly called into question. No comprehensive molecular phylogenetic hypothesis regarding relationships of trichomycterids has been produced, and the present study is the first extensive phylogeny for the family Trichomycteridae, based on a multilocus dataset of three mitochondrial loci and two nuclear markers (3284 bp total)...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715452/including-irrigation-in-niche-modelling-of-the-invasive-wasp-vespula-germanica-fabricius-improves-model-fit-to-predict-potential-for-further-spread
#9
Marelize de Villiers, Darren J Kriticos, Ruan Veldtman
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704480/host-niche-may-determine-disease-driven-extinction-risk
#10
Mark Blooi, Alexandra E Laking, An Martel, Freddy Haesebrouck, Merlijn Jocque, Tom Brown, Stephen Green, Miguel Vences, Molly C Bletz, Frank Pasmans
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) drives declines and extinctions in amphibian communities. However, not all regions and species are equally affected. Here, we show that association with amphibian aquatic habitat types (bromeliad phytotelmata versus stream) across Central America results in the odds of being threatened by Bd being five times higher in stream microhabitats. This differential threat of Bd was supported in our study by a significantly lower prevalence of Bd in bromeliad-associated amphibian species compared to riparian species in Honduran cloud forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698279/zika-virus-persistently-infects-and-is-basolaterally-released-from-primary-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#11
Megan C Mladinich, John Schwedes, Erich R Mackow
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that has emerged as the cause of encephalitis and fetal microencephaly in the Americas. ZIKV uniquely persists in human bodily fluids for up to 6 months, is sexually transmitted, and traverses the placenta and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to damage neurons. Cells that support persistent ZIKV replication and mechanisms by which ZIKV establishes persistence remain enigmatic but central to ZIKV entry into protected neuronal compartments. The endothelial cell (EC) lining of capillaries normally constrains transplacental transmission and forms the BBB, which selectively restricts access of blood constituents to neurons...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698111/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-maclura-moraceae-and-the-origin-of-an-anachronistic-fruit
#12
Elliot M Gardner, Paya Sarraf, Evelyn W Williams, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maclura (ca. 12 spp., Moraceae) is a widespread genus of trees and woody climbers found on five continents. Maclura pomifera, the Osage orange, is considered a classic example of an anachronistic fruit. Native to the central USA, the grapefruit-sized Osage oranges are unpalatable and have no known extant native dispersers, leading to speculation that the fruits were adapted to extinct megafauna. Our aim was to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates, and infer ancestral ranges of Maclura in order to test the monophyly of subgeneric classifications and to understand evolution and dispersal patterns in this globally distributed group...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696305/interannual-cycles-of-hantaan-virus-outbreaks-at-the-human-animal-interface-in-central-china-are-controlled-by-temperature-and-rainfall
#13
Huaiyu Tian, Pengbo Yu, Bernard Cazelles, Lei Xu, Hua Tan, Jing Yang, Shanqian Huang, Bo Xu, Jun Cai, Chaofeng Ma, Jing Wei, Shen Li, Jianhui Qu, Marko Laine, Jingjun Wang, Shilu Tong, Nils Chr Stenseth, Bing Xu
Hantavirus, a rodent-borne zoonotic pathogen, has a global distribution with 200,000 human infections diagnosed annually. In recent decades, repeated outbreaks of hantavirus infections have been reported in Eurasia and America. These outbreaks have led to public concern and an interest in understanding the underlying biological mechanisms. Here, we propose a climate-animal-Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection model to address this issue, using a unique dataset spanning a 54-y period (1960-2013). This dataset comes from Central China, a focal point for natural HTNV infection, and includes both field surveillance and an epidemiological record...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694449/future-changes-in-the-climatology-of-the-great-plains-low-level-jet-derived-from-fine-resolution-multi-model-simulations
#14
Ying Tang, Julie Winkler, Shiyuan Zhong, Xindi Bian, Dana Doubler, Lejiang Yu, Claudia Walters
The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692116/variability-among-capsicum-baccatum-accessions-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil-assessed-by-morphological-traits-and-molecular-markers
#15
A L A Martinez, J S P Araújo, C F Ragassi, G S C Buso, F J B Reifschneider
Capsicum peppers are native to the Americas, with Brazil being a significant diversity center. Capsicum baccatum accessions at Instituto Federal (IF) Goiano represent a portion of the species genetic resources from central Brazil. We aimed to characterize a C. baccatum working collection comprising 27 accessions and 3 commercial cultivars using morphological traits and molecular markers to describe its genetic and morphological variability and verify the occurrence of duplicates. This set included 1 C. baccatum var...
July 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691657/a-relevant-in-vitro-human-model-for-the-study-of-zika-virus-antibody-dependent-enhancement
#16
Berlin Londono-Renteria, Andrea Troupin, Jenny C Cardenas, Alex Hall, Omar G Perez, Lucio Cardenas, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Scott B Halstead, Tonya M Colpitts
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been responsible for a serious outbreak of disease in South and Central America. Infection with ZIKV has been associated with severe neurological symptoms and the development of microcephaly in unborn fetuses. Many of the regions involved in the current outbreak are known to be endemic for another flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV), which indicates that a large percentage of the population may have pre-existing DENV immunity. Thus, it is vital to investigate what impact pre-existing DENV immunity has on ZIKV infection...
July 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688695/transoral-thyroidectomy-and-parathyroidectomy-a-north-american-series-of-robotic-and-endoscopic-transoral-approaches-to-the-central-neck
#17
Jonathon O Russell, James Clark, Salem I Noureldine, Angkoon Anuwong, Mai G Al Khadem, Hoon Yub Kim, Vaninder K Dhillon, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Ralph P Tufano, Jeremy D Richmon
OBJECTIVE: Most thyroid surgery in North America is completed via a cervical incision, which leaves a permanent scar. Approaches without cutaneous incisions offer aesthetic advantages. This series represents the largest series of transoral vestibular approaches to the central neck in North America, and the first published reports of robotic transoral vestibular thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was prospectively collected for patients that underwent transoral vestibular approach thyroidectomy and/or parathyroidectomy between April 2016 and February 2017...
August 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688628/will-mayaro-virus-be-responsible-for-the-next-outbreak-of-an-arthropod-borne-virus-in-brazil
#18
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of MAYV infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil...
July 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687774/andean-mountain-building-did-not-preclude-dispersal-of-lowland-epiphytic-orchids-in-the-neotropics
#19
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Marc Gottschling, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Bente B Klitgård, Emerson Pansarin, Günter Gerlach
The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680672/phylogenetic-evidence-for-the-ancient-himalayan-wolf-towards-a-clarification-of-its-taxonomic-status-based-on-genetic-sampling-from-western-nepal
#20
Geraldine Werhahn, Helen Senn, Jennifer Kaden, Jyoti Joshi, Susmita Bhattarai, Naresh Kusi, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, David W Macdonald
Wolves in the Himalayan region form a monophyletic lineage distinct from the present-day Holarctic grey wolf Canis lupus spp. (Linnaeus 1758) found across Eurasia and North America. Here, we analyse phylogenetic relationships and the geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of the contemporary Himalayan wolf (proposed in previous studies as Canis himalayensis) found in Central Asia. We combine genetic data from a living Himalayan wolf population collected in northwestern Nepal in this study with already published genetic data, and confirm the Himalayan wolf lineage based on mitochondrial genomic data (508 bp cytochrome b and 242 bp D-loop), and X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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