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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456924/unaccompanied-children-migrating-from-central-america-public-health-implications-for-violence-prevention-and-intervention
#1
Lianne Fuino Estefan, Katie A Ports, Tracy Hipp
Purpose of Review: Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. Recent Findings: The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention...
April 2017: Current Trauma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451888/ecogeography-of-teosinte
#2
José de Jesús Sánchez González, José Ariel Ruiz Corral, Guillermo Medina García, Gabriela Ramírez Ojeda, Lino De la Cruz Larios, James Brendan Holland, Roberto Miranda Medrano, Giovanni Emmanuel García Romero
Adaptation of crops to climate change has motivated an increasing interest in the potential value of novel traits from wild species; maize wild relatives, the teosintes, harbor traits that may be useful to maize breeding. To study the ecogeographic distribution of teosinte we constructed a robust database of 2363 teosinte occurrences from published sources for the period 1842-2016. A geographical information system integrating 216 environmental variables was created for Mexico and Central America and was used to characterize the environment of each teosinte occurrence site...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449380/annotated-genome-sequences-of-16-lineage-4-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-guatemala
#3
Joseph W Saelens, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Anneliese Moller, Ana M Xet-Mull, Narda Medina, Brenda Guzmán, Maylena Calderón, Raúl Herrera, Jason E Stout, Eduardo Arathoon, Blanca Samayoa, David M Tobin
Whole-genome sequencing has resulted in new insights into the phylogeography of Mycobacterium tuberculosis However, only limited genomic data are available from M. tuberculosis strains in Guatemala. Here we report 16 complete genomes of clinical strains belonging to the Euro-American lineage 4, the most common lineage found in Guatemala and Central America.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447213/delineating-and-identifying-long-term-changes-in-the-whooping-crane-grus-americana-migration-corridor
#4
Aaron T Pearse, Matt Rabbe, Lara M Juliusson, Mark T Bidwell, Lea Craig-Moore, David A Brandt, Wade Harrell
Defining and identifying changes to seasonal ranges of migratory species is required for effective conservation. Historic sightings of migrating whooping cranes (Grus americana) have served as sole source of information to define a migration corridor in the Great Plains of North America (i.e., Canadian Prairies and United States Great Plains) for this endangered species. We updated this effort using past opportunistic sightings from 1942-2016 (n = 5,055) and more recent (2010-2016) location data from 58 telemetered birds (n = 4,423) to delineate migration corridors that included 50%, 75%, and 95% core areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446643/traditional-consumption-of-and-rearing-edible-insects-in-africa-asia-and-europe
#5
Dele Raheem, Conrado Carrascosa, Oluwatoyin Bolanle Oluwole, Maaike Nieuwland, Ariana Saraiva, Rafael Millán, António Raposo
The traditional consumption of edible insects is common in one third of the world's population, mostly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. There are over one thousand identified species of insects eaten in some stage of their life cycle; and they play important roles in ensuring food security. The most common way to collect insects are from the wild, which is seasonal with limited availability and has an increasing demand resulting in a disruption to the ecosystem. There is a growing interest shown in rearing insects for commercial purposes, and an industrial scale production will be required to ensure steady supplies...
February 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445901/geology-and-geochemistry-of-the-atacama-desert
#6
J Tapia, R González, B Townley, V Oliveros, F Álvarez, G Aguilar, A Menzies, M Calderón
The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats...
February 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443061/detecting-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-ticks-using-nested-pcr
#7
Melanie K B Wills, Andrea M Kirby, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. The molecular technique of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) has long been used for this purpose, and it remains a central, inexpensive, and robust approach in the detection of Borrelia in both ticks and wildlife...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438715/perceived-child-eating-behaviours-and-maternal-migrant-background
#8
Maria Somaraki, Karin Eli, Kimmo Sorjonen, Carl-Erik Flodmark, Claude Marcus, Myles S Faith, Christine Persson Osowski, Anna Ek, Paulina Nowicka
The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a well-established instrument in the study of obesity-related eating behaviours among children. However, research using the CEBQ in multicultural samples is limited. This study aims to identify and examine differences in child eating behaviours as reported by Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born mothers living in Sweden. Mothers (n = 1310, 74 countries of origin, mean age 36.5 years, 63.6% with higher education, 29.2% with overweight or obesity) of five-year-olds (mean age 4...
February 10, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437864/chronic-kidney-disease-mortality-trends-in-selected-central-america-countries-1997-2013-clues-to-an-epidemic-of-chronic-interstitial-nephritis-of-agricultural-communities
#9
Pedro Ordunez, F Javier Nieto, Ramon Martinez, Patricia Soliz, Gloria P Giraldo, Susan Anne Mott, Wendy E Hoy
BACKGROUND: In Central America, chronic interstitial nephritis of agricultural communities (CINAC) has reached epidemic proportions. Clusters of cases have been described in several farming communities. Its aetiology remains uncertain and a controversy exists on its key triggers, among them the heat stress-dehydration mechanism and the toxic exposure to agrochemicals. METHODS: This study analysed the mortality pattern and trend of chronic kidney disease code N18 (CKD-N18) according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision, the proxy and the underlying cause of death, in four selected Central American countries from 1997 to 2013...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436500/seed-ingestion-and-germination-in-rattlesnakes-overlooked-agents-of-rescue-and-secondary-dispersal
#10
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435260/hidden-endemism-deep-polyphyly-and-repeated-dispersal-across-the-isthmus-of-tehuantepec-diversification-of-the-white-collared-seedeater-complex-thraupidae-sporophila-torqueola
#11
Nicholas A Mason, Arturo Olvera-Vital, Irby J Lovette, Adolfo G Navarro-Sigüenza
Phenotypic and genetic variation are present in all species, but lineages differ in how variation is partitioned among populations. Examining phenotypic clustering and genetic structure within a phylogeographic framework can clarify which biological processes have contributed to extant biodiversity in a given lineage. Here, we investigate genetic and phenotypic variation among populations and subspecies within a Neotropical songbird complex, the White-collared Seedeater (Sporophila torqueola) of Central America and Mexico...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434621/extensive-karyotype-reorganization-in-the-fish-gymnotus-arapaima-gymnotiformes-gymnotidae-highlighted-by-zoo-fish-analysis
#12
Milla de Andrade Machado, Julio C Pieczarka, Fernando H R Silva, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Cleusa Y Nagamachi
The genus Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes) contains over 40 species of freshwater electric fishes exhibiting a wide distribution throughout Central and South America, and being particularly prevalent in the Amazon basin. Cytogenetics has been an important tool in the cytotaxonomy and elucidation of evolutionary processes in this genus, including the unraveling the variety of diploid chromosome number (2n = from 34 to 54), the high karyotype diversity among species with a shared diploid number, different sex chromosome systems, and variation in the distribution of several Repetitive DNAs and colocation and association between those sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433137/-the-invisibles-project-meeting-and-collaboration-of-public-health-and-volunteering-the-influenza-vaccination-experience-to-promote-the-health-of-the-socially-vulnerable-and-economically-disadvantaged-population
#13
Loris Pagano, Caterina Pizzutelli, Maria Maddalena Matarazzo, Gaia Monteleone, Damiano Pizzuti
Migration and the current European socioeconomic conditions necessitate an evaluation/assessment, as detailed as possible, of the spread of seasonal infectious diseases in order to reduce inequalities in the healthcare system. The "Scuola di Formazione in Medicina Generale" of Lazio, in collaboration with the Community of Sant'Egidio of Rome, organized an influenza/flu vaccination campaign for homeless people, migrants and the poor in order to check their health conditions and prevent the spread of the most common infectious diseases...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432856/aqueous-extracts-from-uncaria-tomentosa-willd-ex-schult-dc-reduce-bronchial-hyperresponsiveness-and-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#14
Bruna Cestari de Azevedo, Lucas Junqueira de Freitas Morel, Fábio Carmona, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Silvia Helena Taleb Contini, Piero Giuseppe Delprete, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Eduardo Crevelin, Bianca Waléria Bertoni, Suzelei de Castro França, Marcos de Carvalho Borges, Ana Maria Soares Pereira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. Ex Schult) DC is used by indigenous tribes in the Amazonian region of Central and South America to treat inflammation, allergies and asthma. The therapeutic properties of U. tomentosa have been attributed to the presence of tetracyclic and pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids and to phenolic acids. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterize aqueous bark extracts (ABE) and aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) of U. tomentosa and to compare their anti-inflammatory effects...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430724/dermoscopic-features-of-tungiasis
#15
Hideyuki Kosumi, Hiroaki Iwata, Hajime Miyazawa, Masumi Tsujiwaki, Yosuke Mai, Satomi Ando, Takuya Ito, Kimiaki Yamano, Hiroshi Shimizu
Tungiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. Tungiasis is prevalent in rural Central and South America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa.1 In some endemic areas, the overall infestation prevalence exceeds 50 percent, and it remains an important public health problem for poor communities.1,2 In some cases, the eruptions can mimic viral warts, furuncles, abscesses and paronychia.1 Dermoscopy is reported to be a useful tool for differentiating between these and tungiasis lesions...
February 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430017/schools-at-the-rural-urban-boundary-blurring-the-divide
#16
Julia Burdick-Will, John R Logan
Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America...
July 2017: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428603/field-efficacy-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-galleriae-strain-sds-502-for-the-management-of-alfalfa-weevil-and-its-impact-on-bathyplectes-spp-parasitization-rate
#17
Govinda Shrestha, Gadi V P Reddy, Stefan T Jaronski
Alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica Gyllenhal, is an important pest in forage alfalfa worldwide, and especially so on the Northern Plains of North America. Neither the weevil-specific fungus, Erynia phytonomi, nor the weevil's parasitoids are able to routinely suppress outbreaks as they do in the eastern U.S. A new Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae, having a Cry8Da coleopteran-active toxin, has been recently commercialized. We examined the efficacy of this B. thuringiensis product against the H. postica in replicated field trials in north central Montana...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420812/expeditionary-force-health-protection-for-global-health-engagement-lessons-learned-from-continuing-promise-2017
#18
Lucas A Johnson, Robert P Lennon
Background: Global health engagement (GHE) is an important priority for the Military Health Service as such activities strengthen the health capabilities of partner nations and improve interoperability. By their very nature, GHE activities are predominantly conducted in low-resource areas with limited infrastructure and substantial humanitarian need. The Department of Defense is evaluating leaner, flexible force packages to accomplish GHE missions and better prepare uniformed medical providers to provide care in austere environments...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420519/estudio-sobre-la-satisfacci%C3%A3-n-laboral-y-la-felicidad-en-m%C3%A3-dicos-dermat%C3%A3-logos
#19
Leonel Fierro-Arias, Pilar Simón-Díaz, Rosa María Ponce-Olivera, Roberto Arenas-Guzmán
Objetivo: Conocer la felicidad y la satisfacción laboral de los dermatólogos en México. Método: Estudio descriptivo, mediante encuesta en línea dirigida a dermatólogos especialistas, graduados y con ejercicio en México. Se incluyeron elementos demográficos, el Índice de Felicidad de Pemberton (con validación local) y preguntas para evaluar la satisfacción personal. Se realizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión; para comparar las variables categóricas, se utilizaron tablas de contingencia para ji al cuadrado, y al comparar variables cuantitativas con distribución normal se utilizó la prueba t de Student...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416392/two-new-genera-of-metalmark-butterflies-of-north-and-central-america-lepidoptera-riodinidae
#20
Marysol Trujano-Ortega, Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Curtis J Callaghan, Omar Ávalos-Hernández, Moisés Armando Luis-Martínez, Jorge Enrique Llorente-Bousquets
Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876), comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n.) and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870), comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989]), comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989]), comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886), comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991), comb. n...
2018: ZooKeys
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