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Tobacco cessation

Lisa Huddlestone, Harpreet Sohal, Claire Paul, Elena Ratschen
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is extremely prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI) and has been recognised as the main contributor to widening health inequalities in this population. Historically, smoking has been deeply entrenched in the culture of mental health settings in the UK, and until recently, smokefree policies tended to be only partially implemented. However, recent national guidance and the government's tobacco control plan now call for the implementation of complete smokefree policies...
July 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Travis T Denton, Pramod Srivastava, Zuping Xia, Gang Chen, Christy Watson, Alec Wynd, Philip Lazarus
Cigarette smoking causes nearly one in every five deaths in the United States. The development of a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme in humans, which could be prescribed for the cessation of cigarette smoking, has been undertaken. To further refine the structure activity relationship of CYP2A6, previously synthesized 3-alkynyl and 3-heteroaromatic substituted pyridine methanamines were used as lead compounds. Isosteric pyridine replacement and appendage of all available positions around the pyridine ring with a methyl group was performed to identify a modification that would increase CYP2A6 inhibition potency which led to 4g (IC50 = 0...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Valeria Calcaterra, Jonathan P Winickoff, Catherine Klersy, Luca Maria Schiano, Rossella Bazzano, Chiara Montalbano, Valeria Musella, Corrado Regalbuto, Daniela Larizza, Hellas Cena
Background: To evaluate the relationship between smoking and metabolic parameters in patients affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients and methods: We enrolled 104 children and young adults (50 females and 54 males) with T1D (aged 16.4 ± 8.6 years). The subjects were divided into three groups according to their smoking habits: no smoking (NS), passive smoking (PS), active smoking (AS). The physical examination of the participants included nutritional status assessment by anthropometry and pubertal stage according to Marshall and Tanner as well as blood pressure measurement...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Annie R Peng, Robert Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Rachel F Tyndale
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, such as varenicline, is necessary for effective treatment. The relationship between varenicline adherence, determined by commonly used indirect (i.e., self-reported pill counts) and infrequently used direct (i.e., varenicline levels) methods, and abstinence outcomes have not been previously examined, nor has their impact on the outcomes of a genetically randomized clinical trial been assessed. METHODS: At Week 1 following target quit date, self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline levels were obtained from participants (N = 376) in a smoking cessation clinical trial (NCT01314001)...
June 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Krystal L Lynch, Jenny E Twesten, Alexandra Stern, Erik M Augustson
Introduction: The negative association between heavy alcohol use and likelihood of successful smoking cessation is well established. However, evidence on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on smoking cessation is sparse. This analysis evaluated the association between alcohol use and smoking and the interaction of alcohol use and use of pharmacotherapy interventions in relation to smoking cessation. Methods: Data from adults (n=923) recruited through a smoking cessation website between November 2011 and March 2012 were analyzed...
July 7, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Scott R Weaver, Jidong Huang, Terry F Pechacek, John Wesley Heath, David L Ashley, Michael P Eriksen
BACKGROUND: The potential of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to reduce the cardiovascular and other disease risks of smoking is of great interest. While many smokers report using ENDS for cessation, their impact under real-world use patterns and conditions on adult smokers' quitting behavior is uncertain. The objective of this study was to generate more recent and comprehensive evidence on the effect of "real world" ENDS use on the population quit rates of adult smokers while taking account of frequency and duration of use, device type, e-liquid flavor, and reasons for use...
2018: PloS One
Thomas MacAndrew English, Todd Brenton Smith, Xiaochuan Song, Marilyn V Whitman
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be a better alternative to traditional smoking cessation therapies for cigarette smokers. This study explores the barriers traditional smokers face when switching to e-cigarettes. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A convenience sample of adult male and female tobacco and/or e-cigarette smokers (n = 446) were recruited through an online survey. MEASUREMENTS: The survey included questions used to determine the barriers a smoker may experience in regards to their use of e-cigarettes, as well as the characteristics regarding their use of tobacco and/or e-cigarettes...
July 8, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Niki Shrestha, Sanjeeb Shah, Gayatri Khanal, Suneel Piryani
BACKGROUND: Health professional students play a critical role in tobacco control by providing services, advocating for policies and serving as role models for social change. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and determine the attitude and behavior regarding tobacco use among health professional students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among third-year medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy undergraduates using GHPSS questionnaire...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Lorette Dupuis, Heidi McKean, Hilda Chow
SETTING: The Conference Board of Canada cites that 77% of employees want to receive health information in the workplace. From 2014 to 2016, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with 25 construction companies, to implement smoking cessation programs on 41 construction sites. INTERVENTION: OPH partnered with local construction companies, unions, and workers to design, deliver, and evaluate a tailored initiative to build smoke-free culture and encourage quit attempts...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Aya Mostafa, Heba Tallah Mohammed, Wafaa Mohamed Hussein, Mahmoud Elhabiby, Wael Safwat, Sahar Labib, Aisha Aboul Fotouh, Janet Hoek
BACKGROUND: Although Egypt places four generic pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on the front and back half of waterpipe tobacco packs (WTPs), waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) rates have continued to rise. It has been suggested that PHWs would be more salient if placed on the waterpipe device itself. This qualitative study explored how participants perceived the effects placing PHWs on waterpipe devices would have on warning salience and uptake or quitting of WTS. METHODS: We conducted 10 focus groups and 10 in-depth interviews with 90 adult waterpipe smokers and non-smokers, men and women, who lived in rural, semi-urban and urban regions of Egypt...
July 6, 2018: Tobacco Control
Carl Joakim Brandt, Gabrielle Isidora Søgaard, Jane Clemensen, Jens Søndergaard, Jesper Bo Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Success with lifestyle change, such as weight loss, tobacco cessation, and increased activity level, using electronic health (eHealth) has been demonstrated in numerous studies short term. However, evidence on how to maintain the effect long-term has not been fully explored, even though there is a pressing need for long-term solutions. Recent studies indicate that weight loss can be achieved and maintained over 12 and 20 months in a primary care setting using a collaborative eHealth tool...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jie Lin, Kangmin Zhu, Aida M Soliván-Ortiz, Stacy L Larsen, Thomas R Schneid, Craig D Shriver, Sukhyung Lee
ObjectivesThe prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the US military is alarmingly high. We aimed to identify factors related to smokeless tobacco use among active duty service members. Methods Participants (N = 2465) from Fort Bragg Army Base, North Carolina and Lackland Air Force Base, Texas completed a self-administered questionnaire. We performed stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify factors statistically associated with smokeless tobacco use. Results The prevalence of use was higher at the Army base than the Air Force base (32...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Craig Tower, Arlene Butz, Cassia Lewis-Land, Meng Zhu, Mandeep S Jassal
BACKGROUND: The socio-structural barriers for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among children with asthma may be insurmountable for low-income caregivers. Health promoting financial incentives (HPFIs) are increasingly being used in the adult population to motivate and sustain tobacco-reduction behaviors. We assessed barriers to SHSe reduction and means to overcome them through the design of an HPFI-based, caregiver-targeted SHSe reduction study. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews among low-income primary caregivers of children with asthma residing in Baltimore City...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Nathan Pauly, Jeffrey Talbert, Shannon Parsley, Bobbye Gray, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE: State-based smoking cessation telephone quitlines offer a cost-effective method of providing tobacco treatment at no cost to participants. The study objective was to assess the annual return on investment (ROI) to employers if they were to bear the entire responsibility from the Kentucky quitline. DESIGN: A retrospective design was used to estimate the annual ROI to employers from the Kentucky quitline. SETTING: The telephone quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) provided intake and follow-up data for all Kentucky participants who enrolled in the program from 2012 to 2014...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Aldo Pezzuto, Marco Stellato, Giovanna Catania, Calogero Mazzara, Sara Tonini, Marco Caricato, Pierifilippo Crucitti, Giuseppe Tonini
 Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking cessation can change the natural history of COPD as we know from the GOLD guidelines. Little is known about the short-term clinical and functional effects of smoking cessation treatment combined with anti-muscarinic bronchodilators.
 To determine if quit smoking combined with the use of new long-acting muscarinic antagonist bronchodilator (LAMA) can improve lung function tests and respiratory symptoms compared with the only use of bronchodilator without smoking cessation...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
S M Davidson, R G Boldt, A V Louie
Background: Because continued cigarette smoking after a cancer diagnosis is associated with detrimental outcomes, supporting cancer patients with smoking cessation is imperative. We evaluated the effect of the Smoking Cessation Program at the London Regional Cancer Program (lrcp) over a 2-year period. Methods: The Smoking Cessation Program at the lrcp began in March 2014. New patients are screened for tobacco use. Tobacco users are counselled about the benefits of cessation and are offered referral to the program...
June 2018: Current Oncology
Yun-Kyoung Song, Jae Hyun Kim, Boyoon Choi, Nayoung Han, Myeong Gyu Kim, Jeongsam Lee, Handuk Lee, Jieun Yoon, Beom-Jin Lee, Jung Mi Oh
Introduction: As South Korea remains technically at war with the North, higher smoking prevalence in the military might adversely affect the South Korea's military power and contribute to lifetime smoking in men with mandatory military service. This study was to identify priorities among the anti-smoking strategies to improve the existing smoking cessation programs for the Korean military. Methods: The analytic hierarchy process model with a goal, decision criteria, and sub-criteria as well as candidate strategies, was developed following a literature search and expert group discussion...
July 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Vanessa Vasconcelos, Hazel Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has provided smokers with an alternative source of nicotine. Interest and use of the device has increased exponentially in the last decade with an estimated 2.9 m adult users in Great Britain. Research so far on the attitudes and perceptions of smokers to this new product has largely focussed on the views of current e-cigarette users, smokers attempting to quit and former cigarette smokers.AimThis study aimed to explore the views of current tobacco smokers who were not using e-cigarettes and not looking for a cessation method, their understanding and knowledge of e-cigarettes, and their views of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid provided by the National Health Service (NHS)...
July 2, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Roula Ghadban, Linda Haddad, Leroy R Thacker, Kyungeh An, Robert L Balster, Jeanne Salyer
INTRODUCTION: Arab Americans are a growing population in the United States. In the 2011 American Community Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau reported there were close to 1.8 million Arab Americans living within the United States, a 47% increase in population size from 2000. According to the Arab American Institute, currently, that estimate has grown to approximately 3.7 million. They have high rates of smoking and low rates of smoking cessation. In this study, the researchers investigated factors influencing desire to quit smoking among Arab Americans, and their association with acculturation and health beliefs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Virmarie Correa-Fernández, William T Wilson, Bryce Kyburz, Daniel P O'Connor, Timothy Stacey, Teresa Williams, Cho Y Lam, Lorraine R Reitzel
Despite the health benefits of tobacco control and cessation initiatives, tobacco users with behavioral health disorders (BHDs) have less access to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment. Academic-community partnerships can help guide the translation of tobacco-related research findings and evidence-based guidelines into real-world applications. Through a comprehensive, evidence-based, multilevel, and multicomponent program, Taking Texas Tobacco Free (TTTF) facilitated the implementation of tobacco-free workplaces at 18 local mental health authorities in Texas, comprising over 250 individual community behavioral health centers...
June 28, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
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