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Nils Kasties, Sarah Starosta, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
Animals exploit visual information to identify objects, form stimulus-reward associations, and prepare appropriate behavioral responses. The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an associative region of the avian endbrain, contains neurons exhibiting prominent response modulation during presentation of reward-predicting visual stimuli, but it is unclear whether neural activity represents valuation signals, stimulus properties, or sensorimotor contingencies. To test the hypothesis that NCL neurons represent stimulus value, we subjected pigeons to a Pavlovian sign-tracking paradigm in which visual cues predicted rewards differing in magnitude (large vs...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
The attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues contributes to cue-induced craving and relapse in addicted patients. Recently, it was demonstrated that subanesthetic ketamine increases motivation to quit and decreases cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals. Although the underlying mechanism of this effect is currently unknown, one possibility is that subanesthetic ketamine decreases the incentive-motivational value of reward-related cues. In the present study, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to identify sign-trackers, rats that attribute incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues, and goal-trackers, rats that assign only predictive value to reward-related cues...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Jiaming Yan, Hong Hong, Heng Zhao, Yusheng Li, Chen Gu, Xiaohua Zhu
Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO) ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance...
2016: Sensors
Stefanie A Scülfort, Dusan Bartsch, Thomas Enkel
Dopamine's (DA) role in reward-processing is currently discussed as either providing a teaching signal to guide learning or mediating the transfer of incentive salience (i.e. motivational aspects) from unconditioned stimuli (US) to conditioned stimuli (CS). We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to further investigate DAs contribution to these processes. Experiment 1 assessed the acquisition of PCA to a manipulable lever cue for 7days under DA-blockade with Flupenthixol (FLU; 225μg/kg) or Saline (SAL) treatment, followed by 6-days off-drug testing...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Maliha Naeem, Norman M White
In an autoshaping task, a single conditioned stimulus (CS; lever insertion) was repeatedly followed by the delivery of an unconditioned stimulus (US; food pellet into an adjacent food magazine) irrespective of the rats' behavior. After repeated training trials, some rats responded to the onset of the CS by approaching and pressing the lever (sign-trackers). Lesions of dorsolateral striatum almost completely eliminated responding to the lever CS while facilitating responding to the food magazine (US). Lesions of the dorsomedial striatum attenuated but did not eliminate responding to the lever CS...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Christopher Fitzpatrick, Justin F Creeden, Shane A Perrine, Jonathan D Morrow
Individual variation in the attribution of motivational salience to reward-related cues is believed to underlie addiction vulnerability. Pavlovian conditioned approach measures individual variation in motivational salience by identifying rats that are attracted to and motivated by reward cues (sign-trackers) or motivationally fixed on the reward itself (goal-trackers). Previously, it has been demonstrated that sign-trackers are more vulnerable to addiction-like behavior. Moreover, sign-trackers release more dopamine in the nucleus accumbens than goal-trackers in response to reward-related cues, and sign- but not goal-tracking behavior is dopamine-dependent...
July 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Jonathan J Chow, Justin R Nickell, Mahesh Darna, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimulus-reward learning has been heavily linked to the reward-prediction error learning hypothesis and dopaminergic function. However, some evidence suggests dopaminergic function may not strictly underlie reward-prediction error learning, but may be specific to incentive salience attribution. Utilizing a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two stimuli that were equally reward-predictive (both undergoing reward-prediction error learning) but functionally distinct in regard to incentive salience (levers that elicited sign-tracking and tones that elicited goal-tracking), we tested the differential role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and nucleus accumbens dopamine in the acquisition of sign- and goal-tracking behavior and their associated conditioned reinforcing value within individuals...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Carmen Torres, Amanda C Glueck, Shannon E Conrad, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Cassandra L Versaggi, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. OBJECTIVES: To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers")...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
Christopher P King, Abraham A Palmer, Leah C Solberg Woods, Larry W Hawk, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Disorders of behavioral regulation, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug addiction, are in part due to poor inhibitory control, attentional deficits, and hyper-responsivity to reward-associated cues. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether these traits are related, we tested genetically variable male and female heterogeneous stock rats in the choice reaction time (CRT) task and Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA). Sex differences in the response to methylphenidate during the CRT were also assessed...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Patrick Anselme
Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Appetitive sign-tracking, in which reward-paired cues elicit approach that can result in cue interaction, demonstrates how cues acquire motivational value. For example, rats will approach and subsequently interact with a lever insertion cue that signals food delivery upon its retraction. However, lever deflections are rapidly reduced once rats are trained on an omission schedule in which lever interactions cancel food delivery. Here we evaluated the change in sign-tracking response topography in rats exposed to such an omission procedure...
April 2016: Learning & Memory
Alexandra G DiFeliceantonio, Kent C Berridge
Pavlovian cues for rewards can become attractive incentives: approached and 'wanted' as the rewards themselves. The motivational attractiveness of a previously learned cue is not fixed, but can be dynamically amplified during re-encounter by simultaneous activation of brain limbic circuitry. Here it was reported that opioid or dopamine microinjections in the dorsolateral quadrant of the neostriatum (DLS) of rats selectively amplify attraction toward a previously learned Pavlovian cue in an individualized fashion, at the expense of a competing cue...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
Cues that are contingently paired with unconditioned, rewarding stimuli can acquire rewarding properties themselves through a process known as the attribution of incentive salience, or the transformation of neutral stimuli into attractive, "wanted' stimuli capable of motivating behavior. Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) develops after the response-independent presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a lever) that predicts the delivery of an unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a food pellet) and can be used to measure incentive salience...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael P Saddoris, Xuefei Wang, Jonathan A Sugam, Regina M Carelli
UNLABELLED: Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Francesco Versace, George Kypriotakis, Karen Basen-Engquist, Susan M Schembre
Aberrant brain reward responses to food-related cues are an implied characteristic of human obesity; yet, findings are inconsistent. To explain these inconsistencies, we aimed to uncover endophenotypes associated with heterogeneity in attributing incentive salience to food cues in the context of other emotionally salient cues; a phenomenon described as sign- vs goal tracking in preclinical models. Data from 64 lean and 88 obese adults who were 35.5 ± 9.4 years old and predominantly women (79%) were analyzed...
April 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Michael M Barrus, Mariya Cherkasova, Catharine A Winstanley
The similarity between gambling disorder (GD) and drug addiction has recently been recognized at the diagnostic level. Understanding the core cognitive processes involved in these addiction disorders, and in turn their neurobiological mechanisms, remains a research priority due to the enormous benefits such knowledge would have in enabling effective treatment design. Animal models can be highly informative in this regard. Although numerous rodent behavioural paradigms that capture different facets of gambling-like behaviour have recently been developed, the motivational power of cues in biasing individuals towards risky choice has so far received little attention despite the central role played by drug-paired cues in successful laboratory models of chemical dependency...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Stephen E Chang, Travis P Todd, David J Bucci, Kyle S Smith
Cues associated with rewarding events acquire value themselves as a result of the incentive value of the reward being transferred to the cue. Consequently, presentation of a reward-paired cue can trigger reward-seeking behaviours towards the cue itself (i.e. sign-tracking). The ventral pallidum (VP) has been demonstrated to be involved in a number of motivated behaviours, both conditioned and unconditioned. However, its contribution to the acquisition of incentive value is unknown. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with levers, the effects of disrupting VP activity in rats on the emergence of sign-tracking was investigated using chemogenetics, i...
December 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alex S James, Zachary T Pennington, Phu Tran, James David Jentsch
Two theories regarding the role for dopamine neurons in learning include the concepts that their activity serves as a (1) mechanism that confers incentive salience onto rewards and associated cues and/or (2) contingency teaching signal reflecting reward prediction error. While both theories are provocative, the causal role for dopamine cell activity in either mechanism remains controversial. In this study mice that either fully or partially lacked NMDARs in dopamine neurons exclusively, as well as appropriate controls, were evaluated for reward-related learning; this experimental design allowed for a test of the premise that NMDA/glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated mechanisms in dopamine neurons, including NMDA-dependent regulation of phasic discharge activity of these cells, modulate either the instrumental learning processes or the likelihood of pavlovian cues to become highly motivating incentive stimuli that directly attract behavior...
May 2015: ENeuro
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