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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#1
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196273/sex-and-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-influence-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#2
Aric C Madayag, Sierra J Stringfield, Kathryn J Reissner, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#3
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats (sign-trackers; STs) are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact Pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012948/orbitofrontal-participation-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-conditioned-responses-effects-of-nicotine
#4
Sierra J Stringfield, Matthew I Palmatier, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can acquire incentive motivational properties, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals using Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior. Drugs of abuse can influence the expression of this behavior, and nicotine in particular exhibits incentive amplifying effects. Both conditioned approach behavior and drug abuse rely on overlapping corticolimbic circuitry. We hypothesize that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) regulates conditioned approach, and that one site of nicotine action is in the OFC where it reduces cortical output...
December 22, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993692/suboptimal-choice-in-rats-incentive-salience-attribution-promotes-maladaptive-decision-making
#5
Jonathan J Chow, Aaron P Smith, A George Wilson, Thomas R Zentall, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#6
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837333/individual-differences-in-food-cue-responsivity-are-associated-with-acute-and-repeated-cocaine-induced-vocalizations-but-not-cue-induced-vocalizations
#7
Jordan A Tripi, Micheal L Dent, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762287/neurons-in-the-pigeon-caudolateral-nidopallium-differentiate-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-but-not-their-associated-reward-value-in-a-sign-tracking-paradigm
#8
Nils Kasties, Sarah Starosta, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
Animals exploit visual information to identify objects, form stimulus-reward associations, and prepare appropriate behavioral responses. The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an associative region of the avian endbrain, contains neurons exhibiting prominent response modulation during presentation of reward-predicting visual stimuli, but it is unclear whether neural activity represents valuation signals, stimulus properties, or sensorimotor contingencies. To test the hypothesis that NCL neurons represent stimulus value, we subjected pigeons to a Pavlovian sign-tracking paradigm in which visual cues predicted rewards differing in magnitude (large vs...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732045/the-origins-of-individual-differences-in-how-learning-is-expressed-in-rats-a-general-process-perspective
#9
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649773/subanesthetic-ketamine-decreases-the-incentive-motivational-value-of-reward-related-cues
#10
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
The attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues contributes to cue-induced craving and relapse in addicted patients. Recently, it was demonstrated that subanesthetic ketamine increases motivation to quit and decreases cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals. Although the underlying mechanism of this effect is currently unknown, one possibility is that subanesthetic ketamine decreases the incentive-motivational value of reward-related cues. In the present study, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to identify sign-trackers, rats that attribute incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues, and goal-trackers, rats that assign only predictive value to reward-related cues...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537880/through-wall-multiple-targets-vital-signs-tracking-based-on-vmd-algorithm
#11
Jiaming Yan, Hong Hong, Heng Zhao, Yusheng Li, Chen Gu, Xiaohua Zhu
Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO) ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478141/dopamine-antagonism-does-not-impair-learning-of-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-to-manipulable-or-non-manipulable-cues-but-biases-responding-towards-goal-tracking
#12
Stefanie A Scülfort, Dusan Bartsch, Thomas Enkel
Dopamine's (DA) role in reward-processing is currently discussed as either providing a teaching signal to guide learning or mediating the transfer of incentive salience (i.e. motivational aspects) from unconditioned stimuli (US) to conditioned stimuli (CS). We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to further investigate DAs contribution to these processes. Experiment 1 assessed the acquisition of PCA to a manipulable lever cue for 7days under DA-blockade with Flupenthixol (FLU; 225μg/kg) or Saline (SAL) treatment, followed by 6-days off-drug testing...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454485/parallel-learning-in-an-autoshaping-paradigm
#13
Maliha Naeem, Norman M White
In an autoshaping task, a single conditioned stimulus (CS; lever insertion) was repeatedly followed by the delivery of an unconditioned stimulus (US; food pellet into an adjacent food magazine) irrespective of the rats' behavior. After repeated training trials, some rats responded to the onset of the CS by approaching and pressing the lever (sign-trackers). Lesions of dorsolateral striatum almost completely eliminated responding to the lever CS while facilitating responding to the food magazine (US). Lesions of the dorsomedial striatum attenuated but did not eliminate responding to the lever CS...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438780/lesions-of-the-ventral-hippocampus-attenuate-the-acquisition-but-not-expression-of-sign-tracking-behavior-in-rats
#14
Christopher Fitzpatrick, Justin F Creeden, Shane A Perrine, Jonathan D Morrow
Individual variation in the attribution of motivational salience to reward-related cues is believed to underlie addiction vulnerability. Pavlovian conditioned approach measures individual variation in motivational salience by identifying rats that are attracted to and motivated by reward cues (sign-trackers) or motivationally fixed on the reward itself (goal-trackers). Previously, it has been demonstrated that sign-trackers are more vulnerable to addiction-like behavior. Moreover, sign-trackers release more dopamine in the nucleus accumbens than goal-trackers in response to reward-related cues, and sign- but not goal-tracking behavior is dopamine-dependent...
July 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371135/toward-isolating-the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-acquisition-of-incentive-salience-attribution
#15
Jonathan J Chow, Justin R Nickell, Mahesh Darna, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimulus-reward learning has been heavily linked to the reward-prediction error learning hypothesis and dopaminergic function. However, some evidence suggests dopaminergic function may not strictly underlie reward-prediction error learning, but may be specific to incentive salience attribution. Utilizing a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two stimuli that were equally reward-predictive (both undergoing reward-prediction error learning) but functionally distinct in regard to incentive salience (levers that elicited sign-tracking and tones that elicited goal-tracking), we tested the differential role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and nucleus accumbens dopamine in the acquisition of sign- and goal-tracking behavior and their associated conditioned reinforcing value within individuals...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365171/dorsomedial-striatum-lesions-affect-adjustment-to-reward-uncertainty-but-not-to-reward-devaluation-or-omission
#16
Carmen Torres, Amanda C Glueck, Shannon E Conrad, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282365/the-tendency-to-sign-track-predicts-cue-induced-reinstatement-during-nicotine-self-administration-and-is-enhanced-by-nicotine-but-not-ethanol
#17
Cassandra L Versaggi, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. OBJECTIVES: To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers")...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146401/premature-responding-is-associated-with-approach-to-a-food-cue-in-male-and-female-heterogeneous-stock-rats
#18
Christopher P King, Abraham A Palmer, Leah C Solberg Woods, Larry W Hawk, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Disorders of behavioral regulation, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug addiction, are in part due to poor inhibitory control, attentional deficits, and hyper-responsivity to reward-associated cues. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether these traits are related, we tested genetically variable male and female heterogeneous stock rats in the choice reaction time (CRT) task and Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA). Sex differences in the response to methylphenidate during the CRT were also assessed...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016362/motivational-control-of-sign-tracking-behaviour-a-theoretical-framework
#19
REVIEW
Patrick Anselme
Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980782/an-omission-procedure-reorganizes-the-microstructure-of-sign-tracking-while-preserving-incentive-salience
#20
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Appetitive sign-tracking, in which reward-paired cues elicit approach that can result in cue interaction, demonstrates how cues acquire motivational value. For example, rats will approach and subsequently interact with a lever insertion cue that signals food delivery upon its retraction. However, lever deflections are rapidly reduced once rats are trained on an omission schedule in which lever interactions cancel food delivery. Here we evaluated the change in sign-tracking response topography in rats exposed to such an omission procedure...
April 2016: Learning & Memory
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