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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192653/a-translational-model-to-assess-sign-tracking-and-goal-tracking-behavior-in-children
#1
Michelle A Joyner, Ashley N Gearhardt, Shelly B Flagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169849/disconnection-of-basolateral-amygdala-and-insular-cortex-disrupts-conditioned-approach-in-pavlovian-lever-autoshaping
#2
Helen M Nasser, Danielle S Lafferty, Ellen N Lesser, Sam Z Bacharach, Donna J Calu
Previously established individual differences in appetitive approach and devaluation sensitivity observed in goal- and sign-trackers may be attributed to differences in the acquisition, modification, or use of associative information in BLA pathways. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which communication of associative information between BLA and anterior portions of insular cortex (IC) supports ongoing Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors in sign- and goal-tracking rats, in the absence of manipulations to outcome value...
November 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128392/adrenergic-manipulation-inhibits-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-behaviors
#3
Kyle Z Pasquariello, Marina Han, Cagla Unal, Paul J Meyer
Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037660/nmda-receptor-blockade-specifically-impedes-the-acquisition-of-incentive-salience-attribution
#4
Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann
Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in learning and memory. Using Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, the mechanisms that drive stimulus-reward learning and memory have been investigated. However, there are instances where reward-predictive stimuli can function beyond being solely predictive and can be attributed with "motivational value" or incentive salience. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two different but equally predictive stimuli (lever vs. tone) we investigated the role NMDA receptor function has in the attribution of incentive salience...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958752/under-the-influence-effects-of-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-and-anxiety-on-motivation-for-uncertain-gambling-like-cues-in-male-and-female-rats
#5
Samantha N Hellberg, Jeremy D Levit, Mike J F Robinson
Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use and anxiety disorders, suggesting possible shared mechanisms. Recent research suggests reward uncertainty may powerfully enhance attraction towards reward cues. Here, we examined the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure, anxiety, and reward uncertainty on cue-triggered motivation. Male and female adolescent rats were given free access to ethanol or control jello for 20days. Following withdrawal, rats underwent autoshaping on a certain (100%-1) or uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward contingency, followed by single-session conditioned reinforcement and progressive ratio tasks, and 7days of omission training, during which lever pressing resulted in omission of reward...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888030/increased-sign-tracking-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#6
Nicole E DeAngeli, Sarah B Miller, Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS(+) ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS(-) ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#7
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#8
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487202/thalamic-mast-cell-activity-is-associated-with-sign-tracking-behavior-in-rats
#9
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
Mast cells are resident immune cells in the thalamus that can degranulate and release hundreds of signaling molecules (i.e., monoamines, growth factors, and cytokines) both basally and in response to environmental stimuli. Interestingly, mast cell numbers in the brain show immense individual variation in both rodents and humans. We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to examine whether mast cells are associated with individual variation in the attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues...
October 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473252/alcohol-seeking-and-relapse-a-focus-on-incentive-salience-and-contextual-conditioning
#10
REVIEW
Milan D Valyear, Franz R Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417164/individual-differences-in-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats-relationship-with-impulsivity-decision-making-and-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#11
Marcia Spoelder, Jacques P Flores Dourojeanni, Kathy C G de Git, Annemarie M Baars, Heidi M B Lesscher, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. METHODS: LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed reward task (DRT)...
July 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210781/adolescent-cocaine-exposure-enhances-goal-tracking-behavior-and-impairs-hippocampal-cell-genesis-selectively-in-adult-bred-low-responder-rats
#12
M Julia García-Fuster, Aram Parsegian, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: Environmental challenges during adolescence, such as drug exposure, can cause enduring behavioral and molecular changes that contribute to life-long maladaptive behaviors, including addiction. Selectively bred high-responder (bHR) and low-responder (bLR) rats represent a unique model for assessing the long-term impact of adolescent environmental manipulations, as they inherently differ on a number of addiction-related traits. bHR rats are considered "addiction-prone," whereas bLR rats are "addiction-resilient," at least under baseline conditions...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196273/sex-and-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-influence-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#13
Aric C Madayag, Sierra J Stringfield, Kathryn J Reissner, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among adolescents is widespread and a growing concern due to long-term behavioral deficits, including altered Pavlovian behavior, that potentially contribute to addiction vulnerability. We tested the hypothesis that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters Pavlovian behavior in males and females as measured by a shift from goal-tracking to sign-tracking. Additionally, we investigated GLT-1, an astrocytic glutamate transporter, as a potential contributor to a sign-tracking phenotype...
April 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#14
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012948/orbitofrontal-participation-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-conditioned-responses-effects-of-nicotine
#15
Sierra J Stringfield, Matthew I Palmatier, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can acquire incentive motivational properties, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals using Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior. Drugs of abuse can influence the expression of this behavior, and nicotine in particular exhibits incentive amplifying effects. Both conditioned approach behavior and drug abuse rely on overlapping corticolimbic circuitry. We hypothesize that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) regulates conditioned approach, and that one site of nicotine action is in the OFC where it reduces cortical output...
April 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993692/suboptimal-choice-in-rats-incentive-salience-attribution-promotes-maladaptive-decision-making
#16
Jonathan J Chow, Aaron P Smith, A George Wilson, Thomas R Zentall, Joshua S Beckmann
Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#17
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837333/individual-differences-in-food-cue-responsivity-are-associated-with-acute-and-repeated-cocaine-induced-vocalizations-but-not-cue-induced-vocalizations
#18
Jordan A Tripi, Micheal L Dent, Paul J Meyer
RATIONALE: Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762287/neurons-in-the-pigeon-caudolateral-nidopallium-differentiate-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-but-not-their-associated-reward-value-in-a-sign-tracking-paradigm
#19
Nils Kasties, Sarah Starosta, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
Animals exploit visual information to identify objects, form stimulus-reward associations, and prepare appropriate behavioral responses. The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an associative region of the avian endbrain, contains neurons exhibiting prominent response modulation during presentation of reward-predicting visual stimuli, but it is unclear whether neural activity represents valuation signals, stimulus properties, or sensorimotor contingencies. To test the hypothesis that NCL neurons represent stimulus value, we subjected pigeons to a Pavlovian sign-tracking paradigm in which visual cues predicted rewards differing in magnitude (large vs...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732045/the-origins-of-individual-differences-in-how-learning-is-expressed-in-rats-a-general-process-perspective
#20
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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