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Autism cerebellum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316490/local-and-long-range-circuit-elements-for-cerebellar-function
#1
REVIEW
Le Xiao, Peter Scheiffele
The view of cerebellar functions has been extended from controlling sensorimotor processes to processing 'contextual' information and generating predictions for a diverse range of behaviors. These functions rely on the computation of the local cerebellar microcircuits and long-range connectivity that relays cerebellar output to various brain areas. In this review, we discuss recent work on two of the circuit elements, which are thought to be fundamental for a wide range of non-sensorimotor behaviors: The role for cerebellar granule cells in multimodal integration in the cerebellar cortex and the long-range connectivity between the deep cerebellar nuclei and the basal ganglia...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260439/eye-movement-research-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-window-to-the-brain-mind-and-more
#2
EDITORIAL
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230189/structural-covariance-of-sensory-networks-the-cerebellum-and-amygdala-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Garrett J Cardon, Susan Hepburn, Donald C Rojas
Sensory dysfunction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and abnormalities with sensory responsivity and processing can be extremely debilitating to ASD patients and their families. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors that lead to sensory abnormalities in ASD. Investigation into these aspects of ASD could lead to significant advancements in our general knowledge about ASD, as well as provide targets for treatment and inform diagnostic procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209259/reinforcement-learning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Manuela Schuetze, Christiane S Rohr, Deborah Dewey, Adam McCrimmon, Signe Bray
Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact) and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases). However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167833/disorder-specific-and-shared-brain-abnormalities-during-vigilance-in-autism-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145823/dbmdega-a-database-for-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Shuyun Zhang, Libin Deng, Qiyue Jia, Shaoting Huang, Junwang Gu, Fankun Zhou, Meng Gao, Xinyi Sun, Chang Feng, Guangqin Fan
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are hereditary, heterogeneous and biologically complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Individual studies on gene expression in ASD cannot provide clear consensus conclusions. Therefore, a systematic review to synthesize the current findings from brain tissues and a search tool to share the meta-analysis results are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain gene expression profiles in the current reported human ASD expression datasets (with 84 frozen male cortex samples, 17 female cortex samples, 32 cerebellum samples and 4 formalin fixed samples) and knock-out mouse ASD model expression datasets (with 80 collective brain samples)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#7
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079524/whole-brain-white-matter-connectivity-analysis-using-machine-learning-an-application-to-autism
#8
Fan Zhang, Peter Savadjiev, Weidong Cai, Yang Song, Yogesh Rathi, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, Tina Kapur, Robert T Schultz, Nikos Makris, Ragini Verma, Lauren J O'Donnell
In this paper, we propose an automated white matter connectivity analysis method for machine learning classification and characterization of white matter abnormality via identification of discriminative fiber tracts. The proposed method uses diffusion MRI tractography and a data-driven approach to find fiber clusters corresponding to subdivisions of the white matter anatomy. Features extracted from each fiber cluster describe its diffusion properties and are used for machine learning. The method is demonstrated by application to a pediatric neuroimaging dataset from 149 individuals, including 70 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 79 typically developing controls (TDC)...
October 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057532/lobular-patterns-of-cerebellar-resting-state-connectivity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Giusy Olivito, Michela Lupo, Fiorenzo Laghi, Silvia Clausi, Roberto Baiocco, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, Maria Leggio
Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social functioning. Core autistics traits refer to poor social and imagination skills, poor attention-switching/strong focus of attention, exceptional attention to detail, as expressed by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. Over the years, the importance of the cerebellum in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder has been acknowledged. Neuroimaging studies have provided a strong support to this view, showing both structural and functional connectivity alterations to affect the cerebellum in Autism Spectrum Disorder...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032150/functional-analysis-of-schizophrenia-genes-using-geneanalytics-program-and-integrated-databases
#10
Tharani Sundararajan, Ann M Manzardo, Merlin G Butler
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with multiple risk factors involving numerous complex genetic influences. We examined and updated a master list of clinically relevant and susceptibility genes associated with SCZ reported in the literature and genomic databases dedicated to gene discovery for characterization of SCZ genes. We used the commercially available GeneAnalytics computer-based gene analysis program and integrated genomic databases to create a molecular profile of the updated list of 608 SCZ genes to model their impact in select categories (tissues and cells, diseases, pathways, biological processes, molecular functions, phenotypes and compounds) using specialized GeneAnalytics algorithms...
October 12, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974727/timing-and-localization-of-human-dystrophin-isoform-expression-provide-insights-into-the-cognitive-phenotype-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#11
Nathalie Doorenweerd, Ahmed Mahfouz, Maaike van Putten, Rajaram Kaliyaperumal, Peter A C T' Hoen, Jos G M Hendriksen, Annemieke M Aartsma-Rus, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Erik H Niks, Marcel J T Reinders, Hermien E Kan, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular dystrophy with high incidence of learning and behavioural problems and is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To gain more insights into the role of dystrophin in this cognitive phenotype, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of dystrophin isoforms across human brain development, using unique transcriptomic data from Allen Human Brain and BrainSpan atlases. Dystrophin isoforms show large changes in expression through life with pronounced differences between the foetal and adult human brain...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931838/cerebellar-anatomical-alterations-and-attention-to-eyes-in-autism
#12
Charles Laidi, Jennifer Boisgontier, M Mallar Chakravarty, Sevan Hotier, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Jean-Franc Ois Mangin, Gabriel A Devenyi, Richard Delorme, Federico Bolognani, Christian Czech, Céline Bouquet, Elie Toledano, Manuel Bouvard, Doriane Gras, Julie Petit, Marina Mishchenko, Alexandru Gaman, Isabelle Scheid, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla, Josselin Houenou
The cerebellum is implicated in social cognition and is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of our study was to explore cerebellar morphology in adults with ASD and its relationship to eye contact, as measured by fixation time allocated on the eye region using an eye-tracking device. Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with ASD and controls were included in our study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Global segmentation and cortical parcellation of the cerebellum were performed...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923356/retracted-subcutaneous-injections-of-aluminum-at-vaccine-adjuvant-levels-activate-innate-immune-genes-in-mouse-brain-that-are-homologous-with-biomarkers-of-autism
#13
Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889839/laser-acupuncture-at-ht7-improves-the-cerebellar-disorders-in-valproic-acid-rat-model-of-autism
#14
Jurairat Khongrum, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn
The novel therapeutic strategy against autism is essential due to the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the benefit of laser acupuncture at HT7 acupoint on the neurological disorders related with oxidative stress and inflammation, its benefit on oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and GABAergic/glutamatergic imbalance in cerebellum of autism have been considered. To elucidate this issue, male rat pups were induced autistic-like conditions by valproic acid (VPA) and treated with laser acupuncture at HT7 acupoint once daily between postnatal Day 14 and Day 40...
August 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871217/diagnosing-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-patterns-using-a-deep-neural-network-with-a-novel-feature-selection-method
#15
Xinyu Guo, Kelli C Dominick, Ali A Minai, Hailong Li, Craig A Erickson, Long J Lu
The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN) with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821669/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ribosome-bound-mrna-in-cortical-neurites-in-vivo
#16
Rebecca Ouwenga, Allison M Lake, David O'Brien, Amit Mogha, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Localized translation in neurites helps regulate synaptic strength and development. Dysregulation of local translation is associated with many neurological disorders. However, due to technical limitations, study of this phenomenon has largely been limited to brain regions with laminar organization of dendrites such as the hippocampus or cerebellum. It has not been examined in the cortex, a region of importance for most neurological disorders, where dendrites of each neuronal population are densely intermingled with cell bodies of others...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803955/valproic-acid-exposure-decreases-the-mrna-stability-of-bcl-2-via-up-regulating-mir-34a-in-the-cerebellum-of-rat
#17
Xufang Dai, Yunhou Yin, Liyan Qin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, limited verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Previous studies have shown that the level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissues of ASD patients is significantly decreased. However, the mechanisms underlie the down-regulation of Bcl-2 in ASD is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the alteration of Bcl-2 level and associated mechanisms in valproic acid (VPA) exposed ASD rats. VPA exposure resulted in ASD-like behaviors in rats, such as repetitive behavior and social interaction impairment...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
November 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720872/associating-transcription-factors-and-conserved-rna-structures-with-gene-regulation-in-the-human-brain
#20
Nikolai Hecker, Stefan E Seemann, Asli Silahtaroglu, Walter L Ruzzo, Jan Gorodkin
Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription factors (TF) and RNA secondary structures on the regulation of gene expression in the human brain. First, we modeled the expression of a gene as a linear combination of the expression of TFs. We devised an approach to select robust TF-gene interactions and to determine localized contributions to gene expression of TFs...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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