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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343228/problematic-internet-use-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-a-population-of-japanese-adult-psychiatric-patients
#1
Hille T de Vries, Takashi Nakamae, Kenji Fukui, Damiaan Denys, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and psychiatric co-morbidity among adult psychiatric patients. METHODS: Three hundred thirty-three adult psychiatric patients were recruited over a 3-month period...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210194/error-related-brain-activity-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Tamara E Rosen, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results...
December 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179725/high-resolution-chromosomal-microarray-analysis-in-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Edna Grünblatt, Beatrice Oneda, Arif B Ekici, Juliane Ball, Julia Geissler, Steffen Uebe, Marcel Romanos, Anita Rauch, Susanne Walitza
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common and chronic disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts and behaviours. It is a complex genetic condition and, in case of early onset (EO), the patients manifest a more severe phenotype, and an increased heritability. Large (>500 kb) copy number variations (CNVs) previously associated with autism and schizophrenia have been reported in OCD. Recently, rare CNVs smaller than 500 kb overlapping risk loci for other neurodevelopmental conditions have also been reported in OCD, stressing the importance of examining CNVs of any size range...
November 28, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169826/striatal-structure-and-its-association-with-n-acetylaspartate-and-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Natalie J Forde, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Daniel Brandeis, Jeffrey C Glennon, The Tactics Consortium, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and are associated with changes in striatal volumes and N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate levels. Here, we investigated the relation between dorsal striatal volume and NAA and glutamate levels. We additionally compared striatal volume and shape between ASD, OCD and controls. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, proton spectra (1H-MRS) in the left striatum, and phenotypic information were collected from 54 children with ASD, 32 with OCD, and 56 controls (aged 8-13 years) in a four-site study...
November 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167833/disorder-specific-and-shared-brain-abnormalities-during-vigilance-in-autism-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152901/broad-spectrum-of-neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-associated-with-white-matter-disease-in-pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome
#6
Tugce B Balci, Jorge Davila, Denice Lewis, Addo Boafo, Erick Sell, Julie Richer, Sarah M Nikkel, Christine M Armour, Eva Tomiak, Matthew A Lines, Sarah L Sawyer
White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082426/anxiety-disorders-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, Connor M Kerns, Giacomo Vivanti, Jessica Bradshaw, Martina Siracusano, Luigi Mazzone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesize the most recent research on anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the relationship between these conditions and challenges for assessment. Furthermore, implications for treatment and future directions are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research suggests that anxiety disorders and OCD are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. However, the significant overlap of ASD features with anxiety and OCD symptomology makes differential diagnosis of these disorders particularly challenging...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077140/-deep-brain-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#8
M Figee, C Bervoets, D Denys
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now used regularly to treat therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders, and is being applied experimentally for refractory depression, Tourette syndrome, addiction, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia. AIM: To review the effects and mechanisms of dbs and to consider the future opportunities for this type of treatment in psychiatry. METHOD: We reviewed the literature using PubMed...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070622/sepsis-ptosis-an-unusual-diagnosis
#9
Brooke Leigh Powell, Oliver Toby Charles Morgan
The authors present the case of a 19-year old man presenting to the emergency department with a 2-day history of left eye pain and ptosis, facial pain around the maxillae, coryza, headaches and fevers. He had a background of autism, mild learning disability, obsessive-compulsive disorder and asthma. Within the last month, his risperidone and sertraline doses had been increased. Basic observations and investigations suggested sepsis: tachypnoea, sinus tachycardia, fever and a raised white cell count and C reactive protein level...
October 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058593/brain-donation-in-psychiatry-results-of-a-dutch-prospective-donor-program-among-psychiatric-cohort-participants
#10
Geertje M de Lange, Marleen Rademaker, Marco P Boks, Saskia J M C Palmen
BACKGROUND: Human brain tissue is crucial to study the molecular and cellular basis of psychiatric disorders. However, the current availability of human brain tissue is inadequate. Therefore, the Netherlands Brain Bank initiated a program in which almost 4.000 participants of 15 large Dutch psychiatric research cohorts were asked to register as prospective brain donors. METHODS: We approached patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, families with a child with autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, healthy relatives and healthy unrelated controls, either face-to-face or by post...
October 20, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045575/shared-and-disorder-specific-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often share phenotypes of repetitive behaviors, possibly underpinned by abnormal decision-making. To compare neural correlates underlying decision-making between these disorders, brain activation of boys with ASD (N = 24), OCD (N = 20) and typically developing controls (N = 20) during gambling was compared, and computational modeling compared performance. Patients were unimpaired on number of risky decisions, but modeling showed that both patient groups had lower choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning compared to controls...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026257/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Houshang Amiri, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Daniel Brandeis, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Matthias Ruf, Isabella Wolf, Tobias Banaschewski, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, David J Lythgoe
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2016.260.
November 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971725/transcranial-sonography-in-psychiatry-as-a-potential-tool-in-diagnosis-and-research
#14
Carsten Drepper, Julia Geißler, Giuseppe Pastura, Rezzak Yilmaz, Daniela Berg, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach
Objectives During the last two decades' transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma evolved from a pure research tool to a clinical relevant neuroimaging method especially in Parkinson's disease and related movement disorders. The aim of this systematic review is to update and summarize the published TCS findings in psychiatric disorders and critically address the question whether TCS may be a valuable tool for the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of psychiatric disorders similarly to the field of movement disorders...
October 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948967/corticostriatal-circuit-defects-in-hoxb8-mutant-mice
#15
N Nagarajan, B W Jones, P J West, R E Marc, M R Capecchi
Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. As, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and postsynaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922069/glutamatergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-compulsivity-and-impulsivity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911050/motor-abnormalities-from-neurodevelopmental-to-neurodegenerative-through-functional-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
Background: Motor abnormalities (MAs) of severe mental disorders have been traditionally neglected both in clinical practice and research, although they are an increasing focus of attention because of their clinical and neurobiological relevance. For historical reasons, most of the literature on MAs has been focused to a great extent on schizophrenia, and as a consequence their prevalence and featural properties in other psychiatric or neuropsychiatric disorders are poorly known. In this article, we evaluated the extent to which catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs, and their associated clinical features, are present transdiagnostically...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888943/melanin-concentrating-hormone-modulates-oxytocin-mediated-marble-burying
#18
Nayna M Sanathara, Celia Garau, Amal Alachkar, Lien Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Xiangmin Xu, Olivier Civelli
Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861007/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-gray-matter-differences-associated-with-poor-outcome
#19
Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835820/the-coexistence-of-psychiatric-and-gastrointestinal-problems-in-children-with-restrictive-eating-in-a-nationwide-swedish-twin-study
#20
Jakob Täljemark, Maria Råstam, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Anckarsäter, Nóra Kerekes
BACKGROUND: Restrictive eating problems are rare in children but overrepresented in those with neurodevelopmental problems. Comorbidities decrease wellbeing in affected individuals but research in the area is relatively scarce. This study describes phenotypes, regarding psychiatric and gastrointestinal comorbidities, in children with restrictive eating problems. METHODS: A parental telephone interview was conducted in 9- or 12-year old twins (n = 19,130) in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
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