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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738196/parental-age-and-the-risk-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-a-nationwide-population-based-sample
#1
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705096/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adult-outpatients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-uk
#2
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691955/children-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptomology-in-the-general-population-different-subtypes
#3
Josjan Zijlmans, Reshmi Marhe, Jan van der Ende, Frank C Verhulst, Arne Popma, Henning Tiemeier, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a moderately prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, and many children suffer from subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. The disorder is heterogeneous and has high comorbidity rates. In early disease stages of psychiatric disorders, symptoms are typically hard to attribute exclusively to specific disorders. The authors investigated whether profiles of neuropsychiatric symptoms can be distinguished within a large population-based study of school-aged children (7-10 years) scoring high on OC symptoms...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680541/understanding-the-cellular-and-molecular-alterations-in-ptsd-brains-the-necessity-of-post-mortem-brain-tissue
#4
EDITORIAL
Geertje M de Lange
The personal, social and economic burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high and therapeutic approaches are only partially effective. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular alterations in PTSD brains in order to design more effective treatment strategies. Although brain imaging strategies have considerably improved our understanding of PTSD, these strategies cannot identify molecular and cellular changes. Post-mortem examination of the brain is a crucial strategy to advance our understanding of the underlying neuropathology, neurochemistry and molecular pathways of PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647013/autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-tourette-s-disorder-sample
#5
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641744/polygenic-risk-score-and-heritability-estimates-reveals-a-genetic-relationship-between-asd-and-ocd
#6
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588433/intragenic-cntnap2-deletions-a-bridge-too-far
#7
REVIEW
Martin Poot
Intragenic deletions of the contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) have been found in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, intellectual disability (ID), obsessive compulsive disorder, cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, stuttering, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A variety of molecular mechanisms, such as loss of transcription factor binding sites and perturbation of penetrance and expressivity, have been proposed to account for the phenotypic variability resulting from CNTNAP2 mutations...
May 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555406/investigation-of-previously-implicated-genetic-variants-in-chronic-tic-disorders-a-transmission-disequilibrium-test-approach
#8
Mohamed Abdulkadir, Douglas Londono, Derek Gordon, Thomas V Fernandez, Lawrence W Brown, Keun-Ah Cheon, Barbara J Coffey, Lonneke Elzerman, Carolin Fremer, Odette Fründt, Blanca Garcia-Delgar, Donald L Gilbert, Dorothy E Grice, Tammy Hedderly, Isobel Heyman, Hyun Ju Hong, Chaim Huyser, Laura Ibanez-Gomez, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Young Key Kim, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Sodahm Kook, Samuel Kuperman, Bennett Leventhal, Andrea G Ludolph, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Athanasios Maras, Pablo Mir, Astrid Morer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Alexander Münchau, Tara L Murphy, Kerstin J Plessen, Veit Roessner, Eun-Young Shin, Dong-Ho Song, Jungeun Song, Jennifer Tübing, Els van den Ban, Frank Visscher, Sina Wanderer, Martin Woods, Samuel H Zinner, Robert A King, Jay A Tischfield, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412 families (some probands were siblings). We assessed 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 465 parent-child trios; 117 additional SNPs in 211 trios; and 4 additional SNPs in 254 trios. We performed SNP and gene-based transmission disequilibrium tests and compared nominally significant SNP results with those from a large independent case-control cohort...
May 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523977/the-application-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#9
Ilse Graat, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#11
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407363/de-novo-unbalanced-translocation-4p-duplication-8p-deletion-in-a-patient-with-autism-ocd-and-overgrowth-syndrome
#12
Angela Sagar, Dalila Pinto, Fedra Najjar, Stephen J Guter, Carol Macmillan, Edwin H Cook
Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. (2011) Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. (2010) Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389841/an-initial-case-series-of-intensive-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Marina Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Joshua M Nadeau, Amaya Ramos, Brian Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with ASD-specific modifications has support for treating OCD in this population; however, use of intensive CBT in youth with ASD and severe OCD has not been tested. The current study examined the preliminary effectiveness of an individualized intensive CBT protocol for OCD in adolescents with ASD. Nine adolescents (aged 11-17 years) completed a regimen of intensive CBT (range 24-80 daily sessions) incorporating exposure with response prevention (ERP)...
April 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377698/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-modulate-spike-timing-in-striosomes-and-matrix-by-an-amphetamine-sensitive-mechanism
#14
Jill R Crittenden, Carolyn J Lacey, Feng-Ju Weng, Catherine E Garrison, Daniel J Gibson, Yingxi Lin, Ann M Graybiel
The striatum is key for action-selection and the motivation to move. Dopamine and acetylcholine release sites are enriched in the striatum and are cross-regulated, possibly to achieve optimal behavior. Drugs of abuse, which promote abnormally high dopamine release, disrupt normal action-selection and drive restricted, repetitive behaviors (stereotypies). Stereotypies occur in a variety of disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, as well as in addictive states...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343067/reading-problems-and-major-mental-disorders-co-occurrences-and-familial-overlaps-in-a-swedish-nationwide-cohort
#15
Martin Cederlöf, Barbara Maughan, Henrik Larsson, Brian M D'Onofrio, Robert Plomin
Reading problems often co-occur with ADHD and conduct disorder. However, the patterns of co-occurrence and familial overlap between reading problems and other psychiatric disorders have not been systematically explored. We conducted a register-based cohort study including 8719 individuals with reading problems and their siblings, along with matched comparison individuals. Conditional logistic regressions estimated risks for ADHD, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and violent/non-violent criminality in individuals with reading problems and their siblings...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301091/shorter-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-social-impairment-and-comorbidities-in-asd
#16
Olivia J Veatch, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary E Warren, Brendan T Keenan, Melissa H Potter, Beth A Malow
Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281020/restricted-repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-comparative-review
#17
Marina Jiujias, Elizabeth Kelley, Layla Hall
This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena...
March 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236160/asd-traits-among-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Donna L Griffiths, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Susan W White
Research has shown high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders among samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (Farrell et al., Psychiatry Res 199(2):115-123, 2012; Lewin et al., Psychiatry Res 178(2):317-322, 2010; POTS Team, J Am Med Assoc 292(16):1969-1976, 2004). Autism and autistic traits co-occur at high rates within clinical samples of youth with OCD (Ivarsson and Melin in J Anxiety Disord 22(6):969-978, 2008; Stewart et al. in Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 1-9, 2016). This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between ASD traits, family accommodation, and functional impairment in a sample of youth with OCD across a wide age range (n = 80; aged 7-17 years)...
February 24, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#19
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135888/curcumin-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-in-vitro-animal-and-human-studies
#20
Adrian L Lopresti
Turmeric has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a range of ailments. Its primary active constituent curcumin, can influence an array of biological activities. Many of these, such as its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and monoaminergic effects are dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this systematic review, in vitro, animal, and human studies investigating the potential of curcumin as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, and autism are reviewed, and directions for future research are proposed...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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