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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871641/longitudinal-course-of-bipolar-disorder-in-youth-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Xenia Borue, Carla Mazefsky, Brian T Rooks, Michael Strober, Martin B Keller, Heather Hower, Shirley Yen, Mary Kay Gill, Rasim S Diler, David A Axelson, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Neal Ryan, Fangzi Liao, Jeffrey I Hunt, Daniel P Dickstein, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first longitudinal characterization of mood and psychosocial functioning in youth with comorbid bipolar (BD) and autism spectrum (ASD) disorders. METHOD: The Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study followed 368 youth (aged 7-17 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I (BP-I), BP-II, or Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) for, on average, 9 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. This subgroup analysis compared youth with and without ASD on clinical presentation, percentage of time with mood symptomatology, and psychosocial functioning...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869141/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Houshang Amiri, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Daniel Brandeis, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Matthias Ruf, Isabella Wolf, Tobias Banaschewski, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, David J Lythgoe
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the glutamate concentrations across the two disorders with those in healthy control participants using both categorical and dimensional approaches. In the current multi-center study (four centers), we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in 51 children with ASD, 29 with OCD, and 53 healthy controls (aged 8 to 13 years) to investigate glutamate (Glu) concentrations in two regions of the fronto-striatal circuit: midline anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsal striatum...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862704/what-happens-to-children-who-move-off-the-autism-spectrum-a-clinical-follow-up-study
#4
Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes, Tuba Mutluer, Basak Ayik, Ayla Umut
OBJECTIVES: There is controversial information on school age outcome of individuals who lose the diagnosis of autism and achieve "optimal outcome" (OO). The present study aimed to assess the autism symptoms and other psychiatric disorders in a group of children with a past history of autism. METHODS: The study includes individuals (n=26) who lost the diagnosis of autism two to eight years previously. Clinical assessment was done with both parents and children. DSM-V criteria were used for diagnosis of ASD...
November 12, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834163/is-not-just-right-experience-njre-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-part-of-an-autistic-phenotype
#5
Josselyn Hellriegel, Caroline Barber, Maheshi Wikramanayake, Naomi A Fineberg, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Harm avoidance (HA) and "not just right experience" (NJRE) have been proposed to be 2 core motivational processes underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The objective of this study was to explore whether NJRE demarcates a neurodevelopmental OCD subgroup distinct from HA related to autistic traits and/or to a broader phenotype of cognitive rigidity and sensory processing difficulties associated with an earlier age of OCD onset. METHODS: A correlational design investigated whether NJRE and HA are distinct entities in OCD and explored their relationship to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ), sensory processing, set-shifting, and age of OCD onset in an OCD sample (N=25)...
November 11, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782808/compuls-design-of-a-multicenter-phenotypic-cognitive-genetic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-children-with-compulsive-syndromes
#6
Jilly Naaijen, Saskia de Ruiter, Marcel P Zwiers, Jeffrey C Glennon, Sarah Durston, David J Lythgoe, Steven C R Williams, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730476/relationship-between-symptom-dimensions-and-brain-morphology-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Motohisa Hirose, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kenichi Asano, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Michiko Nakazato, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716920/modified-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-severe-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-an-adolescent-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Georgina Krebs, Kim Murray, Amita Jassi
There is a high rate of comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Standard cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) protocols have been shown to be less effective in treating OCD in young people with ASD than in typically developing youth. This case study describes the treatment of an adolescent boy with severe, treatment-resistant OCD and ASD using a modified CBT approach. Modifications to a standard evidence-based CBT for OCD protocol included extended psychoeducation about anxiety; regular home-based sessions; and increased involvement of systems, including family and school...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413138/effect-of-probiotics-on-central-nervous-system-functions-in-animals-and-humans-a-systematic-review
#9
Huiying Wang, In-Seon Lee, Christoph Braun, Paul Enck
To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 study was conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401994/association-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-obsessive-compulsive-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-traits-and-response-inhibition-in-a-community-sample
#10
Ellen van der Plas, Annie Dupuis, Paul Arnold, Jennifer Crosbie, Russell Schachar
We examined co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with (traits of) attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and inhibition deficits in a community sample (n = 16,676) and tested whether having a sibling with ASD manifested in increased features of ADHD, OCD or inhibition deficits. Individuals with ASD had increased ADHD and OCD traits compared with individuals without ASD. Individuals with a sibling with ASD exhibited more ADHD traits than did individuals whose sibling did not have ASD...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388335/psychometric-properties-of-the-autism-spectrum-quotient-in-both-clinical-and-non-clinical-samples-chinese-version-for-mainland-china
#11
Long Zhang, Yaoting Sun, Fangfang Chen, De Wu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaopeng Han, Jianguo Ye, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to quantify autistic traits, which have been evaluated in the parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in the general population. This paper's objective was to investigate the AQ's psychometric properties of the Chinese version for mainland China and to establish whether the pattern of sex differences in the quantity of autistic traits exists. We also examined the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating between individuals with ASD, schizophrenia (SCH), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls (HC)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363509/a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-children-with-adhd-autism-spectrum-disorder-ocd-and-matched-controls-distinct-and-non-distinct-white-matter-disruption-and-dimensional-brain-behavior-relationships
#12
Stephanie H Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Margot J Taylor, Wayne Lee, Joseph D Viviano, Jon Pipitone, Arash Nazeri, Paul E Croarkin, Aristotle N Voineskos, Meng-Chuan Lai, Jennifer Crosbie, Jessica Brian, Noam Soreni, Russell Schachar, Peter Szatmari, Paul D Arnold, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]) share genetic vulnerability and symptom domains. The authors present direct comparison of structural brain circuitry in children and adolescents with NDDs and control subjects and examine brain circuit-behavior relationships across NDDs using dimensional measures related to each disorder. METHOD: Diffusion imaging and behavioral measures were acquired in 200 children and adolescents (ADHD: N=31; OCD: N=36; ASD: N=71; controls: N=62; mean age range: 10...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177893/brief-report-cognitive-control-of-social-and-nonsocial-visual-attention-in-autism
#13
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Stephanie J Miller, Eleanor K Hanna, Megan Kovac, Lauren Turner-Brown, Noah J Sasson, Jeffrey Sapyta, Vanessa Troiani, Gabriel S Dichter
Prosaccade and antisaccade errors in the context of social and nonsocial stimuli were investigated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 19) a matched control sample (n = 19), and a small sample of youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 9). Groups did not differ in error rates in the prosaccade condition for any stimulus category. In the antisaccade condition, the ASD group demonstrated more errors than the control group for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests, but not for other nonsocial stimuli or for social stimuli...
August 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048272/inhibitors-of-glycine-transporter-1-potential-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-cns-disorders
#14
Christopher L Cioffi, Peter R Guzzo
Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26983548/glutamatergic-medication-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Alexander Häge, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Konstantin Mechler, Steven C R Williams, Ralf W Dittmann
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to 60 % of patients present a pressing clinical problem. There are currently no medications that effectively treat the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder. There is an urgent need for the development of conceptually novel pharmacological strategies...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858231/elevated-autism-spectrum-disorder-traits-in-young-children-with-ocd
#16
Elyse Stewart, Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Brianna Wellen, Abbe Garcia, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity...
December 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693000/atypical-sympathetic-arousal-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-its-association-with-anxiety-symptomatology
#17
Sakeena Panju, Jessica Brian, Annie Dupuis, Evdokia Anagnostou, Azadeh Kushki
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with autonomic atypicalities, although the nature of these differences remains largely unknown. Moreover, existing literature suggests large variability in autonomic function in ASD, motivating the need to examine the existence of subgroups that exhibit more homogeneous autonomic features. METHODS: Electrodermal activity (EDA), a non-invasive physiological indicator of autonomic activity, was measured in typically developing children (n = 33) and those with ASD (n = 38) as participants performed tasks that elicit anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition processes...
2015: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559786/altered-striatal-synaptic-function-and-abnormal-behaviour-in-shank3-exon4-9-deletion-mouse-model-of-autism
#18
Thomas C Jaramillo, Haley E Speed, Zhong Xuan, Jeremy M Reimers, Shunan Liu, Craig M Powell
Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients...
March 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472118/clinical-predictors-of-antipsychotic-use-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-historical-open-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#19
Johnny Downs, Matthew Hotopf, Tamsin Ford, Emily Simonoff, Richard G Jackson, Hitesh Shetty, Robert Stewart, Richard D Hayes
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely to receive antipsychotics than any other psychopharmacological medication, yet the psychiatric disorders and symptoms associated with treatment are unclear. We aimed to determine the predictors of antipsychotic use in children with ASD receiving psychiatric care. The sample consisted of 3482 children aged 3-17 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ASD referred to mental health services between 2008 and 2013. Antipsychotic use outcome, comorbid diagnoses, and other clinical covariates, including challenging behaviours were extracted from anonymised patient records...
June 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26340513/effects-of-lsd-on-grooming-behavior-in-serotonin-transporter-heterozygous-sert%C3%A2-%C2%BA-%C3%A2-mice
#20
Evan J Kyzar, Adam Michael Stewart, Allan V Kalueff
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD...
January 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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