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Asd ocd

Motohisa Hirose, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kenichi Asano, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Michiko Nakazato, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Georgina Krebs, Kim Murray, Amita Jassi
There is a high rate of comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Standard cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) protocols have been shown to be less effective in treating OCD in young people with ASD than in typically developing youth. This case study describes the treatment of an adolescent boy with severe, treatment-resistant OCD and ASD using a modified CBT approach. Modifications to a standard evidence-based CBT for OCD protocol included extended psychoeducation about anxiety; regular home-based sessions; and increased involvement of systems, including family and school...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Huiying Wang, In-Seon Lee, Christoph Braun, Paul Enck
To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 study was conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Ellen van der Plas, Annie Dupuis, Paul Arnold, Jennifer Crosbie, Russell Schachar
We examined co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with (traits of) attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and inhibition deficits in a community sample (n = 16,676) and tested whether having a sibling with ASD manifested in increased features of ADHD, OCD or inhibition deficits. Individuals with ASD had increased ADHD and OCD traits compared with individuals without ASD. Individuals with a sibling with ASD exhibited more ADHD traits than did individuals whose sibling did not have ASD...
September 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Long Zhang, Yaoting Sun, Fangfang Chen, De Wu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaopeng Han, Jianguo Ye, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to quantify autistic traits, which have been evaluated in the parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in the general population. This paper's objective was to investigate the AQ's psychometric properties of the Chinese version for mainland China and to establish whether the pattern of sex differences in the quantity of autistic traits exists. We also examined the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating between individuals with ASD, schizophrenia (SCH), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls (HC)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Stephanie H Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Margot J Taylor, Wayne Lee, Joseph D Viviano, Jon Pipitone, Arash Nazeri, Paul E Croarkin, Aristotle N Voineskos, Meng-Chuan Lai, Jennifer Crosbie, Jessica Brian, Noam Soreni, Russell Schachar, Peter Szatmari, Paul D Arnold, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]) share genetic vulnerability and symptom domains. The authors present direct comparison of structural brain circuitry in children and adolescents with NDDs and control subjects and examine brain circuit-behavior relationships across NDDs using dimensional measures related to each disorder. METHOD: Diffusion imaging and behavioral measures were acquired in 200 children and adolescents (ADHD: N=31; OCD: N=36; ASD: N=71; controls: N=62; mean age range: 10...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Stephanie J Miller, Eleanor K Hanna, Megan Kovac, Lauren Turner-Brown, Noah J Sasson, Jeffrey Sapyta, Vanessa Troiani, Gabriel S Dichter
Prosaccade and antisaccade errors in the context of social and nonsocial stimuli were investigated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 19) a matched control sample (n = 19), and a small sample of youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 9). Groups did not differ in error rates in the prosaccade condition for any stimulus category. In the antisaccade condition, the ASD group demonstrated more errors than the control group for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests, but not for other nonsocial stimuli or for social stimuli...
August 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Priya Sakthivel, Niharika Sharma, Philipp Klahn, Marcus Gereke, Dunja Brude, Christopher L Cioffi, Peter R Guzzo
Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction...
April 5, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Alexander Häge, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Konstantin Mechler, Steven C R Williams, Ralf W Dittmann
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to 60 % of patients present a pressing clinical problem. There are currently no medications that effectively treat the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder. There is an urgent need for the development of conceptually novel pharmacological strategies...
2016: Trials
Elyse Stewart, Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Brianna Wellen, Abbe Garcia, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity...
February 8, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sakeena Panju, Jessica Brian, Annie Dupuis, Evdokia Anagnostou, Azadeh Kushki
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with autonomic atypicalities, although the nature of these differences remains largely unknown. Moreover, existing literature suggests large variability in autonomic function in ASD, motivating the need to examine the existence of subgroups that exhibit more homogeneous autonomic features. METHODS: Electrodermal activity (EDA), a non-invasive physiological indicator of autonomic activity, was measured in typically developing children (n = 33) and those with ASD (n = 38) as participants performed tasks that elicit anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition processes...
2015: Molecular Autism
Thomas C Jaramillo, Haley E Speed, Zhong Xuan, Jeremy M Reimers, Shunan Liu, Craig M Powell
Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients...
March 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Johnny Downs, Matthew Hotopf, Tamsin Ford, Emily Simonoff, Richard G Jackson, Hitesh Shetty, Robert Stewart, Richard D Hayes
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely to receive antipsychotics than any other psychopharmacological medication, yet the psychiatric disorders and symptoms associated with treatment are unclear. We aimed to determine the predictors of antipsychotic use in children with ASD receiving psychiatric care. The sample consisted of 3482 children aged 3-17 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ASD referred to mental health services between 2008 and 2013. Antipsychotic use outcome, comorbid diagnoses, and other clinical covariates, including challenging behaviours were extracted from anonymised patient records...
June 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Evan J Kyzar, Adam Michael Stewart, Allan V Kalueff
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD...
January 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Tomoko Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Michiko Nakazato, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders, with some speculating that a reason for difficulty in its treatment might be its coexistence with autism spectrum. We investigated the tendency for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in patients with OCD from a neuroimaging point of view using voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: We acquired T1-weighted images from 20 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls and investigated the difference in regional volume between the groups as well as the correlation between Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores and regional cerebral volumes of patients with OCD...
2015: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Martin Lang, Jan Krátký, John H Shaver, Danijela Jerotijević, Dimitris Xygalatas
Environmental uncertainty and uncontrollability cause psycho-physiological distress to organisms, often impeding normal functioning. A common response involves ritualization, that is, the limitation of behavioral expressions to predictable stereotypic and repetitive motor patterns. In humans, such behaviors are also symptomatic of psychopathologies like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although these reactions might be mediated by different neural pathways, they serve to regain a sense of control over an uncertain situation by engaging in behavioral patterns characterized by redundancy (superfluous actions that exceed the functional requirements of a goal), repetitiveness (recurrent behaviors or utterances), and rigidity (emphasis on fidelity and invariance)...
July 20, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Will Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Many women with eating disorders (EDs) have social impairments and difficulties with flexibility. It is unclear to what extent these are manifestations of an underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD); or whether they are instead the consequence of starvation, anxiety, low mood or obsessive compulsive disorder, all of which are highly prevalent in EDs. The resolution of this clinically and theoretically important uncertainty will require the use of gold-standard ASD assessment measures...
2015: Molecular Autism
Danielle A Baribeau, Krissy A R Doyle-Thomas, Annie Dupuis, Alana Iaboni, Jennifer Crosbie, Holly McGinn, Paul D Arnold, Jessica Brian, Azadeh Kushki, Rob Nicolson, Russell J Schachar, Noam Soreni, Peter Szatmari, Evdokia Anagnostou
OBJECTIVE: Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with social processing deficits. The objective of this study was to compare patterns of social perception abilities across obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and control participants. METHOD: A total of 265 children completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test-Child Version (RMET). Parents or caregivers completed established trait/symptom scales...
June 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kim Murray, Amita Jassi, David Mataix-Cols, Faye Barrow, Georgina Krebs
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly co-morbid. It is suggested that youth with ASD will respond less well to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), as compared to their typically developing counterparts. To date there is no empirical evidence to support this view. The current study sought to compare CBT for OCD outcomes among youth with and without ASD. 22 young people with ICD-10 diagnoses of OCD and ASD (OCD+ASD) were matched with 22 youth with OCD, but no ASD (OCD+NoASD) according to base line OCD symptom severity, age, and gender...
July 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Jilly Naaijen, David J Lythgoe, Houshang Amiri, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon
Compulsivity and impulsivity are cross-disorder traits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Aberrant fronto-striatal glutamatergic signalling is core to the understanding of compulsive and impulsive disorders. In this review, the glutamate (Glu) neurochemistry of fronto-striatal circuits in paediatric and adult ASD, ADHD and OCD, as described in 59 studies, is outlined from the perspective of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS)...
May 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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