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Asd ocd

Kevin S O'Connell, Nathaniel W McGregor, Christine Lochner, Robin Emsley, Louise Warnich
Considerable evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share a common molecular aetiology, despite their unique clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and characterise the common and unique molecular architecture of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Gene lists were obtained from previously published studies for ASD, BD, SCZ and for OCD. Genes identified to be common to all disorders, or unique to one specific disorder, were included for enrichment analyses using the web-server tool Enrichr...
March 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
M P Coba, M J Ramaker, E V Ho, S L Thompson, N H Komiyama, S G N Grant, J A Knowles, S C Dulawa
The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tamara E Rosen, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results...
February 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Natalie J Forde, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Daniel Brandeis, Jeffrey C Glennon, The Tactics Consortium, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and are associated with changes in striatal volumes and N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate levels. Here, we investigated the relation between dorsal striatal volume and NAA and glutamate levels. We additionally compared striatal volume and shape between ASD, OCD and controls. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, proton spectra (1H-MRS) in the left striatum, and phenotypic information were collected from 54 children with ASD, 32 with OCD, and 56 controls (aged 8-13 years) in a four-site study...
January 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD ( n = 20), boys with OCD ( n = 20), and healthy control boys ( n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Tugce B Balci, Jorge Davila, Denice Lewis, Addo Boafo, Erick Sell, Julie Richer, Sarah M Nikkel, Christine M Armour, Eva Tomiak, Matthew A Lines, Sarah L Sawyer
White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease...
January 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Valentina Postorino, Connor M Kerns, Giacomo Vivanti, Jessica Bradshaw, Martina Siracusano, Luigi Mazzone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesize the most recent research on anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the relationship between these conditions and challenges for assessment. Furthermore, implications for treatment and future directions are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research suggests that anxiety disorders and OCD are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. However, the significant overlap of ASD features with anxiety and OCD symptomology makes differential diagnosis of these disorders particularly challenging...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often share phenotypes of repetitive behaviors, possibly underpinned by abnormal decision-making. To compare neural correlates underlying decision-making between these disorders, brain activation of boys with ASD (N = 24), OCD (N = 20) and typically developing controls (N = 20) during gambling was compared, and computational modeling compared performance. Patients were unimpaired on number of risky decisions, but modeling showed that both patient groups had lower choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning compared to controls...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
N Nagarajan, B W Jones, P J West, R E Marc, M R Capecchi
Hoxb8 mutant mice exhibit compulsive grooming and hair removal dysfunction similar to humans with the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-spectrum disorder, trichotillomania. As, in the mouse brain, the only detectable cells that label with Hoxb8 cell lineage appear to be microglia, we suggested that defective microglia cause the neuropsychiatric disorder. Does the Hoxb8 mutation in microglia lead to neural circuit dysfunctions? We demonstrate that Hoxb8 mutants contain corticostriatal circuit defects. Golgi staining, ultra-structural and electrophysiological studies of mutants reveal excess dendritic spines, pre- and postsynaptic structural defects, long-term potentiation and miniature postsynaptic current defects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Aki Tsuchiyagaito, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mohamed Abdulkadir, Douglas Londono, Derek Gordon, Thomas V Fernandez, Lawrence W Brown, Keun-Ah Cheon, Barbara J Coffey, Lonneke Elzerman, Carolin Fremer, Odette Fründt, Blanca Garcia-Delgar, Donald L Gilbert, Dorothy E Grice, Tammy Hedderly, Isobel Heyman, Hyun Ju Hong, Chaim Huyser, Laura Ibanez-Gomez, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Young Key Kim, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Sodahm Kook, Samuel Kuperman, Bennett Leventhal, Andrea G Ludolph, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Athanasios Maras, Pablo Mir, Astrid Morer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Alexander Münchau, Tara L Murphy, Kerstin J Plessen, Veit Roessner, Eun-Young Shin, Dong-Ho Song, Jungeun Song, Jennifer Tübing, Els van den Ban, Frank Visscher, Sina Wanderer, Martin Woods, Samuel H Zinner, Robert A King, Jay A Tischfield, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412 families (some probands were siblings). We assessed 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 465 parent-child trios; 117 additional SNPs in 211 trios; and 4 additional SNPs in 254 trios. We performed SNP and gene-based transmission disequilibrium tests and compared nominally significant SNP results with those from a large independent case-control cohort...
May 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
October 2017: Psychological Medicine
Angela Sagar, Dalila Pinto, Fedra Najjar, Stephen J Guter, Carol Macmillan, Edwin H Cook
Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. (2011) Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. (2010) Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Marina Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Joshua M Nadeau, Amaya Ramos, Brian Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with ASD-specific modifications has support for treating OCD in this population; however, use of intensive CBT in youth with ASD and severe OCD has not been tested. The current study examined the preliminary effectiveness of an individualized intensive CBT protocol for OCD in adolescents with ASD. Nine adolescents (aged 11-17 years) completed a regimen of intensive CBT (range 24-80 daily sessions) incorporating exposure with response prevention (ERP)...
April 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Olivia J Veatch, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary E Warren, Brendan T Keenan, Melissa H Potter, Beth A Malow
Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Marina Jiujias, Elizabeth Kelley, Layla Hall
This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena...
December 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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