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Geralyn R Timler
Conversation skills are an important intervention focus for verbally fluent school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three sets of approaches for supporting conversation skills are reviewed. Pragmatic language approaches focus on teaching the verbal and nonverbal skills needed to initiate and maintain conversations including strategies for recognizing and repairing communication breakdowns. Social skill approaches focus on similar conversation behaviors, but these behaviors are usually taught for use within specific social tasks such as entering peer groups, maintaining interactions, and resolving conflicts...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Kelly Whalon
Foundational to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are difficulties developing joint attention, social reciprocity, and language/communication. These challenges place children with ASD at risk for future reading failure. Research suggests that many school-aged children with ASD will learn the decoding skills necessary to effectively read text, but will struggle with comprehension. Yet, the reading profiles of learners with ASD also show great heterogeneity, with some also unable to effectively decode new words...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Sarah R Rieth, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Marilee Burgeson, Karyn Searcy, Kelsey S Dickson, Aubyn C Stahmer
Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions include an explicit focus on coaching parents to use therapy techniques in daily routines and are considered best practice for young children with autism. Unfortunately, these approaches are not widely used in community settings, possibly due to the clinical expertise and training required. This article presents the work of the Bond, Regulate, Interact, Develop, Guide, Engage (BRIDGE Collaborative), a multidisciplinary group of service providers (including speech-language pathologists), parents, funding agency representatives, and researchers dedicated to improving the lives of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their families...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
María Del Pino, Amado Andrés, Ana Ávila Bernabéu, Joaquín de Juan-Rivera, Elvira Fernández, Juan de Dios García Díaz, Domingo Hernández, José Luño, Isabel Martínez Fernández, José Paniagua, Manuel Posada de la Paz, José Carlos Rodríguez-Pérez, Rafael Santamaría, Roser Torra, Joan Torras Ambros, Pedro Vidau, Josep-Vicent Torregrosa
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene encoding the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Complete or partial deficiency in this enzyme leads to intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other glycosphingolipids in many cell types throughout the body, including the kidney. Progressive accumulation of Gb3 in podocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and tubular cells contribute to the renal symptoms of FD, which manifest as proteinuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate leading to renal insufficiency...
March 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Yuanyuan Zhou, Xia Zheng, Jiaojiao Lu, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Warburg effect is one of the main energy metabolism features supporting cancer cell growth. 20(S)-Rg3 exerts anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer partly by inhibiting the Warburg effect. microRNAs are important regulators of the Warburg effect. However, the microRNA regulatory network mediating the anti-Warburg effect of 20(S)-Rg3 was largely unknown. METHODS: microRNA deep sequencing was performed to identify the 20(S)-Rg3-influenced microRNAs in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Eric Seiti Yamanaka, Luis A Tortajada-Genaro, Nuria Pastor, Ángel Maquieira
The genotyping of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is addressed through methods based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with user-friendly optical read-outs to cover the current demand for point-of-care DNA biomarker detection. The modification of primer design and reaction composition improved the assay selectivity yielding allele-specific results and reducing false-positive frequency. Furthermore, the reduced cost, ease of use and effectiveness of colorimetric detection (solution and hybridisation chip formats) were availed for the image capture by a smartphone, reching high sensitivity...
March 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Adam Kasparek, Bogdan Smyk
The fluorescence technique is very popular and has been used in many fields of research. It is simple in its assumptions but not very easy to use. One of the main problems is the inner filter effect (IF) I and II which takes place in the cuvette. IF type I is permanently present, but IF type II occurs only when absorption and fluorescence spectra overlap. To avoid IF type I, absorbencies in the cuvette should be smaller than 0.05, which is however very difficult to obtain in many experiments. In this work we propose a new method to solve these problems in the case of a Cary Eclipse fluorimeter, having horizontally-oriented slits, based on old equations developed in the middle of the last century...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Peisheng Liang, Wangyong Zhu, Tianjun Lan, Qian Tao
Saliva secretion disorder is one of the most common symptoms in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Salivary biomarkers related to saliva secretion disorder were identified in a pSS murine model, NOD/ShiLtJ mouse, using differential proteomic analysis. Candidate biomarkers were screened with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and validated in saliva and salivary glands by western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Biological functions were detected using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa-Rodríguez, Anna Guillén-Solà, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Josep M Muniesa, Ester Marco
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a prevalent condition related to adverse outcomes in older people. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic capacity of the malnutrition criteria of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) with other classical diagnostic tools. METHODS: Cohort study of 102 consecutive in-patients ≥70 years admitted for postacute rehabilitation. Patients were considered malnourished if their Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) score was ≤11 and serum albumin <3 mg/dL or MNA-SF ≤ 11, serum albumin <3 mg/dL, and usual clinical signs and symptoms of malnutrition...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Marie-Julie Lardinois, Nicolas Meurisse
INTRODUCTION: Peroperative assessment of resectability in pancreas-sparing duodenectomy for distal duodenal (D3-D4) adenocarcinoma is challenging for surgeons. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a 68-year-old man with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the fourth portion of duodenum which had been diagnosed with upper endoscopy and CT. A pancreas-sparing duodenectomy with loco-regional lymph node resection using the superior mesenteric artery first approach was performed...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Josefine Larsson, Katarzyna Smolarz, Justyna Świeżak, Magda Turower, Natalia Czerniawska, Mats Grahn
Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR)...
March 1, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Fan Jiang, Jue Liu, Xinyue Zeng, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. Recently, the reproductive and developmental toxicology of TBOEP has been reported. However, fewer studies have assessed the neurotoxic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TBOEP at 0, 50, 500, 1500 and 2500 μg/L from 2 to 144-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements showed that TBOEP exposure reduced embryonic spontaneous movement and decreased swimming speed of larvae in response to dark stimulation...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Rui Yamaguchi, Arisa Sakamoto, Reona Yamaguchi, Misa Haraguchi, Shinji Narahara, Hiroyuki Sugiuchi, Yasuo Yamaguchi
The stimuli inducing expression of single immunoglobulin IL-1-related receptor (SIGIRR) and the relevant regulatory mechanisms are not well defined. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) delays internalization of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and subsequently enhances cellular signaling. This study investigated the effect of TGFβ1 on SIGIRR protein production by human M1 macrophages in response to stimulation with substance P (SP). SP caused upregulation of SIGIRR expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas aprepitant (an NK1R inhibitor) blunted this response...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Meng Tian, Yu Long, Dan Xu, Shuoyun Wei, Zhengping Dong
Nowadays, chemical catalytic methods for the treatment of organic wastes are attracting more and more research attention. In the current research, novel catalysts with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported on the hollow mesoporous silica nanotubes (h-mSiO2 ) were synthesized for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The key point for the fabrication of the catalysts is that a certain thickness of the silica shell was wrapped on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) or Pd/MWNTs through biphase stratification approach, and then the samples were calcined to remove the MWNTs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Heléne F Dorfling, Zarina Lockhat, Samantha Pretorius, Maryna Steyn, Anna C Oettlé
Although guidelines for facial approximations, including those for the eye, are in use in South Africa, limited data on African populations exist to confirm its validity. As precise placement of the eyes in facial approximations is of importance for facial recognition, this study tested established guidelines by measuring specific instrumental dimensions. Forty-nine cadavers from the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and the University of Pretoria were dissected to determine the position of the canthi and the size and position of the eyeball in the orbit...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jarunya Samsuwan, Tachapol Muangsub, Pattamawadee Yanatatsaneejit, Apiwat Mutirangura, Nakarin Kitkumthorn
According to the tissue-specific methylation database (doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.09.060), methylation at CpG locus cg03096975 in EML2 has been preliminarily proven to be specific to brain tissue. In this study, we enlarged sample size and developed a technique for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis-for EML2 (COBRA-EML2) technique was established and validated in various organ samples obtained from 108 autopsies. In addition, this technique was also tested for its reliability, minimal DNA concentration detected, and use in aged samples and in samples obtained from specific brain compartments and spinal cord...
March 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Sara Cristinelli, Angela Ciuffi
Single-cell analyses allow uncovering cellular heterogeneity, not only per se, but also in response to viral infection. Similarly, single cell transcriptome analyses (scRNA-Seq) can highlight specific signatures, identifying cell subsets with particular phenotypes, which are relevant in the understanding of virus-host interactions.
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Allan McGroarty, Rebecca McCartan
PURPOSE: Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. METHOD: An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
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