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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735374/changes-in-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-women-following-obesity-surgery-bypass
#1
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Natalia Yumi Noronha, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Bruno Affonso Parente de Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Vitor Caressato Pinhanelli, Wilson Salgado Junior, Ana Julia Machry, Wilson Araújo da Silva Junior, Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza, Júlio Sérgio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
BACKGROUND: Differential gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is poorly characterized. Markers of these processes may provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these events. The main goal of this study was to identify changes in PBMC gene expression in women with obesity before and 6 months after RYGB-induced weight loss. METHODS: The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of PBMCs from 13 obese women was analyzed before and 6 months after RYGB; the RNA of PBMCs from nine healthy women served as control...
July 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734831/effects-of-all-oral-anti-viral-therapy-on-hvpg-and-systemic-hemodynamics-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cirrhosis
#2
Sabela Lens, Edilmar Alvarado, Zoe Mariño, María-Carlota Londoño, Elba LLop, Javier Martinez, Jose Ignacio Fortea, Luís Ibañez, Xavier Ariza, Anna Baiges, Adolfo Gallego, Rafael Bañares, Angela Puente, Agustín Albillos, Jose Luís Calleja, Xavier Torras, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaume Bosch, Cándid Villanueva, Xavier Forns, Juan Carlos García-Pagán
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis and clinical significant portal hypertension (CSPH, hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] 10 mmHg or greater), despite achieving sustained virological response (SVR) to therapy, remain at risk of liver decompensation. We investigated hemodynamic changes following SVR in patients with CSPH and whether liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) can rule out the presence of CSPH. METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective study of 226 patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis and CSPH who had SVR to interferon-free therapy at 6 Liver Units in Spain...
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734818/preoperative-aqueous-cytokine-levels-are-associated-with-a-rapid-reduction-in-endothelial-cells-after-penetrating-keratoplasty
#3
Yukari Yagi-Yaguchi, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Kazunari Higa, Terumasa Suzuki, Hiroyuki Yazu, Naohiko Aketa, Yoshiyuki Satake, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative inflammatory cytokine levels in the aqueous humor (AqH) on the endothelial cell density (ECD) after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). DESIGN: Prospective interventional, consecutive case series. METHODS: This study includes 70 consecutive patients (mean age 73.7 ± 10.6), who underwent PKP (37 eyes) or cataract surgery (controls, 33 eyes). A total of 70 AqH samples were collected at the beginning of each surgery...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734654/schlafen-14-slfn14-is-a-novel-antiviral-factor-involved-in-the-control-of-viral-replication
#4
Rak-Kyun Seong, Seong-Wook Seo, Ji-Ae Kim, Sarah J Fletcher, Neil V Morgan, Mukesh Kumar, Young-Ki Choi, Ok Sarah Shin
Schlafen (SLFN) proteins have been suggested to play important functions in cell proliferation and immune cell development. In this study, we determined the antiviral activities of putative RNA-helicase domain-containing SLFN14. Murine SLFN14 expression was specifically induced by TLR3-mediated pathways and type I interferon (IFN) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. To examine the role of SLFN during viral infection, cells were infected with either wild-type PR8 or delNS1/PR8 virus. SLFN14 expression was specifically induced following influenza virus infection...
July 11, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#5
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
July 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733891/consequences-of-bisphenol-a-perinatal-exposure-on-immune-responses-and-gut-barrier-function-in-mice
#6
Yann Malaisé, Sandrine Ménard, Christel Cartier, Corinne Lencina, Caroline Sommer, Eric Gaultier, Eric Houdeau, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou
The potent immunomodulatory effect of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A during development and consequences during life span are of increasing concern. Particular interests have been raised from animal studies regarding the risk of developing food intolerance and infection. We aimed to identify immune disorders in mice triggered by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Gravid mice were orally exposed to bisphenol (50 μg/kg body weight/day) from day 15 of pregnancy until weaning. Gut barrier function, local and systemic immunity were assessed in adult female offspring...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733564/the-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-in-routine-care
#7
S S Tan, Z Adlin Nadia
AIM: To describe the clinical characteristic of hepatitis C (HCV) patients and the results of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive HCV patients treated with PegIFN/RBV in 2004 to 2012. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients received treatment. The mean age was 44.16 ± 10.5 years and 76% were male. The top 2 self-reported risks were blood or blood product transfusion before 1994 and injection drug use, found in 57...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733470/dendritic-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vector-immunization-uses-pseudotransduction-and-dna-mediated-sting-and-cgas-activation
#8
Jocelyn T Kim, Yarong Liu, Rajan P Kulkarni, Kevin K Lee, Bingbing Dai, Geoffrey Lovely, Yong Ouyang, Pin Wang, Lili Yang, David Baltimore
Dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation are critical for efficient priming of T cell responses. Here, we study how lentiviral vectors (LVs) deliver antigen and activate DCs to generate T cell immunization in vivo. We report that antigenic proteins delivered in vector particles via pseudotransduction were sufficient to stimulate an antigen-specific immune response. The delivery of the viral genome encoding the antigen increased the magnitude of this response in vivo but was irrelevant in vitro...
July 21, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733313/granzyme-a-deficiency-breaks-immune-tolerance-and-promotes-autoimmune-diabetes-through-a-type-i-interferon-dependent-pathway
#9
Zia Ua Mollah, Hong Sheng Quah, Kate L Graham, Gaurang Jhala, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Joanna Francisca M Dharma, Jonathan Chee, Prerak M Trivedi, Evan G Pappas, Leanne Mackin, Edward Pf Chu, Satoru Akazawa, Stacey Fynch, Charlotte Hodson, Andrew J Deans, Joseph A Trapani, Mark Mw Chong, Phillip I Bird, Thomas C Brodnicki, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Wh Kay
Granzyme A is a protease implicated in the degradation of intracellular DNA. Nucleotide complexes are known triggers of systemic autoimmunity, but a role in organ-specific autoimmune disease has not been demonstrated. To investigate whether such a mechanism could be an endogenous trigger for autoimmunity, we examined the impact of granzyme A deficiency in the NOD mouse model of autoimmune diabetes. Granzyme A deficiency resulted in an increased incidence in diabetes associated with accumulation of single stranded DNA in immune cells and induction of an interferon response in pancreatic islets...
July 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733045/induction-of-live-cell-phagocytosis-by-a-specific-combination-of-inflammatory-stimuli
#10
Takamasa Ishidome, Takeshi Yoshida, Rikinari Hanayama
Conditions of severe hyper-inflammation can lead to uncontrolled activation of macrophages, and the ensuing phagocytosis of live cells. However, relationships between inflammatory stimuli and uncontrolled phagocytosis of live cells by macrophages are poorly understood. To identify mediators of this process, we established phagocytosis assays of live cells by stimulating macrophages with CpG DNA, interferon-γ, and anti-interleukin-10 receptor antibody. In this model, various cell surface receptors were upregulated on macrophages, and phagocytosis of live cells was induced in a Rac1-dependent manner...
July 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732227/atm-supports-gammaherpesvirus-replication-by-attenuating-type-i-interferon-pathway
#11
Eric J Darrah, Kyle P Stoltz, Mitchell Ledwith, Vera L Tarakanova
Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages...
July 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732143/ifnl4-rs368234815-and-rs117648444-variants-predict-off-treatment-hbsag-seroclearance-in-ifn-treated-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#12
Enrico Galmozzi, Floriana Facchetti, Glenda Grossi, Alessandro Loglio, Mauro Vigano, Giovanna Lunghi, Massimo Colombo, Pietro Lampertico
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Robust baseline predictors of interferon (IFN) response in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not currently available. The recently described rs368234815 TT/ΔG dinucleotide and rs117648444 nonsynonymous P70S polymorphisms in IFN lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene, which are strongly associated with response to IFN in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could be also useful in IFN treated CHB patients. Here we assessed whether IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 polymorphisms predict IFN induced HBsAg clearance in CHB patients...
July 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#13
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732046/qualitative-differences-in-cellular-immunogenicity-elicited-by-hepatitis-c-virus-t-cell-vaccines-employing-prime-boost-regimens
#14
Wendy G Tan, Iryna Zubkova, Alla Kachko, Frances Wells, Heiko Adler, Gerd Sutter, Marian E Major
T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731786/high-post-treatment-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-levels-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-predict-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-c-virus-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients-with-sustained-virological-response-after-antiviral-therapy
#15
Fanpu Ji, Rui Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Dan Bai, Caini He, Zhifang Cai, Yuan Shen, Shengbang Wang, Hong Deng, Zongfang Li
Although eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, a considerable level of risk remains in cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease. Yet, data for the effect of serum markers on HCC development in this population after viral eradication are still lacking. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered interferon-based regimens at our hospital between August 2008 and December 2013. Thirty-four achieved sustained virological response and were enrolled in the study...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731677/an-evaluation-of-optimal-pegylation-strategies-for-maximizing-the-lymphatic-exposure-and-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-after-subcutaneous-administration
#16
Linda J Chan, Orlagh M Feeney, Nathania J Leong, Victoria M Mcleod, Christopher J H Porter, Charlotte C Williams, Lisa M Kaminskas
Interferon α2 is an antiviral/antiproliferative protein that is currently used to treat hepatitis C infections and several forms of cancer. Two PEGylated variants of interferon α2 (containing 12 and 40 kDa PEGs) are currently marketed and display longer plasma circulation times than unmodified interferon. With increasing realization that the lymphatic system plays an important role in the extrahepatic replication of the hepatitis C virus and in the metastatic dissemination of cancers, this study sought to evaluate PEGylation strategies to optimally enhance the antiviral activity and plasma and lymphatic exposure of interferon after subcutaneous administration in rats...
July 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731284/the-rna-binding-protein-hur-inhibits-expression-of-ccl5-and-limits-recruitment-of-macrophages-into-tumors
#17
Thilo F Brauß, Sofia Winslow, Sebastian Lampe, Anica Scholz, Andreas Weigert, Nathalie Dehne, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Tobias Schmid, Bernhard Brüne
The RNA-binding protein HuR promotes tumor growth by affecting proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Although immune cells, especially tumor-associated macrophages, are critical components of the tumor stroma, the influence of HuR in tumors on the recruitment of immune cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we therefore aimed to elucidate the impact of tumor cell HuR on the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages. To this end, we stably depleted HuR in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731226/curcumin-converts-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-to-t-helper-1-cells-in-patients-with-lung-cancer
#18
JianYong Zou, ChunHua Su, HongHe Luo, YiYan Lei, Bo Zeng, HaoShuai Zhu, ZhenGuang Chen
The regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the tumor tolerance. The methods to regulate the Treg population in cancer-bearing hosts are limited currently. The effect of curcumin on inhibiting cancer has been recognized, but the mechanism remains elusive. This study tests a hypothesis that administration of curcumin down regulates Tregs in lung cancer (LC) patients. In this study, a group of LC patients was treated with curcumin. The peripheral Tregs and T helper (Th) 1 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730878/investigational-drugs-in-development-for-hepatitis-d
#19
Mario Rizzetto
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D still relies on Interferon. To improve efficacy, new therapeutic strategies are in development which aim to deprive the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) of functions of the Hepatitis B Virus and of the host required for its life-cycle. Areas covered: The therapeutic options are; 1) The inhibition of the farnesylation of the large HD-protein permissive of virion assembly with Lonafarnib, 2) The blocking of HBsAg entry into cells with Myrcludex B via the inhibition of the Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Receptor, to prevent the spreading of HDV to uninfected hepatocytes, 3) The reduction of subviral HBsAg particles by REP 2139, leading to diminished virion morphogenesis ...
July 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#20
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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