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Interferons and viral infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468137/identification-of-various-cell-culture-models-for-the-study-of-zika-virus
#1
Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Eberhard Hildt
AIM: To identify cell culture models supportive for Zika virus (ZIKV) replication. METHODS: Various human and non-human cell lines were infected with a defined amount of ZIKV Polynesia strain. Cells were analyzed 48 h post infection for the amount of intracellular and extracellular viral genomes and infectious viral particles by quantitative real-time PCR and virus titration assay. The extent of replication was monitored by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis by using Env and NS1 specific antibodies...
February 12, 2018: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467313/reduced-chronic-lymphocyte-activation-following-interferon-%C3%AE-blockade-in-the-acute-phase-of-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Diane Carnathan, Benton Lawson, Joana Yu, Kalpana Patel, James M Billingsley, Gregory K Tharp, Olivia M Delmas, Reem Dawoud, Peter Wilkinson, Charles Nicolette, Mark J Cameron, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Steven E Bosinger, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H Vanderford
Pathogenic HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) induces persistently high production of type-I interferon (IFN-I) which is thought to contribute to disease progression. To elucidate the specific role of IFNα in SIV pathogenesis, 12 RMs were treated prior to i.v. SIVmac239 infection with a high or a low dose of an antibody (AGS-009) that neutralizes most IFNα subtypes, and compared with six mock-infused, SIV-infected controls. Plasma viremia was measured post infection to assess the effect of IFNα blockade on virus replication, and peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue samples were analyzed by immunophenotypical staining...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467021/conjunctival-transcriptome-profiling-of-solomon-islanders-with-active-trachoma-in-the-absence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#3
Hristina Vasileva, Robert Butcher, Harry Pickering, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Anthony W Solomon, Martin J Holland, Chrissy H Roberts
BACKGROUND: Clinical signs of active (inflammatory) trachoma are found in many children in the Solomon Islands, but the majority of these individuals have no serological evidence of previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. In Temotu and Rennell and Bellona provinces, ocular infections with C. trachomatis were seldom detected among children with active trachoma; a similar lack of association was seen between active trachoma and other common bacterial and viral causes of follicular conjunctivitis...
February 21, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466680/cytokine-responses-to-rhinovirus-and-development-of-asthma-allergic-sensitization-and-respiratory-infections-during-childhood
#4
Adnan Custovic, Danielle Belgrave, Lijing Lin, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Aurica G Telcian, Roberto Solari, Clare S Murray, Ross P Walton, John Curtin, Michael R Edwards, Angela Simpson, Magnus Rattray, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Immunophenotypes of anti-viral responses, and their relationship with asthma, allergy and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are poorly understood. We characterized multiple cytokine responses of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to rhinovirus stimulation, and their relationship with clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a population-based birth cohort, we measured 28 cytokines post-stimulation with rhinovirus-16 in 307 children aged 11 years. We used machine learning to identify patterns of cytokine responses, and related these patterns to clinical outcomes using longitudinal models...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464024/nab2-is-a-novel-immune-stimulator-of-mda-5-that-promotes-a-strong-type-i-interferon-response
#5
Anne Oberson, Lorenzo Spagnuolo, Viola Puddinu, Winfried Barchet, Karola Rittner, Carole Bourquin
Novel adjuvants are needed to increase the efficacy of vaccine formulations and immune therapies for cancer and chronic infections. In particular, adjuvants that promote a strong type I IFN response are required, since this cytokine is crucial for the development of efficient anti-tumoral and anti-viral immunity. Nucleic acid band 2 (NAB2) is a double-stranded RNA molecule isolated from yeast and identified as an agonist of the pattern-recognition receptors TLR3 and MDA-5. We compared the ability of NAB2 to activate innate immunity with that of poly(I:C), a well-characterized TLR3 and MDA-5 agonist known for the induction of type I IFN...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463066/oasl1-traps-viral-rnas-in-stress-granules-to-promote-antiviral-responses
#6
Ji-Seon Kang, Yune-Sahng Hwang, Lark Kyun Kim, Sujung Lee, Wook-Bin Lee, Jeongsil Kim-Ha, Young-Joon Kim
Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) protein family is the major interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes responsible for the activation of RNase L pathway upon viral infection. OAS-like (OASL) is also required for inhibition of viral growth in human cells, but the loss of one of its mouse homolog, OASL1, causes a severe defect in termination of type I interferon production. To further investigate the antiviral activity of OASL1, we examined its subcellular localization and regulatory roles in IFN production in the early and late stages of viral infection...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462879/chondrocytes-contribute-to-alphaviral-disease-pathogenesis-as-a-source-of-virus-replication-and-soluble-factor-production
#7
Elisa X Y Lim, Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Peta Coles, Wai Suet Lee, Xiang Liu, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex® assays using the supernatants harvested. Gene expression studies were conducted using total RNA isolated from cells...
February 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459814/-porphyria-cutanea-tarda-as-extrahepatic-manifestation-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-case-report
#8
Jorge Espinoza-Ríos, Vanessa Valenzuela Granados, Manuel Ojeda Cisneros, Aldo Gálvez Canseco, Cesar Ramos Aguilar, Brunella Raymundo Villalva, Victor Aguilar Sánchez, José Pinto Valdivia, Jorge Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Alejandro Bussalleu Rivera
The present case is a 56 year old male who present hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scars in both hands, associated with the presence of milia cysts. It was studied the metabolism of porphyrins and skin biopsy of the lesions which were compatible with porphyria cutanea tarda. In the initial laboratory, elevated transaminases values were found and subsequently identified chronic infection of hepatitis C virus. In order to treat viral infection and resolve the dermal commitment; considered extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus, treatment was started with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, with favorably development and rapid viral response, with undetectable viral load until now (24 weeks of treatment), decreased level of serum transaminases and improvement of skin lesions...
October 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459063/evaluation-of-in-vitro-inhibitory-potential-of-type-i-interferons-and-different-antiviral-compounds-on-rabies-virus-replication
#9
András Marosi, Petra Forgách, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Tamás Bakonyi
Five different compounds were tested for their in vitro inhibitory effect against RABV multiplication in mouse neuroblastoma (N2A) cell line. N2A cells were infected with the fixed RABV strain CVS-11 one hour prior to adding antivirals or their respective combinations. The infectious titre of RABV as well as the quantity of viral RNA was determined in the cell culturing medium after 48 h. All five tested compounds (mouse interferon (IFN)-α and -β, ribavirin, favipiravir (T-705) and sorafenib) reduced viral replication in a concentration-dependent manner: IFN-β and sorafenib both provided 73...
February 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458675/the-contribution-of-sp100-to-cottontail-rabbit-papillomavirus-transcription-and-replication
#10
M Wurdak, M Schneider, T Iftner, F Stubenrauch
SP100 proteins are components of nuclear domain 10 structures and have been implicated as inhibitors of human papillomavirus (HPV) replication. In this study, we have addressed the role of SP100 in tumour formation by the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) papillomavirus (CRPV or SfPV1) in a rabbit model. Tissue culture studies using rabbit keratinocyte lines indicated that rabbit SP100 is an interferon-beta-inducible gene similar to its human counterpart. Stable knockdown of SP100 by shRNA in a cell line harbouring CRPV genomes resulted in a decrease of viral early transcripts...
January 24, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458094/a-conserved-interferon-regulation-factor-1-irf-1-from-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-functioned-as-an-activator-of-ifn-pathway
#11
Mengmeng Lu, Chuanyan Yang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Guangxia Lu, Yichen Wu, Chen Qu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), a family of transcription factors with a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, play important roles in regulating the expression of interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes. In the present study, an interferon regulation factor 1 was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIRF-1), and its immune function was characterized to understand the regulatory mechanism of interferon system against viral infection in invertebrates. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgIRF-1 was 993 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with a typical IRF domain (also known as DNA-binding domain)...
February 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456247/b-cells-are-the-predominant-mediators-of-early-systemic-viral-dissemination-during-rectal-lcmv-infection
#12
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Benjamin L Cohn, Frank Wu, Shomyseh Sanjabi
Determining the magnitude of local immune response during mucosal exposure to viral pathogens is critical to understanding the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. We previously showed that vaginal inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) fails to induce a robust innate immune response in the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), allowing high titer viral replication and a delay in T-cell-mediated viral control. Despite this immunological delay, LCMV replication remained confined mainly to the FRT and the draining iliac lymph node...
February 19, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455951/sex-hormone-contributes-to-sexually-dimorphic-susceptibility-in-cvb3-induced-viral-myocarditis-via-modulating-ifn-%C3%AE-nk-cell-production
#13
Nannan Zhou, Yan Yue, Sidong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis is a widespread cardiac disease associated with inflammation and myocardial injury and is predominantly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection in humans as well as in mice. CVB3-induced myocarditis shows sexually dimorphic sensitivity and is more prevalent in male mice. Our previous studies showed that natural killer (NK) cells played an indispensable role in CVB3-induced myocarditis, and female mice exhibited less pathological cardiac interferon gamma (IFN-γ)+ NK cell infiltration than did male mice...
January 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452387/oas1-2-and-3-significance-during-active-tb
#14
Gina Leisching, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker
Evidence to-date collectively points to a detrimental role of the type I IFN response during tuberculosis. The mechanisms underpinning the IFNαβ-mediated exacerbation of the disease is unclear. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), namely OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3 are part of the interferon-induced genes which until now have been synonymous with an anti-viral function. Blood transcriptome profiling has continuously observed their upregulation in a number of gene expression signatures which discriminate active TB from latent TB infection, however the role of the OASs and the effect that their expression has on the pathogenesis and persistence of TB is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characters-a-pilot-open-lable-randomized-study
#15
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451519/-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-is-it-only-e-liver-disease
#16
Salvatore Petta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely diffused in general population, and the likelihood that an infected individual is affected by other disesases is high. A lot of epidemiological and explicative studies, even if with different levels of evidence, reported a potential effect of HCV infection -by direct and indirect mechanisms- on the pathogenesis of extrahepatic comorbidities related to dysregulation of the immune system, or cardiometabolic comorbidities like diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular alterations, etc...
January 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449668/rhinovirus-3c-protease-suppresses-apoptosis-and-triggers-caspase-independent-cell-death
#17
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447249/a-paralogous-pair-of-mammalian-host-restriction-factors-form-a-critical-host-barrier-against-poxvirus-infection
#18
Xiangzhi Meng, Fushun Zhang, Bo Yan, Chuanping Si, Hiroaki Honda, Akiko Nagamachi, Lu-Zhe Sun, Yan Xiang
Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Here, we show that SAMD9L functions similarly to SAMD9 as a restriction factor and that the two paralogs form a critical host barrier that poxviruses must overcome to establish infection...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#19
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443655/is-interferon-based-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-infection-still-of-value-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#20
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Robert Flisiak, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Ewa Janczewska, Agnieszka Czauż-Andrzejuk, Hanna Berak, Andrzej Horban, Agnieszka Staniaszek, Andrzej Gietka, Magdalena Tudrujek, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Dorota Dybowska, Waldemar Halota, Anna Piekarska, Marek Sitko, Aleksander Garlicki, Iwona Orłowska, Krzysztof Simon, Teresa Belica-Wdowik, Barbara Baka-Ćwierz, Włodzimierz Mazur, Jolanta Białkowska, Łukasz Socha, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Łukasz Laurans, Zbigniew Deroń, Beata Lorenc, Beata Dobracka, Olga Tronina, Małgorzata Pawłowska
The aim of the study is to analyze treatments available for patients infected with genotype (G) 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Poland at the beginning of the interferon (IFN)-free era and evaluate the efficacy and safety of different therapeutic options administered in a real-world setting. We analyzed data of 198 patients who started antiviral therapy after July 1, 2015, and completed it before December 31, 2016; 57.6% of them had liver cirrhosis and 46% were treatment experienced. Fifty percent of patients were assigned to sofosbuvir (SOF)+pegylated IFN alfa (PegIFNa)+ribavirin (RBV), 9% to PegIFNa+RBV, 36% received SOF+RBV, and 5% SOF+daclatasvir (DCV)±RBV...
February 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
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