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Interferons and viral infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228279/in-vitro-model-of-fully-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-rhinovirus-reveals-epithelium-initiated-immune-responses
#1
Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Chunwei Li, Yew Kwang Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Hyung Won Choi, De-Yun Wang, Vincent T Chow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the commonest cause of the common cold. While less pathogenic compared to other respiratory viruses, it is frequently associated with exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases such as rhinosinusitis and asthma exacerbation. Currently, there are limited studies on HRV infection of nasal epithelial cells despite being the first site of viral contact, immune initiation, and airway inter-connectivity. Hence, we established a model of HRV infection of in vitro differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) derived from multiple individuals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222027/tbk1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-exerts-antiviral-activity-against-fish-viruses-and-regulates-interferon-response
#2
Yin Hu, Youhua Huang, Jiaxin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Qiwei Qin, Xiaohong Huang
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) has been well studied in mammals because of its importance in type I interferon induction in antiviral immunity. However, the roles of fish TBK1 in virus infection still remained largely uncertain. In the current study, a TBK1 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcTBK1) was cloned and its roles in fish viral infections were investigated. Sequence analysis showed that EcTBK1 encoded a 723-amino acid peptide which shared 98% and 73% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and human (homo sapiens), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#3
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216247/the-glycoprotein-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-promotes-release-of-virus-like-particles-from-tetherin-positive-cells
#4
Constantin Brinkmann, Markus Hoffmann, Anastasia Lübke, Inga Nehlmeier, Annika Krämer-Kühl, Michael Winkler, Stefan Pöhlmann
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) release from infected cells is inhibited by the interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral host cell factor tetherin (BST-2, CD317). However, several viruses encode tetherin antagonists and it is at present unknown whether residual VSV spread in tetherin-positive cells is also promoted by a virus-encoded tetherin antagonist. Here, we show that the viral glycoprotein (VSV-G) antagonizes tetherin in transfected cells, although with reduced efficiency as compared to the HIV-1 Vpu protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215570/host-cell-restriction-factors-that-limit-influenza-a-infection
#5
REVIEW
Fernando Villalón-Letelier, Andrew G Brooks, Philippa M Saunders, Sarah L Londrigan, Patrick C Reading
Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. Although hundreds of ISGs have been described, the vast majority have not been functionally characterised. Cellular proteins with putative antiviral activity (hereafter referred to as "restriction factors") can target various steps in the virus life-cycle. In the context of influenza virus infection, restriction factors have been described that target virus entry, genomic replication, translation and virus release...
December 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213275/dynamic-changes-in-host-gene-expression-following-in-vitro-viral-mimic-stimulation-in-crocodile-cells
#6
Subir Sarker, Yinan Wang, Brenden Warren-Smith, Karla J Helbig
The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212929/nucleic-acid-polymers-are-active-against-hepatitis-delta-virus-infection-in-vitro
#7
Frauke Beilstein, Matthieu Blanchet, Andrew Vaillant, Camille Sureau
In this study, an in vitro infection model for the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was used to evaluate the antiviral effects of phosphorothioate nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) and investigate their mechanism of action. The results show that NAPs inhibit HDV infection at less than 4 micromolar concentrations in cultures of differentiated human hepatoma cells. NAPs were shown to be active at viral entry, but inactive post entry on HDV RNA replication. Inhibition was independent of the NAPs nucleotide sequence, but dependent on both size and amphipathicity of the polymer...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209131/dramatic-response-of-hepatitis-c-patients-chronically-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-to-sofosbuvir-based-therapies-in-punjab-pakistan-a-prospective-study
#8
Sajjad Iqbal, Muhammad Haroon Yousuf, Muhammad Iftikhar Yousaf
AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of sofobuvir (SOF) in hepatitis C patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 in Pakistan. METHODS: The present study was performed with the coordination of gastroenterology and pathology departments of Shalamar Hospital Lahore from August 2014 to May 2016. The total number of patients included in this study was 1375 and all of them were infected with HCV genotype 3. On the basis of drug combinations, all the patients were separated into two groups...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208498/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-7-involved-in-activation-jak-stat-pathway-in-miiuy-croaker
#9
Yuena Sun, Qiong Yang, Xueyan Zhao, Xuezhu Liu, Tianjun Xu
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family is a transcription factor family which plays an important role in the regulation of natural immunity and immune cell differentiation. IRF7 is important to regulate the response of type I interferon (IFN) to viral infection. Thus, more researches of the characteristic and functions of IRF7 should be done to get better understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune reactions. Here, the characterization of full-length cDNA of IRF7 was reported from miiuy croaker. Gene characterization analysis of mmiIRF7 showed conservative with other fish and inferred that the difference of tryptophan residues in IRF7 may occurred in the period of fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) or earlier...
December 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203528/elevated-sodium-chloride-drives-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-macrophages-and-increases-antiviral-resistance
#10
Wu-Chang Zhang, Lin-Juan Du, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Qing Chen, Chaoji Shi, Bo-Yan Chen, Xue-Nan Sun, Chao Li, Yu-Yao Zhang, Yan Liu, Hui Xiao, Qibin Leng, Xinquan Jiang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Shuyang Sun, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Type I IFN production and signaling in macrophages play critical roles in innate immune responses. High salt (i.e. high concentrations of NaCl) has been proposed to be an important environmental factor that influences immune responses in multiple ways. However, it remains unknown whether high salt regulates type I IFN production and signaling in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that high salt promoted IFNβ production and its signaling in both human and mouse macrophages, and consequentially primed macrophages for strengthened immune sensing and signaling when challenged with viruses or viral nucleic acid analogues...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202415/the-interplay-between-viperin-antiviral-activity-lipid-droplets-and-jun%C3%A3-n-mammarenavirus-multiplication
#11
José R Peña Cárcamo, María L Morell, Cecilia A Vázquez, Sezen Vatansever, Arunkumar S Upadhyay, Anna K Överby, Sandra M Cordo, Cybele C García
Junín arenavirus infections are associated with high levels of interferons in both severe and fatal cases. Upon Junín virus (JUNV) infection a cell signaling cascade initiates, that ultimately attempts to limit viral replication and prevent infection progression through the expression of host antiviral proteins. The interferon stimulated gene (ISG) viperin has drawn our attention as it has been highlighted as an important antiviral protein against several viral infections. The studies of the mechanistic actions of viperin have described important functional domains relating its antiviral and immune-modulating actions through cellular lipid structures...
December 1, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202128/-toll-free-pathways-for-production-of-type-i-interferons
#12
Ling Wang, Shunbin Ning
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by different cellular pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which are expressed on cell membrane or in the cytoplasm of cells of the innate immune system. Nucleic acids derived from pathogens or from certain cellular conditions represent a large category of PAMPs/DAMPs that trigger production of type I interferons (IFN-I) in addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, by specifically binding to intracellular Toll-like receptors or cytosolic receptors...
2017: AIMS Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202115/rapid-changes-in-peripheral-lymphocyte-concentrations-during-interferon-free-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
Eric G Meissner, Anita Kohli, Jeanette Higgins, Yu-Jin Lee, Olga Prokunina, David Wu, Cody Orr, Henry Masur, Shyam Kottilil
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection with direct acting antivirals results in a rapid decline in viral load and markers of hepatic inflammation, including serum CXCL10 concentration, which is followed in most cases by a sustained virologic response. Whether parallel changes of significance occur in the cellular composition of peripheral blood is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that longitudinal characterization of peripheral blood during treatment would provide insight into cellular migration and immune activation, which would have implications for understanding host immunity both before and after HCV treatment and may relate to HCV clearance...
September 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201774/hepatitis-action-plan-and-changing-trend-of-liver-disease-in-japan-viral-hepatitis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Tatsuya Kanto, Sachiyo Yoshio
In Japan, the estimated number of chronic hepatitis B virus infections was 1.1 to 1.4 million, and that of chronic hepatitis C virus was 1.9 to 2.3 million in 2000. The mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma had been increasing and hit the peak at around 2002, which subsequently started to decrease. Japan has a national action plan for addressing viral hepatitis called Basic Act on Hepatitis Measures, established in 2009. In 2011, basic guidelines for promotion of control measures for hepatitis were issued, comprising nine principles in order to promote measures to prevent hepatitis B and C...
January 2017: Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201031/age-associated-changes-in-estrogen-receptor-ratios-correlate-with-increased-female-susceptibility-to-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Koenig, Iwona Buskiewicz, Sally A Huber
Sexual bias is a hallmark in various diseases. This review evaluates sexual dimorphism in clinical and experimental coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis, and how sex bias in the experimental disease changes with increased age. Coxsackieviruses are major causes of viral myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle, which is more frequent and severe in men than women. Young male mice infected with CVB3 develop heart-specific autoimmunity and severe myocarditis. Females infected during estrus (high estradiol) develop T-regulatory cells and when infected during diestrus (low estradiol) develop autoimmunity similar to males...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201029/virologic-and-immunologic-characteristics-in-mature-ducks-with-acute-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-1-infection
#16
Sai Mao, Mingshu Wang, Xumin Ou, Di Sun, Anchun Cheng, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1) infection in mature ducks has previously been proposed as a small-animal model for human hepatitis A. However, basic research on the outcome of DHAV-1 infection in mature ducks is limited. Here, we examined the course of viremia, the characteristics of antibody responses, and the profiles of plasma cytokines in mature ducks infected with DHAV-1. During the course of infection, the viremia was detectable soon after infection and persisted for 196 days, however, the ducks presented as clinically asymptomatic...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194858/low-incidence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-and-subsequent-hepatitis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-receiving-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#17
Akihiro Tamori, Seigo Abiru, Hirayuki Enomoto, Kiyohide Kioka, Masaaki Korenaga, Joji Tani, Masaru Enomoto, Masaya Sugiyama, Tsutomu Masaki, Norifumi Kawada, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Masashi Mizokami
To determine the clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients undergoing interferon-free anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy, we examined HBV DNA in 25 HBV co-infected patients and 765 patients with resolved HBV infection during and after treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Among those with HCV genotype 1, asunaprevir plus daclatasvir was administered to 160 patients, sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ledipasvir to 438 patients, and paritaprevir plus ombitasvir and ritonavir to 25 patients...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194722/the-rna-genome-of-hepatitis-e-virus-robustly-triggers-antiviral-interferon-response
#18
Wenshi Wang, Yijin Wang, Changbo Qu, Shan Wang, Jianhua Zhou, Wanlu Cao, Lei Xu, Buyun Ma, Mohamad S Hakim, Yuebang Yin, Tiancheng Li, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Jingmin Zhao, Qiuwei Pan
The outcomes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection are diverse, ranging from asymptomatic carrier, self-limiting acute infection, fulminant hepatitis to persistent infection. This is closely associated with the immunological status of the host. This study aims to understand the innate cellular immunity as the first-line defense mechanisms in response to HEV infection. Phosphorylation of STAT1, a hallmark of the activation of antiviral interferon (IFN) response, was observed in the liver tissues of majority of HEV infected patients, but not in the liver of uninfected individuals...
December 1, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194682/impact-of-hepatitis-c-virus-polymorphisms-on-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-efficacy-regulatory-analyses-and-perspectives
#19
Patrick R Harrington, Takashi E Komatsu, Damon J Deming, Eric F Donaldson, Julian J O'Rear, Lisa K Naeger
Several highly effective, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens are available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Despite impressive efficacy overall, a small proportion of patients in registrational trials experienced treatment failure, which in some cases was associated with the detection of HCV resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline. In this article, we describe methods and key findings from independent regulatory analyses investigating the impact of baseline NS3 Q80K and NS5A RASs on the efficacy of current FDA-approved regimens for patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1 or GT3 infection...
December 1, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193564/ifn-free-therapy-is-associated-with-restoration-of-type-i-ifn-response-in-hiv-1-patients-with-acute-hcv-infection-who-achieve-svr
#20
Charles Carlton-Smith, Jacinta A Holmes, Susanna Naggie, Anna Lidofsky, Georg M Lauer, Arthur Y Kim, Raymond T Chung
Interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionized chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment; early studies suggest excellent efficacy in acute HCV. However, changes in innate immune responses during DAA therapy for acute HCV are unknown. We studied interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression and related cytokines/chemokines in HIV-infected patients with acute HCV receiving sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) as part of the A5327 clinical trial. ISG expression was determined from PBMCs and circulating cytokines/chemokines were quantified from serum from study participants...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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