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Pupillometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387133/altered-pupillary-light-response-scales-with-disease-severity-in-migrainous-photophobia
#1
Melissa M Cortez, Natalie A Rea, Lindsay A Hunter, Kathleen B Digre, K C Brennan
Background Autonomic dysfunction and light sensitivity are core features of the migraine attack. Growing evidence also suggests changes in these parameters between attacks. Though sensory and autonomic responses likely interact, they have not been studied together across the spectrum of disease in migraine. Methods We performed digital infrared pupillometry while collecting interictal photophobia thresholds (PPT) in 36 migraineurs (14 episodic; 12 chronic; 10 probable) and 24 age and sex-matched non-headache controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375981/quantitative-pupillometry-to-assess-nociception-in-a-sedated-patient-with-hemispheric-cerebral-infarction
#2
Marc Vinclair, Florian Roudaud, Gilles Francony, Jean-François Payen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340145/human-abuse-potential-of-the-new-opioid-analgesic-molecule-nktr-181-compared-with-oxycodone
#3
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective.:  Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design.:  This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting.:  Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects. : Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
March 10, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#4
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275978/infrared-pupillometry-helps-to-detect-and-predict-delirium-in-the-post-anesthesia-care-unit
#5
Eric Yang, Matthias Kreuzer, September Hesse, Paran Davari, Simon C Lee, Paul S García
This study evaluates the capability of pupillary parameters to detect and predict delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU-D) following general anesthesia. PACU-D may complicate and prolong the patient's postoperative course, consequently increasing hospital costs. After institutional approval, 47 patients undergoing surgical interventions with general anesthesia were included in the study. We measured the pupillary reflexes at signing of informed consent, during surgery 20 min after intubation and when the primary inhaled anesthetic was turned off, and 15 and 45 min after PACU admittance and upon discharge from the PACU...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271634/choroideremia-melanopsin-mediated-postillumination-pupil-relaxation-is-abnormally-slow
#6
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Søren Kirchhoff Christensen, Birgit Sander, Thomas Rosenberg, Michael Larsen, Henrik Lund-Andersen
PURPOSE: To investigate the rod-cone and melanopsin pupillary light response (PLR) pathways in choroideremia. METHODS: Eight patients with choroideremia and 18 healthy age-matched controls underwent chromatic pupillometry by applying blue (463 nm) and red light (643 nm) at 100 lux intensity to the right eye while recording pupil diameters. Absolute baseline pupil size (mm), normalized maximal pupil constriction and the early and late postillumination pupillary dilation, from 0 to 10 seconds and 10 to 30 seconds after the end of illumination, respectively, were determined...
March 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239522/disrupted-neural-activity-patterns-to-novelty-and-effort-in-young-adult-apoe-e4-carriers-performing-a-subsequent-memory-task
#7
Simon Evans, Nicholas G Dowell, Naji Tabet, Sarah L King, Samuel B Hutton, Jennifer M Rusted
INTRODUCTION: The APOE e4 allele has been linked to poorer cognitive aging and enhanced dementia risk. Previous imaging studies have used subsequent memory paradigms to probe hippocampal function in e4 carriers across the age range, and evidence suggests a pattern of hippocampal overactivation in young adult e4 carriers. METHODS: In this study, we employed a word-based subsequent memory task under fMRI; pupillometry data were also acquired as an index of cognitive effort...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228832/digital-pupillometry-in-normal-subjects
#8
Annekatrin Rickmann, Maria Waizel, Sara Kazerounian, Peter Szurman, Helmut Wilhelm, Karl T Boden
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm...
February 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212877/defining-outcomes-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-gucy2d-mutations
#9
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Shreyasi Choudhury, Sharon B Schwartz, Elise Heon, Gerald A Fishman, Shannon E Boye
PURPOSE: To determine outcome measures for a clinical trial of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with mutations in the GUCY2D gene. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: 28 patients with GUCY2D-LCA (ages 2-59) were studied clinically and with chromatic full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), pupillometry, and the NEI Visual Function Questionnaire. RESULTS: FST permitted quantitation of cone and rod sensitivity in these patients with severe visual impairment...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183584/monitoring-of-the-intraoperative-analgesia-by-pupillometry-during-laparoscopic-splenectomy-for-splenic-hydatid-cyst
#10
Ana Abad-Torrent, Albert Sueiras-Gil, Miquel Martínez-Vilalta, Josep Vallet-Fernández, María Guisasola-Rabés
Echinococcosis causes a hydatid cyst, a worldwide disease. Human beings are intermediate hosts, but dogs complete the life cycle of the cestode. The most common presentation sites are the liver and lungs. We present an unusual case of a primary splenic hydatid cyst. Open splenectomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice for splenic hydatid cysts. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has been used in appropriate cases. A healthy 48-year-old woman was scheduled for laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127779/fine-grained-versus-categorical-pupil-size-differentiates-between-strategies-for-spatial-working-memory-performance
#11
Martina Starc, Alan Anticevic, Grega Repovš
Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories...
January 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118366/as-far-as-the-eye-can-see-relationship-between-psychopathic-traits-and-pupil-response-to-affective-stimuli
#12
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107273/influence-of-depth-of-hypnosis-on-pupillary-reactivity-to-a-standardized-tetanic-stimulus-in-patients-under-propofol-remifentanil-target-controlled-infusion-a-crossover-randomized-pilot-study
#13
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089758/pupil-responses-and-pain-ratings-to-heat-stimuli-reliability-and-effects-of-expectations-and-a-conditioning-pain-stimulus
#14
James C Eisenach, Regina Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Robert C Coghill, Timothy T Houle
BACKGROUND: The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. NEW METHOD: Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068124/cognitive-effort-is-modulated-outside-of-the-explicit-awareness-of-conflict-frequency-evidence-from-pupillometry
#15
Nathaniel T Diede, Julie M Bugg
Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of conflict, challenged classic theories by demonstrating fast and flexible control that appears to operate outside of conscious awareness. Two theoretical questions yet to be addressed are whether the CSPC effect is accompanied by context-dependent variation in effort, and whether the exertion of effort depends on explicit awareness of context-specific task demands...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061512/assessment-of-rod-cone-and-intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cell-contributions-to-the-canine-chromatic-pupillary-response
#16
Connie Y Yeh, Kristin L Koehl, Christine D Harman, Simone Iwabe, José M Guzman, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Randy H Kardon, András M Komáromy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chromatic pupillometry protocol for specific functional assessment of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in dogs. Methods: Chromatic pupillometry was tested and compared in 37 dogs in different stages of primary loss of rod, cone, and combined rod/cone and optic nerve function, and in 5 wild-type (WT) dogs. Eyes were stimulated with 1-s flashes of dim (1 cd/m2) and bright (400 cd/m2) blue light (for scotopic conditions) or bright red (400 cd/m2) light with 25-cd/m2 blue background (for photopic conditions)...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049026/memory-consolidation-of-socially-relevant-stimuli-during-sleep-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-oppositional-defiant-disorder-what-you-can-see-in-their-eyes
#17
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Ina Molzow, Alexandra Förster, Nadine Siebenhühner, Maxime Gesch, Christian D Wiesner, Lioba Baving
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display deficits in sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and being comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), results in deficits in face processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sleep in recognizing faces in children with ADHD+ODD. Sixteen healthy children and 16 children diagnosed with ADHD+ODD participated in a sleep and a wake condition. During encoding (sleep condition at 8p.m.; wake condition at 8a.m...
December 31, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007522/the-pupillary-light-reflex-for-predicting-the-risk-of-hypotension-after-spinal-anaesthesia-for-elective-caesarean-section
#18
Céline Riffard, Truong Quoc Viêt, François-Pierrick Desgranges, Lionel Bouvet, Bernard Allaouchiche, Adrienne Stewart, Dominique Chassard
INTRODUCTION: The balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems could be used to predict the onset of hypotension following spinal anaesthesia. The autonomic innervation of the pupil may reflect this balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pupillometry to predict the risk of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. METHODS: Two hundred patients receiving spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section were recruited...
December 19, 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004334/noninvasive-neuromonitoring-current-utility-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#19
Luisa Vinciguerra, Julian Bösel
Noninvasive neuromonitoring is increasingly being used to monitor the course of primary brain injury and limit secondary brain damage of patients in the neurocritical care unit. Proposed advantages over invasive neuromonitoring methods include a lower risk of infection and bleeding, no need for surgical installation, mobility and portability of some devices, and safety. The question, however, is whether noninvasive neuromonitoring is practical and trustworthy enough already. We searched the recent literature and reviewed English-language studies on noninvasive neuromonitoring in subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke between the years 2010 and 2015...
December 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981704/the-eye-of-the-retriever-developing-episodic-memory-mechanisms-in-preverbal-infants-assessed-through-pupil-dilation
#20
Kahl Hellmer, Hedvig Söderlund, Gustaf Gredebäck
Studying memory in infants can be challenging, as they cannot express their subjective recollection verbally. In this study we use a novel method with which we can assess episodic recognition memory through pupillometry, using identical procedures and stimuli for infants and adults. In three experiments of 4- and 7-month-old infants, and adults we show that the adult pupillary response is larger to previously seen than to never seen items (old/new effect). Pupil dilations index subjective memory experience in adults, producing distinct pupil dilations to items judged as remembered, familiar, and new, regardless of actual previous exposure (Experiment 1)...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Science
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