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Pupillometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604573/pupillometry-as-a-screening-tool-to-detect-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#1
Erdogan Yasar, Nilgun Yildirim, Eray Atalay, Emre Tambova, Ertugrul Colak
PURPOSE: Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a handheld pupillometer in differentiating eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) from healthy controls. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the province of Eskisehir, Turkey. Subjects 40 years of age and older were randomly recruited using stratified two-stage cluster sampling from the database of the Turkish Statistical Institute office in Eskisehir. Recruitment took place between June and October 2014...
June 9, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593652/pupil-size-as-a-measure-of-within-task-learning
#2
Cyrus K Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Joseph T Coyne
Pupillometry is commonly used in research to determine how much mental effort an individual is exerting while completing tasks. Traditionally, larger pupils are associated with increased mental effort when completing more difficult tasks. However, little research has investigated how pupils change as individuals learn a new task. In theory, as one repeatedly completes a task, the task demands should reduce, reliance on working memory should decrease, and the task should become more automatic. This should translate to faster completion times and smaller peak pupil dilations...
June 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586855/using-pupillometry-to-investigate-sentence-comprehension-in-children-with-and-without-specific-language-impairment
#3
Jarrad A G Lum, George J Youssef, Gillian M Clark
Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study. A sentence comprehension task was presented that comprised items designated as easy or hard. Easy sentences contained 4 or 5 words, and hard sentences contained 6 or 7 words...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#4
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575101/efficacy-of-digital-pupillometry-for-diagnosis-of-horner-syndrome
#5
Yung Ju Yoo, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong-Min Hwang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of digital pupillometry in the diagnosis of anisocoria related to Horner syndrome in adult patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, case control study. METHODS: Nineteen patients with unilateral Horner syndrome (Horner group) and age-matched controls of 30 healthy individuals with normal vision and neither optic nerve dysfunction nor pupillary abnormalities were included. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) of the Horner group and controls were measured by a dynamic pupillometer (PLR-200; NeurOptics Inc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515685/pupillary-response-to-negative-emotional-stimuli-is-differentially-affected-in-meditation-practitioners
#6
Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati, Enzo P Brunetti, Carmen Cordero, Pedro E Maldonado
Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505505/measuring-listening-related-effort-and-fatigue-in-school-aged-children-using-pupillometry
#7
Ronan McGarrigle, Piers Dawes, Andrew J Stewart, Stefanie E Kuchinsky, Kevin J Munro
Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504528/the-importance-of-arousal-for-variation-in-working-memory-capacity-and-attention-control-a-latent-variable-pupillometry-study
#8
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and attention control. The current study explored the role of arousal in individual differences in WMC and attention control. Participants performed multiple WMC and attention control tasks. During the attention control tasks participants were periodically probed regarding their current attentional state and both baseline and task-evoked pupillary responses were recorded as indicators of tonic arousal and phasic arousal because of attentional effort, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503429/suitability-of-open-field-autorefractors-as-pupillometers-and-instrument-design-effects
#9
Carles Otero, Mikel Aldaba, Oriol Ferrer, Andrea Gascón, Juan C Ondategui-Parra, Jaume Pujol
AIM: To determine the agreement and repeatability of the pupil measurement obtained with VIP-200 (Neuroptics), PowerRef II (Plusoptix), WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko) and study the effects of instrument design on pupillometry. METHODS: Forty patients were measured twice in low, mid and high mesopic. Repeatability was analyzed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and paired t-tests. Agreement was studied with Bland-Altman plots and repeated measures ANOVA. Instrument design analysis consisted on measuring pupil size with PowerRef II simulating monocular and binocular conditions as well as with proximity cues and without proximity cues...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480113/noninvasive-monitoring-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-available-modalities
#10
REVIEW
Marium Naveed Khan, Hussain Shallwani, Muhammad Ulusyar Khan, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is important in many neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for monitoring ICP, however, is via an invasive procedure resulting in the placement of an intraventricular catheter, which is associated with many risks. Several noninvasive ICP monitoring techniques have been examined with the hope to replace the invasive techniques. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of all modalities that have been used for noninvasive ICP monitoring to date...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470675/early-prediction-of-coma-recovery-after-cardiac-arrest-with-blinded-pupillometry
#11
Daria Solari, Andrea O Rossetti, Laurent Carteron, John-Paul Miroz, Jan Novy, Philippe Eckert, Mauro Oddo
OBJECTIVE: Prognostication studies on comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients are limited by lack of blinding, potentially causing overestimation of outcome predictors and self-fulfilling prophecy. Using a blinded approach, we analyzed the value of quantitative automated pupillometry to predict neurological recovery after CA. METHODS: We examined a prospective cohort of 103 comatose adult patients who were unconscious 48 hours after CA and underwent repeated measurements of quantitative pupillary light reflex (PLR) using the Neurolight-Algiscan device...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464660/pupillometry-shows-the-effort-of-auditory-attention-switching
#12
Daniel R McCloy, Bonnie K Lau, Eric Larson, Katherine A I Pratt, Adrian K C Lee
Successful speech communication often requires selective attention to a target stream amidst competing sounds, as well as the ability to switch attention among multiple interlocutors. However, auditory attention switching negatively affects both target detection accuracy and reaction time, suggesting that attention switches carry a cognitive cost. Pupillometry is one method of assessing mental effort or cognitive load. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the effort associated with attention switches is detectable in the pupillary response...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387133/altered-pupillary-light-response-scales-with-disease-severity-in-migrainous-photophobia
#13
Melissa M Cortez, Natalie A Rea, Lindsay A Hunter, Kathleen B Digre, K C Brennan
Background Autonomic dysfunction and light sensitivity are core features of the migraine attack. Growing evidence also suggests changes in these parameters between attacks. Though sensory and autonomic responses likely interact, they have not been studied together across the spectrum of disease in migraine. Methods We performed digital infrared pupillometry while collecting interictal photophobia thresholds (PPT) in 36 migraineurs (14 episodic; 12 chronic; 10 probable) and 24 age and sex-matched non-headache controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375981/quantitative-pupillometry-to-assess-nociception-in-a-sedated-patient-with-hemispheric-cerebral-infarction
#14
Marc Vinclair, Florian Roudaud, Gilles Francony, Jean-François Payen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340145/human-abuse-potential-of-the-new-opioid-analgesic-molecule-nktr-181-compared-with-oxycodone
#15
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective.:  Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design.:  This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting.:  Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects. : Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
March 10, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#16
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275978/infrared-pupillometry-helps-to-detect-and-predict-delirium-in-the-post-anesthesia-care-unit
#17
Eric Yang, Matthias Kreuzer, September Hesse, Paran Davari, Simon C Lee, Paul S García
This study evaluates the capability of pupillary parameters to detect and predict delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU-D) following general anesthesia. PACU-D may complicate and prolong the patient's postoperative course, consequently increasing hospital costs. After institutional approval, 47 patients undergoing surgical interventions with general anesthesia were included in the study. We measured the pupillary reflexes at signing of informed consent, during surgery 20 min after intubation and when the primary inhaled anesthetic was turned off, and 15 and 45 min after PACU admittance and upon discharge from the PACU...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271634/choroideremia-melanopsin-mediated-postillumination-pupil-relaxation-is-abnormally-slow
#18
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Søren Kirchhoff Christensen, Birgit Sander, Thomas Rosenberg, Michael Larsen, Henrik Lund-Andersen
PURPOSE: To investigate the rod-cone and melanopsin pupillary light response (PLR) pathways in choroideremia. METHODS: Eight patients with choroideremia and 18 healthy age-matched controls underwent chromatic pupillometry by applying blue (463 nm) and red light (643 nm) at 100 lux intensity to the right eye while recording pupil diameters. Absolute baseline pupil size (mm), normalized maximal pupil constriction and the early and late postillumination pupillary dilation, from 0 to 10 seconds and 10 to 30 seconds after the end of illumination, respectively, were determined...
March 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239522/disrupted-neural-activity-patterns-to-novelty-and-effort-in-young-adult-apoe-e4-carriers-performing-a-subsequent-memory-task
#19
Simon Evans, Nicholas G Dowell, Naji Tabet, Sarah L King, Samuel B Hutton, Jennifer M Rusted
INTRODUCTION: The APOE e4 allele has been linked to poorer cognitive aging and enhanced dementia risk. Previous imaging studies have used subsequent memory paradigms to probe hippocampal function in e4 carriers across the age range, and evidence suggests a pattern of hippocampal overactivation in young adult e4 carriers. METHODS: In this study, we employed a word-based subsequent memory task under fMRI; pupillometry data were also acquired as an index of cognitive effort...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228832/digital-pupillometry-in-normal-subjects
#20
Annekatrin Rickmann, Maria Waizel, Sara Kazerounian, Peter Szurman, Helmut Wilhelm, Karl T Boden
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm...
February 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
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