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Pupillometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330763/safe-and-sensible-preprocessing-and-baseline-correction-of-pupil-size-data
#1
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jasper Fabius, Elle Van Heusden, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the effect of some experimental manipulation on pupil size. In such experiments, baseline correction improves statistical power by taking into account random fluctuations in pupil size over time...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315412/automated-pupillometry-and-detection-of-clinical-transtentorial-brain-herniation-a-case-series
#2
Alexander Papangelou, Elizabeth K Zink, Wan-Tsu W Chang, Anthony Frattalone, Daniel Gergen, Allan Gottschalk, Romergryko G Geocadin
Introduction: Transtentorial herniation (TTH) is a life-threatening neurologic condition that typically results from expansion of supratentorial mass lesions. A change in bedside pupillary examination is central to the clinical diagnosis of TTH. Materials and Methods: To quantify the changes in the pupillary examination that precede and accompany TTH and its treatment, we evaluated 12 episodes of herniation in three patients with supratentorial mass lesions using automated pupillometry (NeurOptics, Inc...
January 5, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312818/pupillometry-reveals-the-physiological-underpinnings-of-the-aversion-to-holes
#3
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Meghan R Hickey, Stella F Lourenco
An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303839/integrating-quantitative-pupillometry-into-regular-care-in-a-neurotrauma-intensive-care-unit
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303836/integrating-quantitative-pupillometry-into-regular-care-in-a-neurotrauma-intensive-care-unit
#5
Maighdlin Anderson, Jonathan Elmer, Lori Shutter, Ava Puccio, Sheila Alexander
In the setting of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), an abnormal pupil assessment may suggest a worsening intracranial lesion. Early detection of pupillary changes may expedite emergent care to improve outcomes. Automated, handheld pupillometers have been commercially available for 20 years, and several studies suggest that their use may facilitate early recognition of worsening injury and intracranial hypertension. The use of pupillometry as a bedside tool in the routine care of patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) has not been described...
February 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247487/the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system-as-pacemaker-of-attention-a-developmental-mechanism-of-derailed-attentional-function-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Nico Bast, Luise Poustka, Christine M Freitag
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit diminished visual engagement to environmental stimuli. Aberrant attentional function provides an explanation by reduced phasic alerting and orienting to exogenous stimuli. We review aberrant attentional function (alerting, orienting, and attentional control) in children with ASD as studied by neurocognitive and neurophysiological tasks as well as magnetic resonance imaging studies. The locus coeruleus - norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is outlined as a pacemaker of attentional function...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211788/b-mode-ultrasound-assessment-of-pupillary-function-feasibility-reliability-and-normal-values
#7
Felix A Schmidt, Klemens Ruprecht, Florian Connolly, Matthew B Maas, Friedemann Paul, Jan Hoffmann, Lutz Harms, Stephan J Schreiber
PURPOSE: To evaluate B-mode ultrasound as a novel method for the examination of pupillary function and to provide normal values for the pupillary reflex as assessed by B-mode ultrasound. METHODS: 100 subjects (49 female, 51 male, mean [range] age 51 [18-80 years]) with no history of ophthalmologic disease, no clinically detectable pupillary defects, and corrected visual acuity ≥ 0.8 were included in this prospective observational study. B-mode ultrasound was performed with the subjects eyes closed using an Esaote-Mylab25 system according to current guidelines for orbital insonation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204866/tracking-working-memory-maintenance-with-pupillometry
#8
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
Phasic pupillary responses were used to track the active maintenance of information in working memory (WM). In seven experiments participants performed various change detection tasks while their pupils were continuously recorded. Across the experiments phasic pupillary responses increased as the number of maintained items increased up to around 4-5 items consistent with behavioral estimates of capacity. Combining data across experiments demonstrated that phasic pupillary responses were related to behavioral estimates of capacity...
December 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180895/postoperative-pain-management-in-the-postanesthesia-care-unit-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Jie Luo, Su Min
Acute postoperative pain remains a major problem, resulting in multiple undesirable outcomes if inadequately controlled. Most surgical patients spend their immediate postoperative period in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), where pain management, being unsatisfactory and requiring improvements, affects further recovery. Recent studies on postoperative pain management in the PACU were reviewed for the advances in assessments and treatments. More objective assessments of pain being independent of patients' participation may be potentially appropriate in the PACU, including photoplethysmography-derived parameters, analgesia nociception index, skin conductance, and pupillometry, although further studies are needed to confirm their utilities...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170634/lost-in-time-and-space-states-of-high-arousal-disrupt-implicit-acquisition-of-spatial-and-sequential-context-information
#10
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Barbara Weber, Jakob Pinggera, Stefan Zuggal, Marco Furtner
Biased cognition during high arousal states is a relevant phenomenon in a variety of topics: from the development of post-traumatic stress disorders or stress-triggered addictive behaviors to forensic considerations regarding crimes of passion. Recent evidence indicates that arousal modulates the engagement of a hippocampus-based "cognitive" system in favor of a striatum-based "habit" system in learning and memory, promoting a switch from flexible, contextualized to more rigid, reflexive responses. Existing findings appear inconsistent, therefore it is unclear whether and which type of context processing is disrupted by enhanced arousal...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117062/relations-between-self-reported-daily-life-fatigue-hearing-status-and-pupil-dilation-during-a-speech-perception-in-noise-task
#11
Yang Wang, Graham Naylor, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld, Dorothea Wendt, Barbara Ohlenforst, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVE: People with hearing impairment are likely to experience higher levels of fatigue because of effortful listening in daily communication. This hearing-related fatigue might not only constrain their work performance but also result in withdrawal from major social roles. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationships between fatigue, listening effort, and hearing impairment by examining the evidence from both subjective and objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to investigate these relationships by assessing subjectively measured daily-life fatigue (self-report questionnaires) and objectively measured listening effort (pupillometry) in both normally hearing and hearing-impaired participants...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055369/infrared-pupillometry-using-an-optical-coherence-tomography-scanner
#12
James A McHugh, Fion D Bremner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043601/pupillary-reflex-dilation-in-response-to-incremental-nociceptive-stimuli-in-patients-receiving-intravenous-ketamine
#13
Nada Sabourdin, Thomas Giral, Risa Wolk, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
Pupillometry is a non-invasive monitoring technique, which allows dynamic pupillary diameter measurement by an infrared camera. Pupillary diameter increases in response to nociceptive stimuli. In patients anesthetized with propofol or volatile agents, the magnitude of this pupillary dilation is related to the intensity of the stimulus. Pupillary response to nociceptive stimuli has never been studied under ketamine anesthesia. Our objective was to describe pupillary reflex dilation after calibrated tetanic stimulations in patients receiving intravenous ketamine...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026357/use-of-digital-pupillometry-to-measure-sedative-response-to-propofol
#14
Jody H Haddock, Donald E Mercante, Rose Paccione, Jacob L Breaux, Sarah E Jolley, Jessica L Johnson, Sean E Connolly, Bennett P deBoisblanc
BACKGROUND: Digital pupillometry (DP) accurately and precisely measures pupillary responses. Little is known about using DP to measure the sedative effect of isolated propofol administration. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 19 adults undergoing moderate sedation with propofol during which we measured pupillary changes using DP. RESULTS: Maximum and minimum pupillary diameters decreased significantly with propofol (mean change from baseline to procedural termination -1...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017782/eyes-have-ears-indexing-the-orienting-response-to-sound-using-pupillometry
#15
Alexandre Marois, Katherine Labonté, Mark Parent, François Vachon
The rare occurrence of a sound deviating from the auditory background tends to trigger attentional orienting. While some sympathetic physiological responses can be used to index this orienting response, findings surrounding the pupillary dilation response (PDR) as a proxy for the orienting response are conflicting. The current study was tailor-designed to examine whether the PDR satisfies specific criteria of an orienting response index, namely the classic habituation pattern and a sensitivity to the size of the deviation...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994267/pupillary-light-reflex-and-circadian-synchronization-in-the-elderly
#16
Philipp Novotny, Herbert Plischke
Most elderly lack a synchronized circadian rhythm and often cannot benefit from light therapy. Non-visual effects of light are mediated through intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). With chromatic pupillometry, the functionality of ipRGCs and their functional circuit in the brain can be tested.
October 10, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937242/pupillary-light-reflex-is-altered-in-adolescent-depression
#17
A Mestanikova, I Ondrejka, M Mestanik, D Cesnekova, Z Visnovcova, I Bujnakova, M Oppa, A Calkovska, I Tonhajzerova
Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal autonomic regulation which could be noninvasively studied using pupillometry. However, the studies in adolescent patients are rare. Therefore, we aimed to study the pupillary light reflex (PLR), which could provide novel important information about dynamic balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in adolescent patients suffering from major depression. We have examined 25 depressive adolescent girls (age 15.2+/-0.3 year) prior to pharmacotherapy and 25 age/gender-matched healthy subjects...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912712/effect-of-cognitive-demand-on-functional-visual-field-performance-in-senior-drivers-with-glaucoma
#18
Viswa Gangeddula, Maud Ranchet, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Kathryn Bollinger, Hannes Devos
Purpose: To investigate the effect of cognitive demand on functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma. Method: This study included 20 drivers with open-angle glaucoma and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Visual field performance was evaluated under different degrees of cognitive demand: a static visual field condition (C1), dynamic visual field condition (C2), and dynamic visual field condition with active driving (C3) using an interactive, desktop driving simulator. The number of correct responses (accuracy) and response times on the visual field task were compared between groups and between conditions using Kruskal-Wallis tests...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894607/evaluation-of-cholinergic-deficiency-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-using-pupillometry
#19
Shaun Frost, Liam Robinson, Christopher C Rowe, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam
Cortical cholinergic deficiency is prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and published findings of diminished pupil flash response in AD suggest that this deficiency may extend to the visual cortical areas and anterior eye. Pupillometry is a low-cost, noninvasive technique that may be useful for monitoring cholinergic deficits which generally lead to memory and cognitive disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate pupillometry for early detection of AD by comparing the pupil flash response (PFR) in AD (N = 14) and cognitively normal healthy control (HC, N = 115) participants, with the HC group stratified according to high (N = 38) and low (N = 77) neocortical amyloid burden (NAB)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885673/reproducibility-and-normal-values-of-static-pupil-diameters
#20
Simon Schröder, Ekaterina Chashchina, Edgar Janunts, Alan Cayless, Achim Langenbucher
PURPOSE: To provide additional information on normal values of static pupil diameter measurements for binocular infrared pupillometry with PupilX, a commercial pupillometer, and assess the reproducibility of this device's measurements. METHODS: The pupil diameters from 91 study participants with normal eyes with an average age of 39.7 years (SD 16.4 years) were measured with PupilX under scotopic (0 lx), mesopic (1 lx), and photopic (16 lx) illumination. To assess the repeatability of the device, each measurement was repeated 5 times...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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