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James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
OBJECTIVE: No objective vision biomarker for photosensitivity currently exists. The present study sought to uncover potential biomarkers for photosensitivity within the pupillary light reflex. METHODS: The pupillary light reflex was evaluated in those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and in normal individuals, with and without photosensitivity, under a range of test conditions. The Neuroptics DP-2000, infrared, binocular pupillometer was used for both binocular stimulation and recording...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Ronan McGarrigle, Piers Dawes, Andrew J Stewart, Stefanie E Kuchinsky, Kevin J Munro
Hearing loss is associated with anecdotal reports of fatigue during periods of sustained listening. However, few studies have attempted to measure changes in arousal, as a potential marker of fatigue, over the course of a sustained listening task. The present study aimed to examine subjective, behavioral, and physiological indices of listening-related fatigue. Twenty-four normal-hearing young adults performed a speech-picture verification task in different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) while their pupil size was monitored and response times recorded...
October 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about human inter-ocular pupillary asymmetry (IOPA). Thus, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess objectively static and dynamic IOPA in normals and in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was assessed in an adult population of normals and in those with mTBI using the Neuroptics DP-2000 binocular pupillometer. Four stimulus conditions were used to optimize the assessment...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
A L Breeden, G J Siegle, M E Norr, E M Gordon, C J Vaidya
Autonomic activity in neurological and psychiatric disorders is often dysregulated, particularly in the context of attentional behaviors. This suggests that interplay between the autonomic nervous system and aspects of the central nervous system subserving attention may be disrupted in these conditions. Better understanding these interactions and their relationship to individual variation in attentional behaviors could facilitate development of mechanistic biomarkers. We identified brain regions defined by trait-sensitive central-autonomic coupling as a first step in this process...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sameer Saproo, Victor Shih, David C Jangraw, Paul Sajda
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash-these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). APPROACH: We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Katalin Tamási, Cristina McKean, Adamantios Gafos, Tom Fritzsche, Barbara Höhle
This study introduces a method ideally suited for investigating toddlers' ability to detect mispronunciations in lexical representations: pupillometry. Previous research has established that the magnitude of pupil dilation reflects differing levels of cognitive effort. Building on those findings, we use pupil dilation to study the level of detail encoded in lexical representations with 30-month-old children whose lexicons allow for a featurally balanced stimulus set. In each trial, we present a picture followed by a corresponding auditory label...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ernest A Kopecky, Alison B Fleming, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Melinda O'Connor, Edward Sellers
Oxycodone DETERx(®) (Collegium Pharmaceutical Inc, Canton, MA) is an extended-release, microsphere-in-capsule, abuse-deterrent formulation designed to retain its extended-release properties after tampering (eg, chewing/crushing). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy study evaluated the oral abuse potential of intact and chewed oxycodone DETERx capsules compared with crushed immediate-release oxycodone. Subjects with a history of recreational opioid use who were nondependent/nontolerant to opioids were enrolled...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Stephen C Harris, Alessandra Cipriano, Ram P Kapil, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Salvatore V Colucci, Pierre Geoffroy, Talar Hopyan
OBJECTIVES:  A once-daily, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties (Hysingla ER [HYD]) is available for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriate patients. This study evaluated the oral abuse potential and pharmacokinetics (PK) of HYD intact, chewed, or milled to fine particles in comparison with hydrocodone solution or placebo. DESIGN:  Single-center, double-blind, randomized, five-period, five-treatment crossover study...
September 19, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Naama Levy-Cooperman, Gail McIntyre, Laura Bonifacio, Michael McDonnell, J Michael Davenport, Paul S Covington, Leonard S Dove, Edward M Sellers
Drugs with μ-opioid receptor (OR) activity can be associated with abuse and misuse. The peripherally acting mixed μ-OR and κ-OR agonist and δ-OR antagonist, eluxadoline, is approved in the US for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. In two separate crossover studies, we evaluated the oral and intranasal abuse potential of eluxadoline versus placebo and the active control oxycodone. Healthy recreational opioid users received eluxadoline 100, 300, and 1000 mg, oxycodone 30 and 60 mg, and placebo (oral study), or eluxadoline 100 and 200 mg, oxycodone 15 and 30 mg, and placebos matched to eluxadoline and oxycodone (intranasal study)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Prakash Adhikari, Andrew J Zele, Ravi Thomas, Beatrix Feigl
It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous arcuate visual field defects. The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 46 patients with different stages of glaucoma including glaucoma suspects and compared to a healthy group of 21 participants with no disease...
2016: Scientific Reports
Heather J Nuske, Giacomo Vivanti, Cheryl Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Much research has investigated deficit in emotional reactivity to others in people with autism, but scant attention has been paid to how this deficit affects their own reactions to features of their environment (objects, events, practices, etc.). The present study presents a preliminary analysis on whether calibrating one's own emotional reactions to others' emotional reactions about features of the world, a process we term social-emotional calibration, is disrupted in autism...
2016: Molecular Autism
Jimmy Choi, Cheryl M Corcoran, Joanna M Fiszdon, Michael Stevens, Daniel C Javitt, Melissa Deasy, Lawrence C Haber, Michael J Dewberry, Godfrey D Pearlson
Objective: Among individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, processing speed (PS) has been related to social and role functioning regardless of conversion to schizophrenia. This information processing dysfunction is a gateway to broader behavioral deficits such as difficulty executing social behaviors. We examined the feasibility of improving information processing relevant to social situations in CHR, including its sustainability at 2-month follow-up, and its association with concurrent social function...
August 25, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Yumi Koike, Tetsuya Kawabe, Kanami Nishihara, Naomi Iwane, Takuzo Hano
The pupil is a suitable end organ for studying autonomic function because both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity can be evaluated independently using a light stimulus. Sympathetic response elicited by physical stress is augmented in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive subjects, which increases the risk of cardiovascular events. We used pupillometry to evaluate the effects of the calcium channel blockers azelnidipine (AZ) and amlodipine (AM) on changes in autonomic nervous activity induced by isometric exercise in patients with hypertension...
July 21, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Gaurav Prakash, Dhruv Srivastava, Muhammad Suhail, Ruthchel Bacero
BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess the symmetry and magnitude of illumination-dependent centroid shift and of post-photic flash re-dilatation response for normal pupils. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational, inter-eye comparative study was performed at a specialty hospital. Fifty eyes (25 volunteers) without any ocular abnormality underwent pupillometry for scotopic (0.4 lux), mesopic (4.0 lux), photopic conditions (40 lux) and for rate of pupillary re-dilatation after a photopic flash (500 lux) with an inbuilt pupillometer on a Scheimpflug device (Sirius, CSO, Italy)...
July 19, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
I Yilmaz, I Perente, B Saracoglu, A T Yazici, M Taskapili
PurposeTo evaluate and compare the possible changes in pupil size subsequent to panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) via conventional laser and pattern scan laser (PASCAL).Patients and methodsForty eyes of 40 patients with diabetic retinopathy were included. 20 eyes had a PRP via conventional laser and formed Group 1. 20 eyes had a PRP via PASCAL laser and formed Group 2. The participants underwent standard ophthalmologic examination at baseline. Automated infrared pupillometry were performed at baseline and month 1...
July 8, 2016: Eye
Wesley C Smith, Matthew H Rosenberg, Leslie D Claar, Victoria Chang, Sagar N Shah, Wendy M Walwyn, Christopher J Evans, Sotiris C Masmanidis
It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice...
May 2016: ENeuro
Sophia E Kramer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Adriana A Zekveld
Pupillometry is one method that has been used to measure processing load expended during speech understanding. Notably, speech perception (in noise) tasks can evoke a pupil response. It is not known if there is concurrent activation of the sympathetic nervous system as indexed by salivary cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) and whether such activation differs between normally hearing (NH) and hard-of-hearing (HH) adults. Ten NH and 10 adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (mean age 52 years) participated...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
Mona Darwish, Mary Bond, Yuju Ma, William Tracewell, Philmore Robertson, Lynn R Webster
OBJECTIVE: To compare the oral abuse potential of hydrocodone extended-release (ER) tablet developed with CIMA(®) Abuse-Deterrence Technology with that of hydrocodone immediate release (IR). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. SETTING AND PATIENTS: One study site in the United States; adult nondependent, recreational opioid users. METHODS: After confirming their ability to tolerate and discriminate hydrocodone IR 45 mg from placebo, eligible participants were randomized to receive each of the following oral treatments once: finely crushed placebo, hydrocodone IR 45-mg powder, intact hydrocodone ER 45-mg tablet, and finely crushed hydrocodone ER 45-mg tablet...
June 21, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Merlin D Larson, Vineeta Singh
Infrared pupillometry was introduced in 1962 but portable instruments that use this technology have only recently become available in the hospital setting. Questions surrounding the accuracy of these instruments have been addressed by documenting the inter-observer agreement on pupillary measurements and also by comparisons with standard pen-light examinations. The following commentary summarizes the development of these devices and provides a wider perspective on how the pupil and its reflexes might be used in providing care for patients with critical illness...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yasin Aydogmus, Salih Uzun, Fatih C Gundogan, Umit Hidir Ulas, Turgay Ebiloglu, Mustafa Tugrul Goktas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in dynamic pupillometry in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: The study included 40 female patients with idiopathic OAB and 40 healthy female volunteers as a control group. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Dynamic pupillometric parameters were measured with a commercially available unit (MonPack One, Metrovision, France) at baseline and on the 30th day of treatment with an antimuscarinic treatment (drug-agent) (solifenacin 5 mg daily)...
June 16, 2016: World Journal of Urology
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