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Pupillometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515685/pupillary-response-to-negative-emotional-stimuli-is-differentially-affected-in-meditation-practitioners
#1
Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati, Enzo P Brunetti, Carmen Cordero, Pedro E Maldonado
Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505505/measuring-listening-related-effort-and-fatigue-in-school-aged-children-using-pupillometry
#2
Ronan McGarrigle, Piers Dawes, Andrew J Stewart, Stefanie E Kuchinsky, Kevin J Munro
Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504528/the-importance-of-arousal-for-variation-in-working-memory-capacity-and-attention-control-a-latent-variable-pupillometry-study
#3
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and attention control. The current study explored the role of arousal in individual differences in WMC and attention control. Participants performed multiple WMC and attention control tasks. During the attention control tasks participants were periodically probed regarding their current attentional state and both baseline and task-evoked pupillary responses were recorded as indicators of tonic arousal and phasic arousal because of attentional effort, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503429/suitability-of-open-field-autorefractors-as-pupillometers-and-instrument-design-effects
#4
Carles Otero, Mikel Aldaba, Oriol Ferrer, Andrea Gascón, Juan C Ondategui-Parra, Jaume Pujol
AIM: To determine the agreement and repeatability of the pupil measurement obtained with VIP-200 (Neuroptics), PowerRef II (Plusoptix), WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko) and study the effects of instrument design on pupillometry. METHODS: Forty patients were measured twice in low, mid and high mesopic. Repeatability was analyzed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and paired t-tests. Agreement was studied with Bland-Altman plots and repeated measures ANOVA. Instrument design analysis consisted on measuring pupil size with PowerRef II simulating monocular and binocular conditions as well as with proximity cues and without proximity cues...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480113/noninvasive-monitoring-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-available-modalities
#5
REVIEW
Marium Naveed Khan, Hussain Shallwani, Muhammad Ulusyar Khan, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is important in many neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for monitoring ICP, however, is via an invasive procedure resulting in the placement of an intraventricular catheter, which is associated with many risks. Several noninvasive ICP monitoring techniques have been examined with the hope to replace the invasive techniques. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of all modalities that have been used for noninvasive ICP monitoring to date...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470675/early-prediction-of-coma-recovery-after-cardiac-arrest-with-blinded-pupillometry
#6
Daria Solari, Andrea O Rossetti, Laurent Carteron, John-Paul Miroz, Jan Novy, Philippe Eckert, Mauro Oddo
Objectives Prognostication studies on comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients are limited by lack of blinding, potentially causing overestimation of outcome predictors and self-fulfilling prophecy. Using a blinded approach, we analysed the value of quantitative automated pupillometry to predict neurological recovery after CA. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 103 comatose adult patients who were unconscious 48 hours after CA and underwent repeated measurements of quantitative pupillary light reflex (PLR) using the Neurolight-Algiscan® device...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464660/pupillometry-shows-the-effort-of-auditory-attention-switching
#7
Daniel R McCloy, Bonnie K Lau, Eric Larson, Katherine A I Pratt, Adrian K C Lee
Successful speech communication often requires selective attention to a target stream amidst competing sounds, as well as the ability to switch attention among multiple interlocutors. However, auditory attention switching negatively affects both target detection accuracy and reaction time, suggesting that attention switches carry a cognitive cost. Pupillometry is one method of assessing mental effort or cognitive load. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the effort associated with attention switches is detectable in the pupillary response...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387133/altered-pupillary-light-response-scales-with-disease-severity-in-migrainous-photophobia
#8
Melissa M Cortez, Natalie A Rea, Lindsay A Hunter, Kathleen B Digre, K C Brennan
Background Autonomic dysfunction and light sensitivity are core features of the migraine attack. Growing evidence also suggests changes in these parameters between attacks. Though sensory and autonomic responses likely interact, they have not been studied together across the spectrum of disease in migraine. Methods We performed digital infrared pupillometry while collecting interictal photophobia thresholds (PPT) in 36 migraineurs (14 episodic; 12 chronic; 10 probable) and 24 age and sex-matched non-headache controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375981/quantitative-pupillometry-to-assess-nociception-in-a-sedated-patient-with-hemispheric-cerebral-infarction
#9
Marc Vinclair, Florian Roudaud, Gilles Francony, Jean-François Payen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340145/human-abuse-potential-of-the-new-opioid-analgesic-molecule-nktr-181-compared-with-oxycodone
#10
Lynn Webster, Jack Henningfield, August R Buchhalter, Suresh Siddhanti, Lin Lu, Aleksandrs Odinecs, Carlo J Di Fonzo, Michael A Eldon
Objective.:  Evaluate the human abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid agonist molecule, relative to oxycodone. Design.:  This randomized, single-center, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled five-period crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, non-physically dependent recreational opioid users. Setting.:  Inpatient clinical research site. Subjects. : Forty-two randomized subjects (73...
March 10, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#11
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275978/infrared-pupillometry-helps-to-detect-and-predict-delirium-in-the-post-anesthesia-care-unit
#12
Eric Yang, Matthias Kreuzer, September Hesse, Paran Davari, Simon C Lee, Paul S García
This study evaluates the capability of pupillary parameters to detect and predict delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU-D) following general anesthesia. PACU-D may complicate and prolong the patient's postoperative course, consequently increasing hospital costs. After institutional approval, 47 patients undergoing surgical interventions with general anesthesia were included in the study. We measured the pupillary reflexes at signing of informed consent, during surgery 20 min after intubation and when the primary inhaled anesthetic was turned off, and 15 and 45 min after PACU admittance and upon discharge from the PACU...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271634/choroideremia-melanopsin-mediated-postillumination-pupil-relaxation-is-abnormally-slow
#13
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Søren Kirchhoff Christensen, Birgit Sander, Thomas Rosenberg, Michael Larsen, Henrik Lund-Andersen
PURPOSE: To investigate the rod-cone and melanopsin pupillary light response (PLR) pathways in choroideremia. METHODS: Eight patients with choroideremia and 18 healthy age-matched controls underwent chromatic pupillometry by applying blue (463 nm) and red light (643 nm) at 100 lux intensity to the right eye while recording pupil diameters. Absolute baseline pupil size (mm), normalized maximal pupil constriction and the early and late postillumination pupillary dilation, from 0 to 10 seconds and 10 to 30 seconds after the end of illumination, respectively, were determined...
March 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239522/disrupted-neural-activity-patterns-to-novelty-and-effort-in-young-adult-apoe-e4-carriers-performing-a-subsequent-memory-task
#14
Simon Evans, Nicholas G Dowell, Naji Tabet, Sarah L King, Samuel B Hutton, Jennifer M Rusted
INTRODUCTION: The APOE e4 allele has been linked to poorer cognitive aging and enhanced dementia risk. Previous imaging studies have used subsequent memory paradigms to probe hippocampal function in e4 carriers across the age range, and evidence suggests a pattern of hippocampal overactivation in young adult e4 carriers. METHODS: In this study, we employed a word-based subsequent memory task under fMRI; pupillometry data were also acquired as an index of cognitive effort...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228832/digital-pupillometry-in-normal-subjects
#15
Annekatrin Rickmann, Maria Waizel, Sara Kazerounian, Peter Szurman, Helmut Wilhelm, Karl T Boden
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm...
February 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212877/defining-outcomes-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-gucy2d-mutations
#16
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Shreyasi Choudhury, Sharon B Schwartz, Elise Heon, Gerald A Fishman, Shannon E Boye
PURPOSE: To determine outcome measures for a clinical trial of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with mutations in the GUCY2D gene. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: 28 patients with GUCY2D-LCA (ages 2-59) were studied clinically and with chromatic full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), pupillometry, and the NEI Visual Function Questionnaire. RESULTS: FST permitted quantitation of cone and rod sensitivity in these patients with severe visual impairment...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183584/monitoring-of-the-intraoperative-analgesia-by-pupillometry-during-laparoscopic-splenectomy-for-splenic-hydatid-cyst
#17
Ana Abad-Torrent, Albert Sueiras-Gil, Miquel Martínez-Vilalta, Josep Vallet-Fernández, María Guisasola-Rabés
Echinococcosis causes a hydatid cyst, a worldwide disease. Human beings are intermediate hosts, but dogs complete the life cycle of the cestode. The most common presentation sites are the liver and lungs. We present an unusual case of a primary splenic hydatid cyst. Open splenectomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice for splenic hydatid cysts. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has been used in appropriate cases. A healthy 48-year-old woman was scheduled for laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127779/fine-grained-versus-categorical-pupil-size-differentiates-between-strategies-for-spatial-working-memory-performance
#18
Martina Starc, Alan Anticevic, Grega Repovš
Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories...
May 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118366/as-far-as-the-eye-can-see-relationship-between-psychopathic-traits-and-pupil-response-to-affective-stimuli
#19
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107273/influence-of-depth-of-hypnosis-on-pupillary-reactivity-to-a-standardized-tetanic-stimulus-in-patients-under-propofol-remifentanil-target-controlled-infusion-a-crossover-randomized-pilot-study
#20
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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