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Pupillometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785552/suppression-of-pupillary-unrest-by-general-anesthesia-and-propofol-sedation
#1
Matthias Behrends, Merlin D Larson, Andrew E Neice, Michael P Bokoch
The pupil undergoes irregular oscillations when exposed to light. These oscillations, known as pupillary unrest in ambient light, originate from oscillatory activity within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the midbrain. The midbrain and upper pons also contain nuclei known to be very sensitive to the effects of anesthetics that play a central role in maintaining wakefulness. We hypothesized that anesthetics may display similar effects on wakefulness and pupillary unrest. Repeat measurements of pupillary unrest using infrared pupillometry were performed in 16 patients undergoing general anesthesia and 8 patients undergoing propofol sedation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766027/efficacy-and-safety-of-glycosidic-enzymes-for-improved-gene-delivery-to-the-retina-following-intravitreal-injection-in-mice
#2
Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Nina Milosavljevic, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas, Paul N Bishop
Viral gene delivery is showing great promise for treating retinal disease. Although subretinal vector delivery has mainly been used to date, intravitreal delivery has potential advantages if low retinal transduction efficiency can be overcome. To this end, we investigated the effects of co-injection of glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, singly or in combination, with AAV2 as a method of increasing retinal transduction. Experiments using healthy mice demonstrated that these enzymes enhance retinal transduction...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756058/pupillary-dilation-reflex-and-pupillary-pain-index-evaluation-during-general-anaesthesia-a-pilot-study
#3
Davina Wildemeersch, Michiel Baeten, Natasja Peeters, Vera Saldien, Marcel Vercauteren, Guy Hans
Background: Pupillary response by pupillary dilatation reflex (PDR) is a robust reflex, even measurable during general anaesthesia. However, the ability of infrared pupillometry to detect PDR differences obtained by intraoperative opioid administration in anaesthesized patients remains largely unknown. We analyzed the performance of automated infrared pupillometry in detecting differences in pupillary dilatation reflex response by a inbuilt standardized nociceptive stimulation program in patients under general anesthesia with a standardized propofol/fentanyl scheme...
April 2018: Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738357/assessment-of-pupillary-autonomic-functions-by-dynamic-pupillometry-in-different-circadian-arterial-blood-pressure-patterns
#4
Sercan Okutucu, Mustafa Civelekler, Hakan Aksoy, Begum Yetis Sayin, Ali Oto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous system by dynamic pupillometry (DP) in normotensive and hypertensive individuals with either a non-dipper-type or a dipper-type circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients were allocated into four groups: normotensive/dipper (n=23), normotensive/nondipper (n=19), hypertensive/dipper (n=18), and hypertensive/nondipper (n=20). Pupil diameters (R0, R1, R2, and R%): latency (Lc), amplitude (Ac), velocity (Vc), and duration (Tc) of pupil contraction: latency (Ld), velocity (Vd), and duration (Td) of pupil dilatation were measured by DP...
May 5, 2018: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735992/enhanced-pupillary-light-reflex-in-infancy-is-associated-with-autism-diagnosis-in-toddlerhood
#5
Pär Nyström, Teodora Gliga, Elisabeth Nilsson Jobs, Gustaf Gredebäck, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting around 1% of the population. We previously discovered that infant siblings of children with ASD had stronger pupillary light reflexes compared to low-risk infants, a result which contrasts sharply with the weak pupillary light reflex typically seen in both children and adults with ASD. Here, we show that on average the relative constriction of the pupillary light reflex is larger in 9-10-month-old high risk infant siblings who receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months, compared both to those who do not and to low-risk controls...
May 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733957/disentangling-reward-anticipation-with-simultaneous-pupillometry-fmri
#6
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725074/understanding-the-relationship-between-the-neurologic-pupil-index-and-constriction-velocity-values
#7
Ifeoluwa Shoyombo, Venkatesh Aiyagari, Sonja E Stutzman, Folefac Atem, Michelle Hill, Stephen A Figueroa, Chad Miller, Amber Howard, DaiWai M Olson
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the response when light hits the retina and sends a signal (cranial nerve II) to the Edinger-Westphal Nucleus which via cranial nerve III results in pupillary constriction. The Neurological Pupil indexTM (NPi) and pupil constriction velocity (CV) are two distinct variables that can be observed and measured using a pupillometer. We examine NPi and CV in 27,462 pupil readings (1,617 subjects). NPi values <3.0 and a CV < 0.8 mm/sec were considered abnormal...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709582/differential-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-effort-triggered-by-reward-a-combined-eeg-and-pupillometry-study
#8
Mariam Kostandyan, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth M Krebs, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671874/pain-assessment-by-pupil-dilation-reflex-in-response-to-noxious-stimulation-in-anaesthetized-adults
#9
D Wildemeersch, N Peeters, V Saldien, M Vercauteren, G Hans
BACKGROUND: In response to noxious stimulation, pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) occurs even in anaesthetized patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of pupillometry with an automated increasing stimulus intensity to monitor intraoperative opioid administration. METHODS: Thirty-four patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Induction by propofol anaesthesia was increased progressively until the sedation depth criteria (SeD) were attained...
April 19, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661162/the-cold-pressor-test-in-interictal-migraine-patients-different-parasympathetic-pupillary-response-indicates-dysbalance-of-the-cranial-autonomic-nervous-system
#10
Ozan E Eren, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Christoph Schankin, Florian Schöberl, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Data on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activations in migraine patients are quite controversial, with previous studies reporting over- and underactivation of the sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explicitly aimed to assess the cranial ANS in migraine patients compared to healthy controls by applying the cold pressor test to a cohort of migraine patients in the interictal phase and measuring the pupillary response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a strong sympathetic stimulus was applied to 20 patients with episodic migraine in the interictal phase and 20 matched controls without migraine, whereby each participant dipped the left hand into ice-cold (4 °C) water for a maximum of 5 min (cold pressor test)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644396/correction-to-pupillometry-as-an-indicator-of-l-dopa-dosages-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#11
O Bartošová, C Bonnet, O Ulmanová, M Šíma, F Perlík, E Růžička, O Slanař
Unfortunately, original article has been published without acknowledgement section.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601889/sleep-deprivation-increases-the-costs-of-attentional-effort-performance-preference-and-pupil-size
#12
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation (SD) consistently degrades performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, resulting in slower and more variable response times that worsen with time-on-task. Loss of motivation to exert effort may exacerbate performance degradation during SD. To test this, we evaluated sustained performance on a vigilance task, combining this with an effort-based decision-making task and pupillometry. Vigilance was tested at rest and after sleep deprivation, under different incentive conditions (1, 5 or 15 cents for fast responses)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593504/neuromodulatory-correlates-of-pupil-dilation
#13
REVIEW
Rylan S Larsen, Jack Waters
Pupillometry has long been used as a measure of brain state. Changes in pupil diameter are thought to coincide with the activity of neuromodulators, including noradrenaline and acetylcholine, producing alterations in the brain state and corresponding changes in behavior. Here we review mechanisms underlying the control of pupil diameter and how these mechanisms are correlated with changes in cortical activity and the recruitment of neuromodulatory circuits.
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593489/listening-effort-during-sentence-processing-is-increased-for-non-native-listeners-a-pupillometry-study
#14
Giulia Borghini, Valerie Hazan
Current evidence demonstrates that even though some non-native listeners can achieve native-like performance for speech perception tasks in quiet, the presence of a background noise is much more detrimental to speech intelligibility for non-native compared to native listeners. Even when performance is equated across groups, it is likely that greater listening effort is required for non-native listeners. Importantly, the added listening effort might result in increased fatigue and a reduced ability to successfully perform multiple tasks simultaneously...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578890/static-and-dynamic-pupillary-characteristics-in-clinically-unilateral-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#15
Kemal Tekin, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Esat Yetkin, Sibel Doguizi, Pelin Yilmazbas
PURPOSE: To perform a comparison of static and dynamic pupillometry measurements in patients with clinically unilateral pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PES) and age-matched controls. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 38 patients with unilateral PES and 40 control participants. A quantitative pupillometry system was used to evaluate the pupil characteristics of eyes with PES (Group 1), clinically unaffected fellow eyes (Group 2), and healthy eyes (Group 3)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573814/pupillary-responses-to-full-field-chromatic-stimuli-are-reduced-in-patients-with-early-stage-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#16
Raymond P Najjar, Sourabh Sharma, Eray Atalay, Annadata V Rukmini, Christopher Sun, Jing Zhan Lock, Mani Baskaran, Shamira A Perera, Rahat Husain, Ecosse Lamoureux, Joshua J Gooley, Tin Aung, Dan Milea
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of chromatic pupillometry to reveal abnormal pupillary responses to light in patients with early-stage primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to test whether the degree of pupillometric impairment correlates with structural hallmarks of optic nerve damage in the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-six patients with early-stage POAG (63.4±8.3 years, 63% male, 87% ethnic-Chinese) and 90 age-matched healthy controls (61...
March 21, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568976/pharmacokinetics-and-dynamics-of-intramuscular-and-intranasal-naloxone-an-explorative-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Arne Kristian Skulberg, Ida Tylleskar, Turid Nilsen, Sissel Skarra, Øyvind Salvesen, Trond Sand, Thorsteinn Loftsson, Ola Dale
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a model for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of naloxone antagonism under steady-state opioid agonism and to compare a high-concentration/low-volume intranasal naloxone formulation 8 mg/ml to intramuscular 0.8 mg. METHODS: Two-way crossover in 12 healthy volunteers receiving naloxone while receiving remifentanil by a target-controlled infusion for 102 min. The group were subdivided into three different doses of remifentanil...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563950/the-melanopsin-mediated-pupillary-light-response-is-not-changed-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#18
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Rigmor Højland Jensen, Line Sofie Larsen, Henrik Lund-Andersen, Steffen Hamann
Previously, it has been reported that melanopsin-mediated pupillary light response (PLR), measured with pupillometry, is reduced in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), indicating the clinical utility of the tool in the diagnosis of IIH. In the current study, the authors aimed to measure the PLR in 13 treatment-naive patients with new-onset IIH and 13 healthy controls. In contrast to the previous report, which was based on patients with longstanding IIH ( n = 13), the authors found no significant difference in the melanopsin-mediated PLR ( p = 0...
April 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534018/eyeing-up-the-future-of-the-pupillary-light-reflex-in-neurodiagnostics
#19
REVIEW
Charlotte A Hall, Robert P Chilcott
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) describes the constriction and subsequent dilation of the pupil in response to light as a result of the antagonistic actions of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles. Since these muscles are innervated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, respectively, different parameters of the PLR can be used as indicators for either sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation. Thus, the PLR provides an important metric of autonomic nervous system function that has been exploited for a wide range of clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529048/swimming-pool-exposure-is-associated-with-autonomic-changes-and-increased-airway-reactivity-to-a-beta-2-agonist-in-school-aged-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
João Cavaleiro Rufo, Inês Paciência, Diana Silva, Carla Martins, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Patrícia Padrão, Pedro Moreira, Luís Delgado, André Moreira
BACKGROUND: Endurance swimming exercises coupled to disinfection by-products exposure has been associated with increased airways dysfunction and neurogenic inflammation in elite swimmers. However, the impact of swimming pool exposure at a recreational level on autonomic activity has never been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how swimming pool attendance is influencing lung and autonomic function in school-aged children. METHODS: A total of 858 children enrolled a cross sectional survey...
2018: PloS One
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