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Protocols for analgesia in labour

Julie-Anne Fleet, Meril Jones, Ingrid Belan
OBJECTIVE: To examine breastfeeding experiences up to 6 weeks postpartum for mothers administered intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for intrapartum analgesia. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was undertaken using the per-protocol dataset to examine the third phase of a larger randomised controlled trial. This phase of the study examined breastfeeding intention and experience from the first hour of birth to 6 weeks postpartum. Medical records were audited and women were contacted at 6 weeks postpartum to complete a telephone questionnaire...
April 3, 2017: Midwifery
C Dupont, M Carayol, C Le Ray, C Barasinski, R Beranger, A Burguet, A Chantry, C Chiesa, B Coulm, A Evrard, C Fischer, L Gaucher, C Guillou, F Leroy, E Phan, A Rousseau, V Tessier, F Vendittelli, C Deneux-Tharaux, D Riethmuller
OBJECTIVES: To define the different stages of spontaneous labour. To determine the indications, modalities of use and the effects of administering synthetic oxytocin. And to describe undesirable maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with the use of synthetic oxytocin. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out by searching Medline database and websites of obstetrics learned societies until March 2016. RESULTS: The 1st stage of labor is divided in a latence phase and an active phase, which switch at 5cm of cervical dilatation...
January 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ruth Martis, Ova Emilia, Detty S Nurdiati, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: The goal of fetal monitoring in labour is the early detection of a hypoxic baby. There are a variety of tools and methods available for intermittent auscultation (IA) of the fetal heart rate (FHR). Low- and middle-income countries usually have only access to a Pinard/Laënnec or the use of a hand-held Doppler device. Currently, there is no robust evidence to guide clinical practice on the most effective IA tool to use, timing intervals and length of listening to the fetal heart for women during established labour...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
V Sánchez-Migallón, E Sánchez, M Raynard, A Miranda, R M Borràs
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have demonstrated the difference in the verbal rating scale with regard to obstructed labour and induced labour, so that obstructed labour and foetal macrosomia have been related to a greater sensation of pain during labour, particularly in the first stage. Even the epidural analgesia is linked to the need for instrumented or caesarean section due to foetal obstruction. The goal of the study is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of epidural analgesia in normal versus obstructed labour...
January 12, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Matthew Wilson, Christine MacArthur, Fang Gao Smith, Leanne Homer, Kelly Handley, Jane Daniels
BACKGROUND: The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine...
December 12, 2016: Trials
Arpita Ghosh, Katherine R Lattey, Anthony J Kelly
BACKGROUND: Sometimes it is necessary to bring on labour artificially because of safety concerns for the mother or baby. This review is one of a series of reviews of methods of labour induction using a standardised protocol. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of NO donors (isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside) for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour, in comparison with placebo or no treatment or other treatments from a predefined hierarchy...
December 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kelly Madden, Philippa Middleton, Allan M Cyna, Mandy Matthewson, Leanne Jones
BACKGROUND: This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. This review updates an earlier version of the review of the same title. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and the reference lists of primary studies and review articles...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rebecca-Lea Smith, Naveed Siddiqui, Tamara Henderson, James Teresi, Kristi Downey, Jose C A Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy between intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) and patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) in women undergoing medically induced second trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial in a Canadian quaternary care hospital. We included in the study women of gestational age 12 weeks to 23+6 weeks who were undergoing second trimester induction of labour between June 2012 and January 2014...
February 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Joanna Solek-Pastuszka, Edyta Zagrodnik-Ulan, Romuald Bohatyrewicz, Zbigniew Celewicz
Labour is thought to be one of the most intense and painful experiences in a woman's life. Numerous studies using a Visual Analogue Scale invariably demonstrate that 20% of women in labour describe the pain as "unbearable" and 60% describe the pain as "very intense". Since the mid-1980s, continuous epidural analgesia during labour has been considered the gold standard of labour anaesthesia and is currently the most frequently used. There are situations in which this type of analgesia could not be used. An alternative pain management is administration of parenteral opioids, the most frequently used of which is pethidine...
2015: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Aaron Budden, Lily J Y Chen, Amanda Henry
BACKGROUND: When women require induction of labour, oxytocin is the most common agent used, delivered by an intravenous infusion titrated to uterine contraction strength and frequency. There is debate over the optimum dose regimen and how it impacts on maternal and fetal outcomes, particularly induction to birth interval, mode of birth, and rates of hyperstimulation. Current induction of labour regimens include both high- and low-dose regimens and are delivered by either continuous or pulsed infusions, with both linear and non-linear incremental increases in oxytocin dose...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M M L H Wassen, L J M Smits, H C J Scheepers, M A E Marcus, J Van Neer, J G Nijhuis, F J M E Roumen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect on mode of delivery of the routine use of labour epidural analgesia (EA) compared with analgesia on request. DESIGN: Randomised non-inferiority trial. SETTING: One university and one non-university teaching hospital in The Netherlands. POPULATION: Women with a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 + 0 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive either routine EA or analgesia on request...
February 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Simone M I Kuppens, Alice Brugman, Tom H M Hasaart, Eileen K Hutton, Victor J M Pop
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact on obstetric outcome in nulliparous women of changing labour management from an expectant approach to proactive support of labour. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands among 858 women ≥ 37 weeks' gestation with a singleton fetus in cephalic position and spontaneous labour who planned to have a vaginal birth in the hospital under the care of an obstetrician. Exclusion criteria were gestational age < 37 weeks, induction of labour, primary Caesarean section, non-cephalic position, and non-Caucasian ethnicity...
June 2013: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Ellen D Hodnett, Robyn Stremler, Stephen H Halpern, Julie Weston, Rory Windrim
Background. Caesarean birth rates in North America continue to rise, in the absence of benefit for mothers and babies. One reason may be that hospitalized labouring women spend most of their labours in recumbent or semi-recumbent positions. Although hands-and-knees position has theoretical advantages, efforts to encourage its adoption in practice are severely hampered by the lack of compelling evidence that it is beneficial. Before a definitive, large scale trial, with spontaneous vaginal birth as the primary outcome, could be justified in terms of time, effort, and expense, several feasibility and acceptability questions had to be addressed...
2013: PeerJ
Li Thies-Lagergren, Linda J Kvist, Kyllike Christensson, Ingegerd Hildingsson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare maternal labour and birth outcomes between women who gave birth on a birth seat or in any other position for vaginal birth and further, to study the relationship between synthetic oxytocin augmentation and maternal blood loss, in a stratified sample. METHODS: A re-analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Sweden. An on-treatment analysis was used to study obstetrical outcomes for nulliparous women who gave birth on a birth seat (birth seat group) compared to birth in any other position for vaginal birth (control group)...
November 22, 2012: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kelly Madden, Philippa Middleton, Allan M Cyna, Mandy Matthewson, Leanne Jones
BACKGROUND: This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. We examined the current evidence regarding the use of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. This review updates the findings regarding hypnosis from an earlier review of complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour into a stand-alone review...
November 14, 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Petr Stourac, Hana Suchomelova, Marta Stodulkova, Martin Huser, Ivo Krikava, Petr Janku, Olga Haklova, Lubomir Hakl, Roman Stoudek, Roman Gal, Pavel Sevcik
INTRODUCTION: Epidural analgesia (EA) has significant contraindications including coagulation disorders and parturient refusal. One alternative is intravenous self-administered analgesia using the ultra short-acting opioid remifentanil (rPCA). We compared the efficiency and safety of standard epidural analgesia with parturient-controlled intravenous analgesia using remifentanil as well as personal satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled twelve ASA I classified women with singleton pregnancy who delivered vaginally in the period 3/2010-5/2010 and who received rPCA (n=12) in standard analgesic protocol: 20 µg boluses using PCA pump with a lockout interval of 3 min...
June 2014: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
J-L Hanouz, T Simonet, C Marliot, A Mayaud, A Girard, N Rakotnirina, J-L Fellahi, J-L Gérard
OBJECTIVES: The last French survey on alternatives to neuraxial anaesthesia for labour pain was published in 1997. However, intravenous remifentanil has become increasingly used as an option for labour analgesia. We evaluated the use of remifentanil as an alternative to epidural analgesia in level 2 and 3 French maternities in 2009. STUDY DESIGN: This was an internet-based French survey performed in 2009 including all level 2 and 3 maternities. Data recorded were maternity unit characteristic, alternatives to neuraxial analgesia used, and remifentanil administration protocols...
September 2012: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Leanne Jones, Mohammad Othman, Therese Dowswell, Zarko Alfirevic, Simon Gates, Mary Newburn, Susan Jordan, Tina Lavender, James P Neilson
BACKGROUND: The pain that women experience during labour is affected by multiple physiological and psychosocial factors and its intensity can vary greatly.  Most women in labour require pain relief. Pain management strategies include non-pharmacological interventions (that aim to help women cope with pain in labour) and pharmacological interventions (that aim to relieve the pain of labour). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour...
March 14, 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
I F Russell
BACKGROUND: After accidental dural puncture in labour it is suggested that inserting an intrathecal catheter and converting to spinal analgesia reduces postdural puncture headache and epidural blood patch rates. This treatment has never been tested in a controlled manner. METHODS: Thirty-four hospitals were randomised to one of two protocols for managing accidental dural puncture during attempted labour epidural analgesia: repeating the epidural procedure or converting to spinal analgesia by inserting the epidural catheter intrathecally...
January 2012: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
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