Read by QxMD icon Read


Baoping Zhang, Long Li, Zhiqiang Li, Yang Liu, Hong Zhang, Jizeng Wang
A apoptotic model was established based on the results of five hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines irradiated with carbon ions to investigate the coupling interplay between apoptotic signaling and morphological and mechanical cellular remodeling. The expression levels of key apoptotic proteins and the changes in morphological characteristics and mechanical properties were systematically examined in the irradiated HCC lines. We observed that caspase-3 was activated and that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased over time...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Anup S Pathania, Santosh K Guru, Suresh Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Masroor Ahmad, Shashi Bhushan, Parduman R Sharma, Priya Mahajan, Bhahwal A Shah, Simmi Sharma, Amit Nargotra, Ram Vishwakarma, Hasan Korkaya, Fayaz Malik
In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy induced by boswellic acid analog BA145 on cell cycle progression in pancreatic cancer cells. BA145 induced robust autophagy in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and exhibited cell proliferation inhibition by inducing cells to undergo G2/M arrest. Inhibition of G2/M progression was associated with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E, cdc2, cdc25c and CDK-1. Pre-treatment of cells with autophagy inhibitors or silencing the expression of key autophagy genes abrogated BA145 induced G2/M arrest and downregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eve Hanna, Cecile Rémuzat, Pascal Auquier, Mondher Toumi
OBJECTIVE: Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources...
2016: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
Wouter Kool, Fiery A Cushman, Samuel J Gershman
Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to "model-free" and "model-based" strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through trial-and-error. In contrast, model-based strategies compute action values through planning in a causal model of the environment, which is more accurate but also more cognitively demanding...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Khushboo Singh, James M Briggs
Mutations in the translocated BCL2 gene are often detected in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), indicating both their significance and pervasiveness. Large series genome sequencing of more than 200 DLBCLs has identified frequent BCL2 mutations clustered in the exons coding for the BH4 domain and the folded loop domain (FLD) of the protein. However, BCL2 mutations are mostly contemplated to represent bystander events with negligible functional impact on the pathogenesis of DLBCL. BCL2 arbitrates apoptosis through a classic interaction between its hydrophobic groove forming BH1-3 domains and the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research
Brian Maniscalco, Hakwan Lau
What is the relationship between perceptual information processing and subjective perceptual experience? Empirical dissociations between stimulus identification performance and subjective reports of stimulus visibility are crucial for shedding light on this question. We replicated a finding that metacontrast masking can produce such a dissociation (Lau and Passingham, 2006), and report a novel finding that this paradigm can also dissociate stimulus identification performance from the efficacy with which visibility ratings predict task performance...
January 2016: Neurosci Conscious
Arjun Nair, Natalie Gartland, Bruce Barton, Diane Jones, Leigh Clements, Nicholas J Screaton, John A Holemans, Stephen W Duffy, John K Field, David R Baldwin, David M Hansell, Anand Devaraj
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of radiographers against that of radiologists for CT lung nodule detection in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial. METHODS: Four radiographers, trained in CT nodule detection, and three radiologists were prospectively evaluated. 290 CTs performed for the UKLS were independently read by 2 radiologists and 2 radiographers. The reference standard comprised all radiologist-identified positive nodules after arbitration of discrepancies...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Fergus P M Cooper, Cameron Edwin Alexander, Sanjay Sinha, Muhammad Imran Omar
BACKGROUND: Long-term indwelling catheters are used commonly in people with lower urinary tract problems in home, hospital and specialised health-care settings. There are many potential complications and adverse effects associated with long-term catheter use. The effect of health-care policies related to the replacement of long-term urinary catheters on patient outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different policies for replacing long-term indwelling urinary catheters in adults...
July 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michelle L Grant, Shobha Parajuli, Raquel Deleon-Gonsalves, Raghava Potula, Allan L Truant
Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration.
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Feng Xie, Bruno Kovic, Xuejing Jin, Xiaoning He, Mengxiao Wang, Camila Silvestre
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) consumes a significant amount of healthcare resources, and impairs the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients. Previous reviews have consistently found substantial variations in the costs of OA across studies and countries. The comparability between studies was poor and limited the detection of the true differences between these studies. OBJECTIVE: To review large sample studies on measuring the economic and/or humanistic burden of OA published since May 2006...
November 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Giovanni Pezzulo, Emilio Cartoni, Francesco Rigoli, Léo Pio-Lopez, Karl Friston
Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i...
July 2016: Learning & Memory
Roberto De Vogli, Noemi Renzetti
This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes...
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Ajay Gopalakrishna, Thomas A Longo, Joseph J Fantony, Uma Doshi, Michael R Harrison, Megan Van Noord, Brant A Inman
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of the current study was to determine the rate of VTE events in patients undergoing systemic therapy for UC and assess factors affecting this rate. METHODS: This study was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42015025774). We searched Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science libraries through August 2014...
September 2016: Urologic Oncology
Zhivko Zhelev, Rebecca Abbott, Morwenna Rogers, Simon Fleming, Anthea Patterson, William Trevor Hamilton, Janet Heaton, Jo Thompson Coon, Bijay Vaidya, Christopher Hyde
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions targeting ordering of thyroid function tests. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database up to May 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: We included studies evaluating the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions aiming to reduce ordering of thyroid function tests. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled studies and before and after studies were included...
2016: BMJ Open
Pierre O Jacquet, Alice C Roy, Valérian Chambon, Anna M Borghi, Roméo Salemme, Alessandro Farnè, Karen T Reilly
Predicting intentions from observing another agent's behaviours is often thought to depend on motor resonance - i.e., the motor system's response to a perceived movement by the activation of its stored motor counterpart, but observers might also rely on prior expectations, especially when actions take place in perceptually uncertain situations. Here we assessed motor resonance during an action prediction task using transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe corticospinal excitability (CSE) and report that experimentally-induced updates in observers' prior expectations modulate CSE when predictions are made under situations of perceptual uncertainty...
2016: Scientific Reports
Paul Kessler, Walter Schaffartzik, Johann Neu
Legal malpractice cases in regional anaesthesia comprise a significant number of all cases before the expert commissions and arbitration boards of the state medical associations. One reason for this is the increasing use of neuraxial and peripheral regional blocks in orthopaedics and traumatology. Only in about one fourth of the reviewed cases could either a causal relationship between substandard performance and patient injury or an inadequate obtaining of informed consent be established. In the great majority of cases patients' claims were unfounded, since the patients' injuries were adjudged to be unavoidable and adequate consent had been abtained prior to performance of the blocks...
May 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Walter Schaffartzik, Thomas Hachenberg, Kerstin Kols, Johann Neu
The Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of the State Medical Councils of Northern Germany in Hannover (North German Arbitration Board, NGAB) settles about 100 cases in the area of anaesthesiology per year. In these proceedings the patient carries the burden of proof. I. e. the patient has to prove that its health damage was caused by a medical error. Nevertheless, for individual cases the NGAB examines also whether facilitation of the burden of proof can be granted to the patient. This article exemplifies cases, for which the NGAB recognized such facilitation of the burden of proof...
May 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Robert Hodgson, Sylvia H Heywang-Köbrunner, Susan C Harvey, Mary Edwards, Javed Shaikh, Mick Arber, Julie Glanville
This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949)...
June 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Gema Carrasco, Juan de Dios Caballero, Noelia Garrido, Sylvia Valdezate, Rafael Cantón, Juan A Sáez-Nieto
Nocardia species are difficult to identify, a consequence of the ever increasing number of species known and their homogeneous genetic characteristics. 16S rRNA analysis has been the gold standard for identifying these organisms, but proteomic techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and housekeeping gene analysis, have also been explored. One hundred high (n = 25), intermediate (n = 20), and low (n = 55) prevalence (for Spain) Nocardia strains belonging to 30 species were identified via 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF MS analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"