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Andrea Cocci, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Alberto Briganti, Andrea Salonia, Giovanni Cacciamani, Marco Capece, Marco Falcone, Massimiliano Timpano, Gianmartin Cito, Paolo Verze, Bruno Giammusso, Giuseppe Morgia, Vincenzo Mirone, Andrea Minervini, Mauro Gacci, Tommaso Cai, Sergio Serni, Marco Carini, Gianluca Giubilei, Nicola Mondaini
OBJECTIVE: To build-up a nomogram able to predict treatment success after Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for Peyronie's disease (PD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From November 2016 to November 2017, we enrolled 135 patients with PD in a multicentre single-arm prospective study. All patients enrolled had a treatment with CCH. Success of therapy was defined as a penile curvature decrease of at least 20 degrees from baseline curvature. Treatment satisfaction was assessed using a scale from 1 to 10 and high satisfaction was arbitral defined as a score ≥8...
May 23, 2018: BJU International
Imen Bendaya, Aouatef Riahi, Maher Kharat, Saloua Kahla, Wissem Sdiri, Ridha Oueslati
BACKGROUND: The processes that mediate an inflammatory environment and increase atherosclerosis in diabetes are not well understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. PPARγ promotes changes in lipid metabolism, especially in fatty acid (FA) trafficking, and the activity of PPARγ could be modulated by diabetes phenotype patients...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Arkady Konovalov, Jie Hu, Christian C Ruff
Social decision-making is increasingly studied with neurocomputational modeling. Here we discuss how this approach allows researchers to better understand and predict behavior in social settings. Using examples from the study of resource distributions and social learning, we illustrate how this methodology provides a flexible way to quantify social values and beliefs, identify specific motives and cognitive processes underlying social choice and learning, and arbitrate between competing theories of social behavior...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Angela M P Coolen, Joost R C Lameijer, Adri C Voogd, Luc J Strobbe, Marieke W J Louwman, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen, Lucien E M Duijm
PURPOSE: We determined whether the addition of the technologist's opinion may be helpful in deciding if discordant readings at blinded double reading should be recalled. METHODS: A consecutive series of 99,013 digital screening mammograms, obtained between July 2013 and January 2015, were included. All mammograms were first interpreted by a technologist and then double read in a blinded fashion by a team of 13 screening radiologists. All concordant and discordant positive readings among radiologists were recalled...
May 5, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Yiwen Shen, Maarten H N Hattink, Payman Samadi, Qixiang Cheng, Ziyiz Hu, Alexander Gazman, Keren Bergman
Silicon photonics based switches offer an effective option for the delivery of dynamic bandwidth for future large-scale Datacom systems while maintaining scalable energy efficiency. The integration of a silicon photonics-based optical switching fabric within electronic Datacom architectures requires novel network topologies and arbitration strategies to effectively manage the active elements in the network. We present a scalable software-defined networking control plane to integrate silicon photonic based switches with conventional Ethernet or InfiniBand networks...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Catarina G Fernandes, Charles P Moran, Adriano O Henriques
The coat of Bacillus subtilis spores is a multiprotein protective structure that also arbitrates many of the environmental interactions of the spore. The coat assembles around the cortex peptidoglycan layer and is differentiated into an inner and an outer layer and a crust. SafA governs assembly of the inner coat whereas CotE drives outer coat assembly. SafA localizes to the cortex-coat interface. Both SafA and its short form C30, are substrates for Tgl, a coat-associated transglutaminase that cross-links proteins through ϵ-(γ-glutamyl)lysil isopeptide bonds...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Shepherd Kajawo, Mothusi Walter Moloi, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Udeme Ekrikpo, Andre Pascal Kengne, Ikechi G Okpechi
INTRODUCTION: Kidney biopsy is an essential tool for guiding clinicians towards diagnoses, treatment and determining prognosis in renal disease. However, the procedure can be marred by various complications. The reported occurrence of complications varies among countries or regions and is also affected by several clinical and technical factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the incidence of major complications after percutaneous native renal biopsy in low-income to middle-income countries (LMICs)...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael D Repplinger, Perry J Pickhardt, Jessica B Robbins, Douglas R Kitchin, Tim J Ziemlewicz, Scott J Hetzel, Sean K Golden, John B Harringa, Scott B Reeder
Purpose To compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in emergency department (ED) patients. Materials and Methods This was an institutional review board-approved, prospective, observational study of ED patients at an academic medical center (February 2012 to August 2014). Eligible patients were nonpregnant and 12- year-old or older patients in whom a CT study had been ordered for evaluation for appendicitis. After informed consent was obtained, CT and MR imaging (with non-contrast material-enhanced, diffusion-weighted, and intravenous contrast-enhanced sequences) were performed in tandem, and the images were subsequently retrospectively interpreted in random order by three abdominal radiologists who were blinded to the patients' clinical outcomes...
April 24, 2018: Radiology
Nicholas T Franklin, Michael J Frank
Humans are remarkably adept at generalizing knowledge between experiences in a way that can be difficult for computers. Often, this entails generalizing constituent pieces of experiences that do not fully overlap, but nonetheless share useful similarities with, previously acquired knowledge. However, it is often unclear how knowledge gained in one context should generalize to another. Previous computational models and data suggest that rather than learning about each individual context, humans build latent abstract structures and learn to link these structures to arbitrary contexts, facilitating generalization...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jonathan Ospina Betancurt, Maria S Zakynthinaki, Maria Jose Martinez-Patiño, Carlos Cordente Martinez
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the difference in elite-standard track and field performance between women athletes with and without hyperandrogenism reaches the 10-12% difference in performance between men and women, using only results from elite-standard track and field final competitions. Officially available data from two hyperandrogenic women (Caster Semenya and Dutee Chand) were compared with the characteristic performance of 200m and 800m elite-standard finals. The finishing times of Caster Semenya, before her ineligibility to compete in 2009 and after the suspension of the 2011 IAAF Hyperandrogenism Regulations were found to be respectively 1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Silvia Camporesi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Uta Noppeney, Hwee Ling Lee
To form a coherent percept of the environment, the brain must integrate sensory signals emanating from a common source but segregate those from different sources. Temporal regularities are prominent cues for multisensory integration, particularly for speech and music perception. In line with models of predictive coding, we suggest that the brain adapts an internal model to the statistical regularities in its environment. This internal model enables cross-sensory and sensorimotor temporal predictions as a mechanism to arbitrate between integration and segregation of signals from different senses...
March 31, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Trevor K Stephens, Nathan J Kong, Rodney L Dockter, John J O'Neill, Robert M Sweet, Timothy M Kowalewski
PURPOSE: Surgical robots are increasingly common, yet routine tasks such as tissue grasping remain potentially harmful with high occurrences of tissue crush injury due to the lack of force feedback from the grasper. This work aims to investigate whether a blended shared control framework which utilizes real-time identification of the object being grasped as part of the feedback may help address the prevalence of tissue crush injury in robotic surgeries. METHODS: This work tests the proposed shared control framework and tissue identification algorithm on a custom surrogate surgical robotic grasping setup...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Alison Beriliy Wiyeh, Leila Hussein Abdullahi, Ambroise Wonkam, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Mamadou Kaba
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haematological disorder caused by a single point mutation (Glub6Val) that promotes polymerisation of haemoglobin S and sickling of erythrocytes. Inflammation, haemolysis, microvascular obstruction and organ damage characterise the highly variable clinical expression of SCD. People with SCD are at increased risk of severe infections, hence the need for vaccination against common disease-causing organisms in this population. We aim to review the evidence on the efficacy and safety of vaccines in people with SCD...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Tania Pawade, Marie-Annick Clavel, Christophe Tribouilloy, Julien Dreyfus, Tiffany Mathieu, Lionel Tastet, Cedric Renard, Mesut Gun, William Steven Arthur Jenkins, Laurent Macron, Jacob W Sechrist, Joan M Lacomis, Virginia Nguyen, Laura Galian Gay, Hug Cuéllar Calabria, Ioannis Ntalas, Timothy Robert Graham Cartlidge, Bernard Prendergast, Ronak Rajani, Arturo Evangelista, João L Cavalcante, David E Newby, Philippe Pibarot, David Messika Zeitoun, Marc R Dweck
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography aortic valve calcium scoring (CT-AVC) holds promise for the assessment of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). We sought to establish the clinical utility of CT-AVC in an international multicenter cohort of patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AS who underwent ECG-gated CT-AVC within 3 months of echocardiography were entered into an international, multicenter, observational registry. Optimal CT-AVC thresholds for diagnosing severe AS were determined in patients with concordant echocardiographic assessments, before being used to arbitrate disease severity in those with discordant measurements...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Temperate woody perennials survive to low temperatures in winter entering a dormant stage. Dormancy is not just a survival strategy, since chilling accumulation is required for proper flowering and arbitrates species adaptation to different latitudes. In spite of the fact that chilling requirements have been known for two centuries, the biological basis behind remain elusive. Since chilling accumulation is required for the normal growth of flower buds, it is tempting to hypothesize that something might be going on at this particular stage during winter dormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lee-Yee Chong, Jan E Clarkson, Lorna Dobbyn-Ross, Smriti Bhakta
BACKGROUND: Slow-release fluoride devices have been investigated as a potentially cost-effective method of reducing dental caries in people with high risk of disease. This is the second update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of slow-release fluoride devices on preventing, arresting, or reversing the progression of carious lesions on all surface types of primary (deciduous) and permanent teeth...
March 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
John P A Ioannidis, Muin J Khoury
Genomic and other related big data (Big Genomic Data, BGD for short) are ushering a new era of precision medicine. This overview discusses whether principles of evidence-based medicine hold true for BGD and how they should be operationalized in the current era. Major evidence-based medicine principles include the systematic identification, description and analysis of the validity and utility of BGD, the combination of individual clinical expertise with individual patient needs and preferences, and the focus on obtaining experimental evidence, whenever possible...
May 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Tiffany Paradis, Etienne St-Louis, Tara Landry, Dan Poenaru
BACKGROUND: The benefits of trauma registries have been well described. The crucial data they provide may guide injury prevention strategies, inform resource allocation, and support advocacy and policy. This has been shown to reduce trauma-related mortality in various settings. Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the implementation of trauma registries in LMICs can be challenging due to lack of funding, specialized personnel, and infrastructure...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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