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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630937/high-precision-neural-decoding-of-complex-movement-trajectories-using-recursive-bayesian-estimation-with-dynamic-movement-primitives
#1
Guy Hotson, Ryan J Smith, Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Brock A Wester
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance...
July 2016: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616955/niacin-for-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#2
REVIEW
Stefan Schandelmaier, Matthias Briel, Ramon Saccilotto, Kelechi K Olu, Armon Arpagaus, Lars G Hemkens, Alain J Nordmann
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is known to decrease LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. The evidence of benefits with niacin monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of niacin therapy versus placebo, administered as monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of mortality, CVD events, and side effects...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600379/practice-patterns-and-outcomes-associated-with-early-sedation-depth-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Robert J Stephens, Matthew R Dettmer, Brian W Roberts, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation is a commonly performed intervention in critically ill patients. Frequently, these patients experience deep sedation early in their clinical course. Emerging data suggest that the practice of early deep sedation may negatively impact patient outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess the world's literature to describe and determine the impact of early deep sedation on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies will be eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599832/model-based-control-in-dimensional-psychiatry
#4
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions. In contrast, habit control, also known as model-free control, is based on an integration of previous reinforced learning autonomous of the current outcome value and is implicit and more efficient but at the cost of greater inflexibility...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575359/standardized-interpretation-of-chest-radiographs-in-cases-of-pediatric-pneumonia-from-the-perch-study
#5
Nicholas Fancourt, Maria Deloria Knoll, Breanna Barger-Kamate, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Mahamadou Diallo, Bernard E Ebruke, Daniel R Feikin, Fergus Gleeson, Wenfeng Gong, Laura L Hammitt, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Anchalee Kruatrachue, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Fariha Bushra Matin, Nasreen Mahomed, David P Moore, Musaku Mwenechanya, Kamrun Nahar, Claire Oluwalana, Micah Silaba Ominde, Christine Prosperi, Joyce Sande, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are a valuable diagnostic tool in epidemiologic studies of pneumonia. The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for the interpretation of pediatric CXRs has not been evaluated beyond its intended application as an endpoint measure for bacterial vaccine trials. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with WHO-defined severe and very severe pneumonia from 7 low- and middle-income countries...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562285/navigating-decisional-discord-the-pediatrician-s-role-when-child-and-parents-disagree
#6
Bryan A Sisk, James DuBois, Eric Kodish, Joanne Wolfe, Chris Feudtner
From the time when children enter the preteen years onward, pediatric medical decision-making can entail a complex interaction between child, parents, and pediatrician. When the child and parents disagree regarding medical decisions, the pediatrician has the challenging task of guiding the family to a final decision. Unresolved discord can affect family cohesiveness, patient adherence, and patient self-management. In this article, we outline 3 models for the pediatrician's role in the setting of decisional discord: deference, advocative, and arbitrative...
May 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516194/-current-legal-and-jurisdictional-questions-from-the-perspective-of-the-german-federal-association-for-geriatrics-practical-report
#7
REVIEW
Dirk van den Heuvel, Carsten Klein
The article discusses the questions of the arbitration bodies according to § 111b SGB V (Volume V of the Social Insurance Code) in the individual federal states from the perspective of geriatric rehabilitation hospitals. The content of the agreement of reimbursement between a rehabilitation hospital and health insurance will be targeted as well as the question whether the entire content of the agreements of reimbursement can be negotiated at the arbitration body. In addition, the authors describe the consequences of the jurisprudence of the Federal Social Court on § 301 I...
May 17, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507207/role-of-osteocytes-in-mediating-bone-mineralization-during-hyperhomocysteinemia
#8
Viji Vijayan, Sarika Gupta
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) is a risk factor for osteoporosis but whether HHCY affects bone mineralization or not is still ambiguous. Herein we evaluated whether homocysteine affects tissue mineral density (TMD) of cortical bone and if so the role of osteocytes. CD1 mice administered with homocysteine (5 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.) for 7, 15 and 30 days showed temporal changes in TMD and osteocyte lacunar density in femoral cortices. Short-term administration of homocysteine (day 7) increased osteocyte lacunar density and reduced TMD evidenced by microCT50 while prolonged administration of homocysteine (day 30) reinstated TMD and lacunar density to baseline values...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476404/dropout-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-adolescents-treated-for-depression-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Adriane Isabel Rohden, Mariana Canellas Benchaya, Roger Santos Camargo, Taís de Campos Moreira, Helena M T Barros, Maristela Ferigolo
PURPOSE: Depression currently affects 350 million people, and its prevalence among adolescents is 4% to 8%. Adolescents who abandon antidepressant treatment or drop out of clinical trials are less likely to recover or experience a remission of symptoms because they are not being followed up by a medical team. The objective of this study was to analyze the dropout rates of randomized clinical trials of depressed adolescents receiving treatment with antidepressant drugs and the factors associated with nonadherence by summarizing this information in a systematic review and meta-analysis...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474129/impact-of-eye-tracking-technology-on-oct-angiography-imaging-quality-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
J L Lauermann, M Treder, P Heiduschka, C R Clemens, N Eter, F Alten
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of eye-tracking (ET) technology on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) image quality and manifestation of motion artifacts in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In a prospective trial, multimodal retinal imaging including OCT-A was performed in 30 patients (78.97 ± 9.7 years) affected by different stages of AMD. Central 3 × 3 mm(2) OCT-A imaging was performed four times consecutively in each patient, twice with active, and twice with inactive ET...
May 4, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473517/what-is-the-best-analgesic-option-for-patients-presenting-with-renal-colic-to-the-emergency-department-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Sameer A Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Lorena Romero, Peter A Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Patients with renal colic present to the emergency department in excruciating pain. There is variability in practice regarding the choice of initial analgesic to be used in renal colic. The aim of this article is to outline the protocol for review of the efficacy and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids and paracetamol use in renal colic pain management. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is the protocol for a systematic review, comparing efficacy of NSAIDs, opioids and paracetamol in renal colic studied under randomised controlled trial (RCT) design...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452624/mri-appearance-of-invasive-subcentimetre-breast-carcinoma-benign-characteristics-are-common
#12
Matthias Meissnitzer, D David Dershaw, Kimberly Feigin, Blanca Bernard-Davila, Filipe Barra, Elizabeth A Morris
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the characteristics of cancers detected at the earliest possible point on MRI and to determine their significance. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study evaluated invasive breast cancers ≤1 cm histologically. MRI was performed within 6 months before diagnosis. Between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015, 163 cancers in 161 patients were evaluated...
June 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444289/-one-simply-doesn-t-arbitrate-authorship-of-thoughts-socialized-medicine-medical-mccarthyism-and-the-publishing-of-rural-health-and-medical-care-1948
#13
J T H Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444036/theoretical-reflections-on-governance-in-health-regions
#14
Nilo Bretas, Helena Eri Shimizu
This article analyzes governance in health regions, through the contributions of two studies: one on a governance model and the other on duties in the management of public policies networks. The former conducted a meta-analysis of 137 case studies in the literature on collaborative governance aimed at preparing an explanatory and analytical model. Authors identified critical variables that will influence the results: a previous history of conflict or cooperation, incentives for participation, power imbalances, leadership and institutional design...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394022/limited-versus-full-sternotomy-for-aortic-valve-replacement
#15
REVIEW
Bilal H Kirmani, Sion G Jones, S C Malaisrie, Darryl A Chung, Richard Jnn Williams
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve disease is a common condition that is easily treatable with cardiac surgery. This is conventionally performed by opening the sternum longitudinally down the centre ("median sternotomy") and replacing the valve under cardiopulmonary bypass. Median sternotomy is generally well tolerated, but as less invasive options have become available, the efficacy of limited incisions has been called into question. In particular, the effects of reducing the visibility and surgical access has raised safety concerns with regards to the placement of cannulae, venting of the heart, epicardial wire placement, and de-airing of the heart at the end of the procedure...
April 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390551/review-of-the-evidence-on-the-use-of-arbitration-or-consensus-within-breast-screening-a-systematic-scoping-review
#16
REVIEW
L Hackney, A Szczepura, L Moody, B Whiteman
OBJECTIVES: A systematic scoping review was undertaken to establish the evidence base on arbitration and consensus in mammography reporting. Database searches were supplemented with hand searching of peer-reviewed journals, citation tracking, key author searching, grey literature and personal contact with experts. A 3-stage process was utilised to screen a large volume of literature (601) against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 26 papers were retained. KEY FINDINGS: A lack of guidance and underpinning evidence to inform how best to use arbitration or consensus to resolve discordant reads...
May 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358869/learning-about-and-from-others-prudence-impatience-or-laziness-the-computational-bases-of-attitude-alignment
#17
Marie Devaine, Jean Daunizeau
Peoples' subjective attitude towards costs such as, e.g., risk, delay or effort are key determinants of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behaviour. Thus, the ability to learn about others' prudent, impatient or lazy attitudes is likely to be critical for social interactions. Conversely, how adaptive such attitudes are in a given environment is highly uncertain. Thus, the brain may be tuned to garner information about how such costs ought to be arbitrated. In particular, observing others' attitude may change one's uncertain belief about how to best behave in related difficult decision contexts...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336521/defending-strong-tobacco-packaging-and-labelling-regulations-in-uruguay-transnational-tobacco-control-network-versus-philip-morris-international
#18
Eric Crosbie, Particia Sosa, Stanton A Glantz
OBJECTIVE: Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. METHODS: Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. RESULTS: In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand...
March 23, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290394/a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-research-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-india
#19
Benjamin B Massenburg, Deepa K Veetil, Nakul P Raykar, Amit Agrawal, Nobhojit Roy, Martin Gerdin
INTRODUCTION: Over a quarter of the world's trauma deaths occur in India, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as the leading cause of death and disability within trauma. With little known about TBI in India, we set out to do a systematic review to characterize the quantitative literature on TBI in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The following databases were searched from their inception to December 31, 2015: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization's Global Health Library, using the keywords: neurotrauma, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, head injury, and India...
March 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274967/effect-of-using-cardiovascular-risk-scoring-in-routine-risk-assessment-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-protocol-for-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#20
Krzysztof Studzin Ski, Tomasz Tomasik, Janusz Krzyszton, Jacek Józ Wiak, Adam Windak
INTRODUCTION: Major clinical practice guidelines recommend assessing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using absolute/global/total CVD risk scores. However, the effectiveness of using them in clinical practice, despite publication of numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), is still poorly understood. To summarise and analyse current knowledge in this field, we will carry out an overview of existing systematic reviews (SRs). The objective of this overview will be to assess the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD compared with standard care...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Open
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