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Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Temperate woody perennials survive to low temperatures in winter entering a dormant stage. Dormancy is not just a survival strategy, since chilling accumulation is required for proper flowering and arbitrates species adaptation to different latitudes. In spite of the fact that chilling requirements have been known for two centuries, the biological basis behind remain elusive. Since chilling accumulation is required for the normal growth of flower buds, it is tempting to hypothesize that something might be going on at this particular stage during winter dormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lee-Yee Chong, Jan E Clarkson, Lorna Dobbyn-Ross, Smriti Bhakta
BACKGROUND: Slow-release fluoride devices have been investigated as a potentially cost-effective method of reducing dental caries in people with high risk of disease. This is the second update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of slow-release fluoride devices on preventing, arresting, or reversing the progression of carious lesions on all surface types of primary (deciduous) and permanent teeth...
March 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
John P A Ioannidis, Muin J Khoury
Genomic and other related big data (Big Genomic Data, BGD for short) are ushering a new era of precision medicine. This overview discusses whether principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) hold true for BGD and how they should be operationalized in the current era. Major EBM principles include the systematic identification, description and analysis of the validity and utility of BGD, the combination of individual clinical expertise with individual patient needs and preferences, and the focus on obtaining experimental evidence, whenever possible...
February 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Tiffany Paradis, Etienne St-Louis, Tara Landry, Dan Poenaru
BACKGROUND: The benefits of trauma registries have been well described. The crucial data they provide may guide injury prevention strategies, inform resource allocation, and support advocacy and policy. This has been shown to reduce trauma-related mortality in various settings. Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the implementation of trauma registries in LMICs can be challenging due to lack of funding, specialized personnel, and infrastructure...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Enxuan Jing, Pragalath Sundararajan, Ishita Deb Majumdar, Suwagmani Hazarika, Samantha Fowler, Angela Szeto, Stephane Gesta, Armando J Mendez, Vivek K Vishnudas, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain
Background: Inhibition of Hsp90 has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of diabetes. In the present report, the specific isoform Hsp90ab1, was identified as playing a major role in regulating insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Methods: In a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model of diabetes, expression of various Hsp90 isoforms in skeletal tissue was examined. Subsequent experiments characterized the role of Hsp90ab1 isoform in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) and a DIO mouse model...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Masato Suzuki, Keisaku Yamane, Moritsugu Sakamoto, Kazuhiko Oka, Yasunori Toda, Ryuji Morita
We proposed and constructed a system to realize broadband generation of arbitrary axisymmetrically polarized (AP) pulses with spatial complex amplitude modulation. This system employs the combination of a spatial light modulator in the 4-f configuration (4-f SLM), and a space variant wave plate as a common path interferometer. The 4-f SLM and the common path interferometer offer compensation for spatial dispersion with respect to wavelength and stability to perturbation, respectively. We experimentally demonstrated the various AP pulses generation by applying modulations of fundamental and higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes, whose radial indices were, respectively, p = 0 and 1, with high purity, which showed that we were able to generate arbitral AP pulses with spatial complex amplitude modulation...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Di Chen, Brandon J Dixon, Desislava M Doycheva, Bo Li, Yang Zhang, Qin Hu, Yue He, Zongduo Guo, Derek Nowrangi, Jerry Flores, Valery Filippov, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
BACKGROUND: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for the control of correct protein folding and protein function which is crucial for cell survival. However, under pathological conditions, such as hypoxia-ischemia (HI), there is an accumulation of unfolded proteins thereby triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR) and causing ER stress which is associated with activation of several stress sensor signaling pathways, one of them being the inositol requiring enzyme-1 alpha (IRE1α) signaling pathway...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sohini Banerjee, Abhijit Sar, Arijit Misra, Srikanta Pal, Arindom Chakraborty, Bomba Dam
Antibiotics are widely used at sub-lethal concentrations as a feed supplement to enhance poultry productivity. To understand antibiotic-induced temporal changes in the structure and function of gut microbiota of chicken, two flocks were maintained for six weeks on a carbohydrate- and protein-rich diet. The feed in the conventional diet (CD) group was supplemented with sub-lethal doses of chlorotetracycline, virginiamycin and amoxicillin, while the organic diet (OD) had no such addition. Antibiotic-fed birds were more productive, with a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR)...
February 2018: Microbiology
Lukas Egli, Carsten Meyer, Christoph Scherber, Holger Kreft, Teja Tscharntke
Closing yield gaps within existing croplands, and thereby avoiding further habitat conversions, is a prominently and controversially discussed strategy to meet the rising demand for agricultural products, while minimizing biodiversity impacts. The agricultural intensification associated with such a strategy poses additional threats to biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. The uneven spatial distribution of both yield gaps and biodiversity provides opportunities for reconciling agricultural intensification and biodiversity conservation through spatially optimized intensification...
February 1, 2018: Global Change Biology
Tsai-Ling Chao, Ting-Yin Wang, Chin-Huei Lee, Shuenn-Jiun Yiin, Chun-Te Ho, Sheng-Hua Wu, Huey-Ling You, Chi-Liang Chern
Acute leukemia is one of the commonly diagnosed neoplasms and causes human death. However, the treatment for acute leukemia is not yet satisfactory. Studies have shown that mushroom-derived polysaccharides display low toxicity and have been used clinically for cancer therapy. Therefore, we set out to evaluate the anti-cancerous efficacy of a water-soluble polysaccharide extract from Inonotus taiwanensis (WSPIS) on human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 and U937 cell lines in vitro. Under our experimental conditions, WSPIS elicited dose-dependent growth retardation and induced apoptotic cell death...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jean Joel Bigna, Lewis N Um, Serra Lem Asangbeh, Aurelie T Sibetcheu, Arnaud D Kazé, Jobert Richie Nansseu
BACKGROUND: Depression represents one of the most frequent neuro-psychiatric diseases; it seems to be more prevalent in people living with HIV compared to the general population. However, summarized data in the African setting on the topic are scarce. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at assessing the prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorders (MDD) in HIV-infected African populations residing in Africa. METHODS AND DESIGN: This review will include observational studies conducted among HIV-infected people residing in Africa, which have reported either the prevalence or incidence of MDD or enough data for its appraisal...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Menghui Liu, Yuanping Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Xiaohui Li, Xiaodong Zhuang, Lichun Wang
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a major risk factor for thromboembolic events, especially ischemic stroke. Catheter ablation is an effective method to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with AF. Although some observational studies have shown a relatively lower stroke rate after catheter ablation, whether catheter ablation can reduce the thromboembolic risk in patients with AF remains unclear. We aim to perform a systematic review to determine whether catheter ablation can prevent thromboembolism in patients with AF...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Isabell Binter, Christian Herold, Sixtus Allert
INTRODUCTION: Functioning communication is one of the basic elements of a trusting doctor-patient relationship. Good medical communication is more important than ever in times of increasing personnel and time constraints. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent medical communication has an influence on the initiation of arbitration procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on arbitration cases of plastic surgery, which were processed and completed by the Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of North Germany between 2005 and 2015...
December 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Justin T Clapp, Alexander F Arriaga, Sushila Murthy, Steven E Raper, J Sanford Schwartz, Frances K Barg, Lee A Fleisher
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Surgery
Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ching-Chi Chi, Heng-Lien Lo, Yun-Yun Chou, Ken N Kuo, Hung-Yi Chuang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic upper limb injury is a leading cause of work-related disability. After return-to-work (RTW), many survivors of injuries are able to regain a quality of life (QoL) comparable with the normal population. Since RTW plays an important role in economic productivity and regaining health-related QoL, enhancing RTW in workers with traumatic limb injuries is the primary goal of rehabilitation. Vocational rehabilitation has been commonly employed in the field of occupational safety and health to increase the number of injured people returning to the labour market, prevent illness, increase well-being, and reduce disability...
December 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lei Jing, Xue-Wen Jia
Palmitate (PA) has been identified to induce cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. The c‑Jun NH2‑teminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) were found to be important contributors. Therefore, natural or synthetic agents may antagonize PA‑induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, and demonstrate the potential application to reverse osteoporosis. The present study demonstrated that the Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is as a major active ingredient of Lycium barbarum and that it can reduce the fatty acid toxicity of PA...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Walter Gil-Quevedo, Elvia Agurto-Távara, Elizabeth Espinoza-Portilla
Currently, there is a Peruvian legal framework that promotes the dissemination of information on the health rights of the population. Institutions have been created, such as the National Superintendence of Health, which are in charge of promoting health rights and supervising health-care providers. Despite many achievements, such as extending comprehensive health insurance coverage, it is necessary to implement strategies for the population to access information and advice in a timely, quick and complete manner...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+ ) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
January 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Dror Dotan, Florent Meyniel, Stanislas Dehaene
Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence...
November 9, 2017: Cognition
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