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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731839/cost-benefit-arbitration-between-multiple-reinforcement-learning-systems
#1
Wouter Kool, Samuel J Gershman, Fiery A Cushman
Human behavior is sometimes determined by habit and other times by goal-directed planning. Modern reinforcement-learning theories formalize this distinction as a competition between a computationally cheap but inaccurate model-free system that gives rise to habits and a computationally expensive but accurate model-based system that implements planning. It is unclear, however, how people choose to allocate control between these systems. Here, we propose that arbitration occurs by comparing each system's task-specific costs and benefits...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718506/felbamate-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Li Li Shi, JianCheng Dong, HengJian Ni, JinSong Geng, Taixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 7, 2014) on 'Felbamate as an add-on therapy for refractory epilepsy'. Epilepsy is a chronic and disabling neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 1% of the population. Up to 30% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are resistant to currently available drugs. Felbamate is one of the second-generation antiepileptic drugs and we have assessed its effects as an add-on therapy to standard drugs in this review...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716454/a-randomised-trial-of-screening-with-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-plus-conventional-digital-2d-mammography-versus-2d-mammography-alone-in-younger-higher-risk-women
#3
Anthony J Maxwell, Michael Michell, Yit Y Lim, Susan M Astley, Mary Wilson, Emma Hurley, D Gareth Evans, Anthony Howell, Asif Iqbal, John Kotre, Stephen Duffy, Julie Morris
INTRODUCTION: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to increase invasive cancer detection rates at screening compared to full field digital (2D) mammography alone, and some studies have reported a reduction in the screening recall rate. No prospective randomised studies of DBT have previously been published. This study compares recall rates with 2D mammography with and without concurrent DBT in women in their forties with a family history of breast cancer undergoing incident screening...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706087/periconception-endogenous-and-exogenous-maternal-sex-steroid-hormones-and-risk-of-asthma-and-allergy-in-offspring-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Merhunisa Talovic, Aziz Sheikh, Nicola McCleary, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Minna Kaila, Suvi M Virtanen, Bright I Nwaru
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is associated with several hormonal changes which influence the developing fetus. Variations in maternal endogenous hormones and prepregnancy use of hormonal preparations have been linked to asthma and allergy in the offspring, but findings are inconsistent. We plan to undertake a systematic review to synthesise the evidence on the association between endogenous and exogenous maternal sex hormones and the risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Scopus, Google Scholar, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Global Health, Psychological Information (PsycINFO), Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience (CAB) International and WHO Global Health Library from inception until 2016 to identify relevant studies on the topic...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683526/characteristics-of-transmissible-ctx-m-and-cmy-type-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-collected-from-pig-and-chicken-farms-in-south-korea
#5
Seung Won Shin, Myunghwan Jung, Ho Geun Won, Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehe, In Joong Yoon, Han Sang Yoo
The rapid dissemination Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has significantly contributed to hazard of public health globally. A total of 281 E. coli strains recovered from pigs and chickens between 2009 and 2015 in South Korea were analyzed for ESBL-production. ESBL phenotypes were recognized in 14 E. coli isolates; ten and three ESBL-producing isolates carried only blaCTX-M and blaCMY genes, respectively, and one isolate harbored both genes. The predominant CTX-M- and CMY-types were CTX-M-15 (n=8) and CMY-2 (n=3)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665903/man-versus-machine-comparing-double-data-entry-and-optical-mark-recognition-for-processing-cahps-survey-data
#6
Matthew Fifolt, Justin Blackburn, David J Rhodes, Shemeka Gillespie, Aleena Bennett, Paul Wolff, Andrew Rucks
OBJECTIVE: Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. METHODS: To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method...
July 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630937/high-precision-neural-decoding-of-complex-movement-trajectories-using-recursive-bayesian-estimation-with-dynamic-movement-primitives
#7
Guy Hotson, Ryan J Smith, Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Brock A Wester
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance...
July 2016: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616955/niacin-for-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#8
REVIEW
Stefan Schandelmaier, Matthias Briel, Ramon Saccilotto, Kelechi K Olu, Armon Arpagaus, Lars G Hemkens, Alain J Nordmann
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is known to decrease LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increase HDL-cholesterol levels. The evidence of benefits with niacin monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of niacin therapy versus placebo, administered as monotherapy or add-on to statin-based therapy in people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of mortality, CVD events, and side effects...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600379/practice-patterns-and-outcomes-associated-with-early-sedation-depth-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
Robert J Stephens, Matthew R Dettmer, Brian W Roberts, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation is a commonly performed intervention in critically ill patients. Frequently, these patients experience deep sedation early in their clinical course. Emerging data suggest that the practice of early deep sedation may negatively impact patient outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess the world's literature to describe and determine the impact of early deep sedation on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies will be eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599832/model-based-control-in-dimensional-psychiatry
#10
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions. In contrast, habit control, also known as model-free control, is based on an integration of previous reinforced learning autonomous of the current outcome value and is implicit and more efficient but at the cost of greater inflexibility...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575359/standardized-interpretation-of-chest-radiographs-in-cases-of-pediatric-pneumonia-from-the-perch-study
#11
Nicholas Fancourt, Maria Deloria Knoll, Breanna Barger-Kamate, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Mahamadou Diallo, Bernard E Ebruke, Daniel R Feikin, Fergus Gleeson, Wenfeng Gong, Laura L Hammitt, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Anchalee Kruatrachue, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Fariha Bushra Matin, Nasreen Mahomed, David P Moore, Musaku Mwenechanya, Kamrun Nahar, Claire Oluwalana, Micah Silaba Ominde, Christine Prosperi, Joyce Sande, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Katherine L O'Brien
Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are a valuable diagnostic tool in epidemiologic studies of pneumonia. The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for the interpretation of pediatric CXRs has not been evaluated beyond its intended application as an endpoint measure for bacterial vaccine trials. Methods.: The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with WHO-defined severe and very severe pneumonia from 7 low- and middle-income countries...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562285/navigating-decisional-discord-the-pediatrician-s-role-when-child-and-parents-disagree
#12
Bryan A Sisk, James DuBois, Eric Kodish, Joanne Wolfe, Chris Feudtner
From the time when children enter the preteen years onward, pediatric medical decision-making can entail a complex interaction between child, parents, and pediatrician. When the child and parents disagree regarding medical decisions, the pediatrician has the challenging task of guiding the family to a final decision. Unresolved discord can affect family cohesiveness, patient adherence, and patient self-management. In this article, we outline 3 models for the pediatrician's role in the setting of decisional discord: deference, advocative, and arbitrative...
May 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516194/-current-legal-and-jurisdictional-questions-from-the-perspective-of-the-german-federal-association-for-geriatrics-practical-report
#13
REVIEW
Dirk van den Heuvel, Carsten Klein
The article discusses the questions of the arbitration bodies according to § 111b SGB V (Volume V of the Social Insurance Code) in the individual federal states from the perspective of geriatric rehabilitation hospitals. The content of the agreement of reimbursement between a rehabilitation hospital and health insurance will be targeted as well as the question whether the entire content of the agreements of reimbursement can be negotiated at the arbitration body. In addition, the authors describe the consequences of the jurisprudence of the Federal Social Court on § 301 I...
May 17, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507207/role-of-osteocytes-in-mediating-bone-mineralization-during-hyperhomocysteinemia
#14
Viji Vijayan, Sarika Gupta
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) is a risk factor for osteoporosis but whether HHCY affects bone mineralization or not is still ambiguous. Herein we evaluated whether homocysteine affects tissue mineral density (TMD) of cortical bone and if so the role of osteocytes. CD1 mice administered with homocysteine (5 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.) for 7, 15 and 30 days showed temporal changes in TMD and osteocyte lacunar density in femoral cortices. Short-term administration of homocysteine (day 7) increased osteocyte lacunar density and reduced TMD evidenced by microCT50 while prolonged administration of homocysteine (day 30) reinstated TMD and lacunar density to baseline values...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476404/dropout-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-adolescents-treated-for-depression-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Adriane Isabel Rohden, Mariana Canellas Benchaya, Roger Santos Camargo, Taís de Campos Moreira, Helena M T Barros, Maristela Ferigolo
PURPOSE: Depression currently affects 350 million people, and its prevalence among adolescents is 4% to 8%. Adolescents who abandon antidepressant treatment or drop out of clinical trials are less likely to recover or experience a remission of symptoms because they are not being followed up by a medical team. The objective of this study was to analyze the dropout rates of randomized clinical trials of depressed adolescents receiving treatment with antidepressant drugs and the factors associated with nonadherence by summarizing this information in a systematic review and meta-analysis...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474129/impact-of-eye-tracking-technology-on-oct-angiography-imaging-quality-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
J L Lauermann, M Treder, P Heiduschka, C R Clemens, N Eter, F Alten
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of eye-tracking (ET) technology on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) image quality and manifestation of motion artifacts in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In a prospective trial, multimodal retinal imaging including OCT-A was performed in 30 patients (78.97 ± 9.7 years) affected by different stages of AMD. Central 3 × 3 mm(2) OCT-A imaging was performed four times consecutively in each patient, twice with active, and twice with inactive ET...
May 4, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473517/what-is-the-best-analgesic-option-for-patients-presenting-with-renal-colic-to-the-emergency-department-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Sameer A Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Lorena Romero, Peter A Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Patients with renal colic present to the emergency department in excruciating pain. There is variability in practice regarding the choice of initial analgesic to be used in renal colic. The aim of this article is to outline the protocol for review of the efficacy and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids and paracetamol use in renal colic pain management. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is the protocol for a systematic review, comparing efficacy of NSAIDs, opioids and paracetamol in renal colic studied under randomised controlled trial (RCT) design...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452624/mri-appearance-of-invasive-subcentimetre-breast-carcinoma-benign-characteristics-are-common
#18
Matthias Meissnitzer, D David Dershaw, Kimberly Feigin, Blanca Bernard-Davila, Filipe Barra, Elizabeth A Morris
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the characteristics of cancers detected at the earliest possible point on MRI and to determine their significance. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study evaluated invasive breast cancers ≤1 cm histologically. MRI was performed within 6 months before diagnosis. Between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015, 163 cancers in 161 patients were evaluated...
June 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444289/-one-simply-doesn-t-arbitrate-authorship-of-thoughts-socialized-medicine-medical-mccarthyism-and-the-publishing-of-rural-health-and-medical-care-1948
#19
J T H Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444036/theoretical-reflections-on-governance-in-health-regions
#20
Nilo Bretas, Helena Eri Shimizu
This article analyzes governance in health regions, through the contributions of two studies: one on a governance model and the other on duties in the management of public policies networks. The former conducted a meta-analysis of 137 case studies in the literature on collaborative governance aimed at preparing an explanatory and analytical model. Authors identified critical variables that will influence the results: a previous history of conflict or cooperation, incentives for participation, power imbalances, leadership and institutional design...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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