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Arbitration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346018/the-tortoise-and-the-hare-interactions-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#1
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329579/prevalence-and-incidence-of-major-depressive-disorders-among-people-living-with-hiv-residing-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#2
Jean Joel Bigna, Lewis N Um, Serra Lem Asangbeh, Aurelie T Sibetcheu, Arnaud D Kazé, Jobert Richie Nansseu
BACKGROUND: Depression represents one of the most frequent neuro-psychiatric diseases; it seems to be more prevalent in people living with HIV compared to the general population. However, summarized data in the African setting on the topic are scarce. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims at assessing the prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorders (MDD) in HIV-infected African populations residing in Africa. METHODS AND DESIGN: This review will include observational studies conducted among HIV-infected people residing in Africa, which have reported either the prevalence or incidence of MDD or enough data for its appraisal...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310330/can-catheter-ablation-reduce-the-incidence-of-thromboembolic-events-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Menghui Liu, Yuanping Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Xiaohui Li, Xiaodong Zhuang, Lichun Wang
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a major risk factor for thromboembolic events, especially ischemic stroke. Catheter ablation is an effective method to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with AF. Although some observational studies have shown a relatively lower stroke rate after catheter ablation, whether catheter ablation can reduce the thromboembolic risk in patients with AF remains unclear. We aim to perform a systematic review to determine whether catheter ablation can prevent thromboembolism in patients with AF...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287286/-arbitration-proceedings-caused-by-communication-problems
#4
Isabell Binter, Christian Herold, Sixtus Allert
INTRODUCTION: Functioning communication is one of the basic elements of a trusting doctor-patient relationship. Good medical communication is more important than ever in times of increasing personnel and time constraints. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent medical communication has an influence on the initiation of arbitration procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was based on arbitration cases of plastic surgery, which were processed and completed by the Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of North Germany between 2005 and 2015...
December 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240006/surgical-consultation-as-social-process-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#5
Justin T Clapp, Alexander F Arriaga, Sushila Murthy, Steven E Raper, J Sanford Schwartz, Frances K Barg, Lee A Fleisher
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210462/vocational-rehabilitation-for-enhancing-return-to-work-in-workers-with-traumatic-upper-limb-injuries
#6
REVIEW
Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ching-Chi Chi, Heng-Lien Lo, Yun-Yun Chou, Ken N Kuo, Hung-Yi Chuang
BACKGROUND: Traumatic upper limb injury is a leading cause of work-related disability. After return-to-work (RTW), many survivors of injuries are able to regain a quality of life (QoL) comparable with the normal population. Since RTW plays an important role in economic productivity and regaining health-related QoL, enhancing RTW in workers with traumatic limb injuries is the primary goal of rehabilitation. Vocational rehabilitation has been commonly employed in the field of occupational safety and health to increase the number of injured people returning to the labour market, prevent illness, increase well-being, and reduce disability...
December 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207092/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-arbitrates-palmitate-induced-apoptosis-in-mc3t3%C3%A2-e1-cells-through-decreasing-the-activation-of-ers%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#7
Lei Jing, Xue-Wen Jia
Palmitate (PA) has been identified to induce cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. The c‑Jun NH2‑teminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) were found to be important contributors. Therefore, natural or synthetic agents may antagonize PA‑induced apoptosis in osteoblasts, and demonstrate the potential application to reverse osteoporosis. The present study demonstrated that the Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is as a major active ingredient of Lycium barbarum and that it can reduce the fatty acid toxicity of PA...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177393/-informed-and-empowered-citizens-keys-to-the-full-exercise-of-health-rights
#8
Walter Gil-Quevedo, Elvia Agurto-Távara, Elizabeth Espinoza-Portilla
Currently, there is a Peruvian legal framework that promotes the dissemination of information on the health rights of the population. Institutions have been created, such as the National Superintendence of Health, which are in charge of promoting health rights and supervising health-care providers. Despite many achievements, such as extending comprehensive health insurance coverage, it is necessary to implement strategies for the population to access information and advice in a timely, quick and complete manner...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#9
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128659/on-line-confidence-monitoring-during-decision-making
#10
Dror Dotan, Florent Meyniel, Stanislas Dehaene
Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence...
November 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122139/role-of-exercise-testing-in-hypertrophic%C3%A2-cardiomyopathy
#11
REVIEW
Ethan J Rowin, Barry J Maron, Iacopo Olivotto, Martin S Maron
Over the last 25 years, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been studied with a variety of methods employing physiological exercise that have made major contributions to disease management and are performed without increased risk. Previously under-utilized in HCM, exercise (stress) echocardiography has become incorporated into the standard clinical assessment and diagnostic armamentarium of HCM using upright or supine symptom-limited treadmill or bicycle modalities. In patients without outflow gradients at rest, exercise echocardiography is the most appropriate method for provoking obstruction, with the capability of predicting future development of progressive heart failure symptoms, and differentiating patients with provocable obstruction from those without obstruction, with major implications for dictating treatment options, that is, surgical myectomy (alternatively, alcohol septal ablation) versus heart transplant...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108143/medical-malpractice-web-advertising-a-qualitative-cross-sectional-analysis-of-plaintiff-medical-malpractice-firms-in-suffolk-county-massachusetts
#12
Comeron W Ghobadi, Ofelya Gevorgyan, Caroline E Bednarski, Emily L Hayman, Jessica R Walter, Shuai Xu
Medical malpractice plaintiff firms play a central role in the prosecution of malpractice claims. There have been limited studies on the online advertising practices of plaintiff medical malpractice firms. The Martindale-Hubbell directory was used to identify all plaintiff medical malpractice firms in Suffolk County, Massachusetts. Each firm's website was individually mined for relevant data. Thirty-one unique medical malpractice law firms were identified. Seventy-seven percent of law firms advertised awards with the Martindale-Hubbell AV rating, AVVO, and Super Lawyer being the three most common...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107551/caudate-microstimulation-increases-value-of-specific-choices
#13
Samantha R Santacruz, Erin L Rich, Joni D Wallis, Jose M Carmena
Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099473/a-study-of-interpersonal-conflict-among-operating-room-nurses
#14
Tsui-Fen Chang, Chung-Kuang Chen, Ming-Jia Chen
BACKGROUND: Team collaboration is an important factor that affects the performance of the operating room (OR). Therefore, the ability of OR nurses to adapt to and manage interpersonal conflict incidents properly is very important. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the interpersonal conflict management capabilities of OR nursing staffs and to find the relationships among the demographics of OR nurses and the following: work-related variables, interpersonal conflict management style, and target of interpersonal conflict...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097727/implementation-of-controlled-quantum-teleportation-with-an-arbitrator-for-secure-quantum-channels-via-quantum-dots-inside-optical-cavities
#15
Jino Heo, Chang-Ho Hong, Min-Sung Kang, Hyeon Yang, Hyung-Jin Yang, Jong-Phil Hong, Seong-Gon Choi
We propose a controlled quantum teleportation scheme to teleport an unknown state based on the interactions between flying photons and quantum dots (QDs) confined within single- and double-sided cavities. In our scheme, users (Alice and Bob) can teleport the unknown state through a secure entanglement channel under the control and distribution of an arbitrator (Trent). For construction of the entanglement channel, Trent utilizes the interactions between two photons and the QD-cavity system, which consists of a charged QD (negatively charged exciton) inside a single-sided cavity...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075233/genes-gender-hormones-and-doping-in-sport-a-convoluted-tale
#16
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
We are writing this piece in the aftermath of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each of the words in the title plays a role(s) in deciding who may compete, especially who may compete as a woman. We shall be careful to disentangle the issues of genes and gender from hormonal levels of the potent androgen testosterone, and very clearly demarcate these natural occurrences from those of doping, for which the World Anti-Doping Agency has established strict guidelines. These elements became conflated in the aftermath of the Court of Arbitration of Sport's decision, now more than 2 years ago, concerning the teenage Indian sprinter, Dutee Chand...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064459/mlcaf-multi-level-cross-domain-semantic-context-fusioning-for-behavior-identification
#17
Muhammad Asif Razzaq, Claudia Villalonga, Sungyoung Lee, Usman Akhtar, Maqbool Ali, Eun-Soo Kim, Asad Masood Khattak, Hyonwoo Seung, Taeho Hur, Jaehun Bang, Dohyeong Kim, Wajahat Ali Khan
The emerging research on automatic identification of user's contexts from the cross-domain environment in ubiquitous and pervasive computing systems has proved to be successful. Monitoring the diversified user's contexts and behaviors can help in controlling lifestyle associated to chronic diseases using context-aware applications. However, availability of cross-domain heterogeneous contexts provides a challenging opportunity for their fusion to obtain abstract information for further analysis. This work demonstrates extension of our previous work from a single domain (i...
October 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041137/monitoring-of-continuous-variable-quantum-key-distribution-system-in-real-environment
#18
Weiqi Liu, Jinye Peng, Peng Huang, Duan Huang, Guihua Zeng
How to guarantee the practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system has been an important issue in the quantum cryptography applications. In contrast to the previous practical security strategies, which focus on the intercept-resend attack or the Gaussian attack, we investigate the practical security strategy based on a general attack, i.e., an arbitrated individual attack or collective attack on the system by Eve in this paper. The low bound of intensity disturbance of the local oscillator signal for eavesdropper successfully concealing herself is obtained, considering all noises can be used by Eve in the practical environment...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037089/patient-reported-outcomes-in-nephrolithiasis-can-we-do-better
#19
Jonathan S Ellison, Marc Williams, Francis X Keeley
PURPOSE: Nephrolithiasis contributes significantly to the worldwide healthcare burden. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are widely recognized as important outcome measures for patient-centered care. We sought to summarize what is currently known about PROMs in urinary stone disease and to characterize use of PROMs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with nephrolithiasis is reviewed...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025833/prevalence-and-incidence-of-hypertension-in-the-global-hiv-infected-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#20
Jean Joel Bigna, Aurel T Tankeu, Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension, representing one of the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors, is thought to increase in individuals living with HIV as well as in general population, but summarised global data on the topic are scarce. We conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence/incidence of hypertension in the global HIV-infected population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will include observational studies conducted among HIV-infected people, which reported prevalence/incidence of hypertension or enough data for its appraisal...
October 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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