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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919191/phytotherapeutic-approach-a-new-hope-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-induced-cellular-disorders-autophagic-and-apoptotic-cell-death
#1
Durgesh Nandini Das, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prajna Paramita Naik, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Niharika Sinha, Sujit K Bhutia
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise the major class of cancer-causing chemicals and are ranked ninth among the chemical compounds threatening to humans. Moreover, interest in PAHs has been mainly due to their carcinogenic property, these compounds are genotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have the capacity to convert procarcinogens into carcinogens, which is an imperative factor contributing to individual susceptibility to cancer development...
December 5, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880893/postoperative-outcomes-and-quality-of-life-following-hysterectomy-by-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-notes-compared-to-laparoscopy-in-women-with-a-non-prolapsed-uterus-and-benign-gynaecological-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Jan Baekelandt, Peter A De Mulder, Ilse Le Roy, Chantal Mathieu, Annouschka Laenen, Paul Enzlin, Steven Weyers, Ben W J Mol, Jan J A Bosteels
OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise studies comparing benefits and harms in women with benign disease without prolapse undergoing hysterectomy by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) versus laparoscopy. STUDY DESIGN: We followed the PRISMA guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and cohort studies comparing NOTES with laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) or total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in women bound to undergo removal of a non-prolapsed uterus for benign disease...
October 29, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879256/determination-and-regulation-of-body-composition-in-elite-athletes
#3
Peter Sonksen
In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861469/-the-national-medical-arbitration-commission-20-years
#4
Juan Ramón de la Fuente
Cuando la Secretaría de Salud todavía tenía el logotipo azul que decía SSA, corrían tiempos difíciles porque no había dinero y la idea de crear nuevas instituciones era recibida con reservas, no sólo por el Presidente Zedillo, siempre generoso y atento a las necesidades de salud de la población, sino también, como ya es costumbre, por el secretario de Hacienda, responsable de cuidar el erario público. Y es que la idea de hacer crecer el gasto corriente del gobierno se percibía, no sin razón, como un acto que podía infligir el riesgo de fomentar estructuras administrativas ineficaces y obesas...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831623/-alternative-mechanisms-for-conflict-resolution-in-the-context-of-health-rights-the-peruvian-experience-from-the-center-for-reconciliation-and-arbitration-of-the-national-health-authority
#5
Darwin Hidalgo-Salas, Claudia Ortiz-Pérez, Juan Lobatón-Flores, Percy Huamaní-Ñahuinlla, Edward Mezones-Holguín
In Peru the right to health protection is constitutionally recognized. The right to access health services is legally mandated, as well as access to health information and the protection of rights such as informed consent. However, with the implementation of actions related to these rights and protections, there may be disagreements which need to be resolved. In this context, alternative mechanisms for conflict resolution (AMCR), such as mediation, reconciliation and arbitration, are valid and accessible strategies within the Peruvian Health System...
July 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816521/sox2-function-and-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-are-co-conspirators-in-promoting-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer
#6
Swayamsiddha Kar, Dipta Sengupta, Moonmoon Deb, Nibedita Pradhan, Samir Kumar Patra
Developmentally inclined hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway and pluripotency inducing transcription factor SOX2 have been known to work syngerstically during cellular reprogramming events to facilitate efficient differentiation. Hence, it is not surprising that both the factors are actively involved in arbitrating malignant growth, including prostate cancer progression. Here, we have described in details the potential mechanisms by which SOX2 effects neoplastic characteristics in prostate cancer and investigated the consequences of simultaneous down-regulation of SOX2 and HH pathway in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793836/educating-professionals-to-support-self-management-in-people-with-asthma-or-diabetes-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-scoping-exercise
#7
Nicola McCleary, Amanda Andrews, Susan Morrow, Sharon Wiener-Ogilvie, Monica Fletcher, Liz Steed, Stephanie J C Taylor, Hilary Pinnock
INTRODUCTION: Supported self-management for asthma helps people adjust their treatment in response to symptom changes. This improves day-to-day control and reduces the risk of asthma attacks and the need for emergency healthcare. However, implementation remains poor in routine clinical practice. This systematic review is part of a programme of work developing an intervention to help primary care practice teams embed self-management support into routine asthma care. The aim of the review is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational interventions for professionals supporting self-management in people with asthma or diabetes (type 1 and type 2)...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731354/carbon-ion-irradiated-hepatoma-cells-exhibit-coupling-interplay-between-apoptotic-signaling-and-morphological-and-mechanical-remodeling
#8
Baoping Zhang, Long Li, Zhiqiang Li, Yang Liu, Hong Zhang, Jizeng Wang
A apoptotic model was established based on the results of five hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines irradiated with carbon ions to investigate the coupling interplay between apoptotic signaling and morphological and mechanical cellular remodeling. The expression levels of key apoptotic proteins and the changes in morphological characteristics and mechanical properties were systematically examined in the irradiated HCC lines. We observed that caspase-3 was activated and that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased over time...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687119/learning-reward-and-decision-making
#9
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680387/interplay-between-cell-cycle-and-autophagy-induced-by-boswellic-acid-analog
#10
Anup S Pathania, Santosh K Guru, Suresh Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Masroor Ahmad, Shashi Bhushan, Parduman R Sharma, Priya Mahajan, Bhahwal A Shah, Simmi Sharma, Amit Nargotra, Ram Vishwakarma, Hasan Korkaya, Fayaz Malik
In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy induced by boswellic acid analog BA145 on cell cycle progression in pancreatic cancer cells. BA145 induced robust autophagy in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and exhibited cell proliferation inhibition by inducing cells to undergo G2/M arrest. Inhibition of G2/M progression was associated with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E, cdc2, cdc25c and CDK-1. Pre-treatment of cells with autophagy inhibitors or silencing the expression of key autophagy genes abrogated BA145 induced G2/M arrest and downregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570614/risk-of-discontinuation-of-advanced-therapy-medicinal-products-clinical-trials
#11
Eve Hanna, Cecile Rémuzat, Pascal Auquier, Mondher Toumi
OBJECTIVE: Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources...
2016: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564094/when-does-model-based-control-pay-off
#12
Wouter Kool, Fiery A Cushman, Samuel J Gershman
Many accounts of decision making and reinforcement learning posit the existence of two distinct systems that control choice: a fast, automatic system and a slow, deliberative system. Recent research formalizes this distinction by mapping these systems to "model-free" and "model-based" strategies in reinforcement learning. Model-free strategies are computationally cheap, but sometimes inaccurate, because action values can be accessed by inspecting a look-up table constructed through trial-and-error. In contrast, model-based strategies compute action values through planning in a causal model of the environment, which is more accurate but also more cognitively demanding...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543313/functional-implications-of-the-spectrum-of-bcl2-mutations-in-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Khushboo Singh, James M Briggs
Mutations in the translocated BCL2 gene are often detected in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), indicating both their significance and pervasiveness. Large series genome sequencing of more than 200 DLBCLs has identified frequent BCL2 mutations clustered in the exons coding for the BH4 domain and the folded loop domain (FLD) of the protein. However, BCL2 mutations are mostly contemplated to represent bystander events with negligible functional impact on the pathogenesis of DLBCL. BCL2 arbitrates apoptosis through a classic interaction between its hydrophobic groove forming BH1-3 domains and the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499929/the-signal-processing-architecture-underlying-subjective-reports-of-sensory-awareness
#14
Brian Maniscalco, Hakwan Lau
What is the relationship between perceptual information processing and subjective perceptual experience? Empirical dissociations between stimulus identification performance and subjective reports of stimulus visibility are crucial for shedding light on this question. We replicated a finding that metacontrast masking can produce such a dissociation (Lau and Passingham, 2006), and report a novel finding that this paradigm can also dissociate stimulus identification performance from the efficacy with which visibility ratings predict task performance...
January 2016: Neuroscience of Consciousness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461068/comparing-the-performance-of-trained-radiographers-against-experienced-radiologists-in-the-uk-lung-cancer-screening-ukls-trial
#15
Arjun Nair, Natalie Gartland, Bruce Barton, Diane Jones, Leigh Clements, Nicholas J Screaton, John A Holemans, Stephen W Duffy, John K Field, David R Baldwin, David M Hansell, Anand Devaraj
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of radiographers against that of radiologists for CT lung nodule detection in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial. METHODS: Four radiographers, trained in CT nodule detection, and three radiologists were prospectively evaluated. 290 CTs performed for the UKLS were independently read by 2 radiologists and 2 radiographers. The reference standard comprised all radiologist-identified positive nodules after arbitration of discrepancies...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457774/policies-for-replacing-long-term-indwelling-urinary-catheters-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Fergus P M Cooper, Cameron Edwin Alexander, Sanjay Sinha, Muhammad Imran Omar
BACKGROUND: Long-term indwelling catheters are used commonly in people with lower urinary tract problems in home, hospital and specialised health-care settings. There are many potential complications and adverse effects associated with long-term catheter use. The effect of health-care policies related to the replacement of long-term urinary catheters on patient outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different policies for replacing long-term indwelling urinary catheters in adults...
July 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366167/comparative-evaluation-of-the-bd-phoenix-yeast-id-panel-and-remel-rapid-yeast-plus-system-for-yeast-identification
#17
Michelle L Grant, Shobha Parajuli, Raquel Deleon-Gonsalves, Raghava Potula, Allan L Truant
Becton Dickinson Phoenix Yeast ID Panel was compared to the Remel RapID Yeast Plus System using 150 recent clinical yeast isolates and the API 20C AUX system to resolve discrepant results. The concordance rate between the Yeast ID Panel and the RapID Yeast Plus System (without arbitration) was 93.3% with 97.3% (146/150) and 95.3% (143/150) of the isolates correctly identified by the Becton Dickinson Phoenix and the Remel RapID, respectively, with arbitration.
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339668/economic-and-humanistic-burden-of-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-of-large-sample-studies
#18
Feng Xie, Bruno Kovic, Xuejing Jin, Xiaoning He, Mengxiao Wang, Camila Silvestre
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) consumes a significant amount of healthcare resources, and impairs the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients. Previous reviews have consistently found substantial variations in the costs of OA across studies and countries. The comparability between studies was poor and limited the detection of the true differences between these studies. OBJECTIVE: To review large sample studies on measuring the economic and/or humanistic burden of OA published since May 2006...
November 2016: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317193/active-inference-epistemic-value-and-vicarious-trial-and-error
#19
Giovanni Pezzulo, Emilio Cartoni, Francesco Rigoli, Léo Pio-Lopez, Karl Friston
Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i...
July 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290886/the-potential-impact-of-the-transatlantic-trade-and-investment-partnership-ttip-on-public-health
#20
Roberto De Vogli, Noemi Renzetti
This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes...
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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